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S previously announced by the publishers, the primary object of this work, 
comprising, as it does, one of a series of biographical dictionaries for each 
State, "is to make honorable mention and preserve the record in imperish- 
able letters, for reference and guidance, of representative citizens who have been influential 
in public or private life in shaping the institutions and destiny of their State and 

The controlling facts in the history of any State, relating to its growth and develop- 
ment, are largely found in the biographies of its leading citizens. This volume, for 
Illinois, includes the names of those who have become illustrious, either as pioneers in 
the formative period, or as worthy successors to an inestimable heritage, who, taking up 
the work of their fathers, so well begun, have added to their renown, and advanced still 
higher those material, commercial and intellectual elements of progress which make a 
nation great and prosperous. 

As the present volume has already exceeded its limits without exhausting the material 
on hand, a second for Illinois will be issued soon. 

John Moses. 


Abend, Edward . . 

Addams, J. H 

Aiusworth. II. A. . 

Aldiicb, C. H 

Altgeld, J. P 

Anderson, Julm. . . 
Ai'uiour, P. D. . . . 

Arnold, .1. W 

Atkins, S. D 

Atkinson, CliaWes. 

Atkinson, J. T 

Atkinson, J. W. . . . 


Bancroft, E. A. . . 
Banning, Epbraini . 
Barnard, H. A. . . 
Barnes, Wni. A . . . 

Barrett, E. E 

Ban'ett, llicbard. . 
Batenian, Newton . 
Benjamin, R. M.. . 

Bennett, R. .T 

Becker, Cbarles. . . 

Bond. L. L 

Borden, Gail 

Bradley, E. A 

Bradley, L. M 

Brady. I.. D 

Brand, Jlicbael. . . , 

Browuell, R. E 

Browning, .7. T. . . 

Bryan, T. B 

Buck, .1. P 

Bnddc, F. IT 

Burchard, II. C .. 
Burrougbs, B. R.. . 
Burton, Josepli . . . . 

. 21 


Cable, II. D. .. 
Cady, M. Y. .. 
Caldwell, C. K. 
Caldwell, Wni. 
Camp, Apollos. 
Cannon. .T. G. . 

, 70 
. 40 



Carter, .1. X 4-, 

Casey, N. R 47.-, 

Catliu. George 4(;o 

Catlin. T. D 

Cattm. .John I) i^-J 

t'liaiulicrlin. .'\I. D ,50(1 

Claik. .TiUiK's 3.57 

Cobb. Eiiuiry : S3 

Coe. A. I> 222 

Colby, F. T 341 

Conger, A. L 3.-,2 

Connelly. H. C 73 

Connoll.v, J. A 4S4 

Cooper. F. II : 372 

Coiwitli. Ili'iii-y 337 

Corwith, .T. E 451 

Craig. A. M (;o 

Culloni, 8. JI 24 

Cumins, Tberon vjk; 

Davis. David 


. . 18 

Deere. C. 11 . 

Deere, .John 


De AVolf, Calvin 


T>illi)n. Moses 

Dininck. D. C 

.... 31'' 

Diiolittle, .1. R 


Over. R. F 


Eberhart, J. F 



Edens. W. G 


Eells, Samuel C -m 

Elliott, .Tr.. W. S 

Eliw<«Hl, I. I 

1.38 .7. (J 


Enos. P. P 

Knos. Rc'ger 

Knos. Z. A 

Eiitrikin. W. .1 




Kllieridge. .1 II 

Evans. D. D 


Evans. II. 11 


F VM-.K. 

Kairfielil. \V. \V Ac:', 

Fargo, ChaiUs V.H 

Felt, Heuj. F 3(tS 

Forsjtli. Jacob 471 

Foster. Thomas 121 

Frank. Loiii.-; StiS 

Fuess. .losi'pli 'SS',) 

Fuller. M. W (U 

Kutik, 1). M 4t)S 

Funk. C. W H!> 

Kmik. lsa;u- HU 


<;ase, J. N ;!T(l 

(_iage, Lyman .1 '><> 

(ialt. Thomas A I'lS 

Garclt, Heury ."ilii 

George, Alouzo !•">'.' 

George, Benjamin '-i^VJ 

Geoi-ge, Wm 171 

Gere, G. \V -jUl' 

Gillett, W. K 4'J.-, 

Glidden, J. F :'.iir. 

Gorton, E. F 47:! 

(Joulcl, J. M lil-' 

Graham, N. U :'.iil 

Gray, Elisha 14:! 

Greene, M. T 41-* 

Griswukl. K. 1' 4.".!) 

(Jross, S. E 4'i 

(Jrosvenor, L. C 4'.i 

Grote, William :"I7 

Guuther, C. F 4:!1» 


Ilaish. .lacul) 2(U 

Hamilton. .1. 15 227 

Ilauua. William 2.">s 

llartliug, A. C 1'7S 

Harlev, AUio.l 4-.':! 

Ilarlev, William 421 

Harlev. William. .Ir 42.3 

Harrison. II. W 4."i(l 

Han-ey, W. S 42ii 

Hatch, O. M 140 

Hawley, H. W 442 

Hayes, 1'. C :!7'J 

Ileenan, IJaiiiel 2.">:5 

Hesing, A. C 57 


Hill. Lysamler 87 

Hoes. James 234 

Hogan. Daniel 448 

Ilolniau, E. E 391 

Hoijkin.s A. J 271 

Iloijkins, J. r 3.j0 

Howard, W. I? 49<j 

Howell, t ). 1 ) 348 

H\inl, II. i: 114 


I;;lel]art. X. (! 204 

lies. Elijah 43."> 


.Jackson. Willianj Ill 

Jacob.s, K. F 79 

Janssen, John 4G0 

Jones. A. M 173 

Jndson. Edwin 100 


Kendriek. A. A 519 

Kern. F. J 432 

Kerns, Williana 3G4 

Kimball. W. W '. 150 

King. Charles P 400 

Kingman. JIarlin 77 

Kirk. John I! 135 

Koeruer. Gustavus 147 

Kranz. Jolui 277 

Kraus. Adolf 280 


Laki', Chaum I'v .V 465 

Lane, U. r 393 

Leonard, J. F 493 

Lewis, 01)ed 192 

Libby, C. I* 370 

Lincoln. Abraham 9 

Loose, Jacob L 302 

Low. J. K 313 

Lowdcn. I'. i> 514 


Marsh, t '. W 112 

Marsh, William 318 

Mathews. M. W o^q 

.Mayer. Levy 470 


MeCarty, Samuel 007 

McBroom, James 127 

McCormick, C. 11 185 

McClellau, K. H 402 

McGratb, J. J 350 

Mcllvain, G. H 85 

Means, Arcbibaltl 443 

Medill, Joseph 13 

Milk, Lemuel ^ 427 

Millikin, James 175 

Mitchell, P. L 4iil 

Moore, C. H 490 

Moore, Gilijiu 252 

Moore, W. K 315 

Morgan, J. D 311 

Morrison, I. L 28 

Moses, Adolph 457 

Munroe, G. II 479 


Nash, John F 307 

Nasou, C. 430 

Neff, James 1 132 

Newcomb, G. W 247 

Noble. II. T 193 


(Iglesby, R. J 537 


Packard, S. W 3S7 

Paddock, D. II 103 

Paddock, J. W 153 

Palmer, W. B 402 

Pease, James 239 

I'eck, George It 522 

Pinkerton, W. A 321 

Plumb, Ralph 230 

Porter, Washington 177 

Powers, Orlando 110 

Price, V. C 203 

Prickett, John A 340 

Prickett, \\m. R 37S 


Randall, T. D 224 

Reeves, Owen, T 44ii 

Reeves, Walter 347 

Reynolds, B. P 415 

UicUcr. II. F. J 18"-> 


Ridgely, Cliailrs '. . . 195 

Ridgely, N. II 287 

Robinson, D. -I! 478 

Robinson. T. J *237 

Rogers, G. M 130 

Rogers, J. G 09 

Rosenfield, M 411 

Rothschild, A. M 300 

Uo\\ ell, W. I) '. 520 

Ry burn. J. S 524 


Seanlan, Kiikham 335 

Schneider, (Jcurge 30 

Soboeninger, A 521 

Scott, James \V 182 

Scott, John M 107 

Seaman, John A 15i; 

Sehring, Frederick 512 

Semmelroth, George 420 

Shaw, W. W KVi 

Sheean, David 129 

Sherwood, F. A 91 

Sherfy, C. M 297 

Sbowalter, J. W 00 

Siegel, Henry 319 

Simonds, E. F 340 

Skinner, Mark 404 

Smith, Abuer 33."'. 

Smith, George W US 

Snyder, W. H 407 

Stafford, John F 2S:j 

Stahl, FrcHlerick 95 

Stavei-, II. C 301 

Steele, D. A. K 270 

Stevenson, A. E 453 

Stoddard, J. A 125 

Stolp, J. G 298 

Stoskopf, Louis 390 

Swan, R. K 198 

Swift, E. C 4S9 

Swift. M. II 4,sO 

Tanner, .lnhn IS 203 

Taylor, W. F 533 

Thoman, L. D 02 

Tliornton. C. S 451 


Fairfield, W. A\' 4fi3 

Fargo, Chark's 101 

Felt, Benj. F 308 

Forsyth, Jacob 471 

Foster, TLouia.s ll!l 

Frank. Louis oUS 

Fuess, Josepb 380 

Fuller, M. W 04 

Funlv, I). M 40S 

Funk, G. W 140 

Funk, Isaac 1(14 


Gage, J. N 37(1 

Gage, Ly luan .1 5(1 

Gait, Thomas A 21S 

Gardt, Heury 51(i 

George, Alouzo 100 

George, Beii.1a mi ii 330 

George, 'Win 171 

Gere, G. \V 5(I2 

Gillett, W. K 40r. 

Glidden, J. F 3t)r. 

Gorton, E. F 473 

Gould, J. M -1- 

'Graham, N. K 3()1 

Gray, Elisba 143 

Greene, M. T 412 

Griswold, E. F 4r,0 

Gross, S. E J'i 

Grosveuor, L. C 40 

Grote, William 307 

Gunther, C. F -t^j!' 


llaish, Jaeolj 2(14 

Hamilton, J. B 227 

llanua, AVilliam 2.'').s 

Harding, A. C 278 

Harlev, Alfred 423 

Harlev, William 421 

Harlev, William. .Tr 423 

Harrison, 11. W 4r>(l 

Harvey, W. S 42il 

Hatch, U. M 1-tO 

Hawley, H. W «2 

Hayes, P. C i5^'-> 

Heenan, Daniel -'^3 

Hesing, A. C ^^ 


Hill, Lysander 87 

Hoes, Jame.s 234 

llogan. Daniel 448 

Holman, E. E 301 

Hopkin,s, A. .1 271 

Hopkins, .1. r 350 

Howard, AV. B 490 

Howell, < ). D 348 

Hurd, 11. B 114 


Igleliarl. X. (i 294 

lies, Elijah 435 


Jackson, Williai]] Ill 

Jacobs, B. F 79 

.Taussen, John 4G0 

Jones, A. M 173 

Judson, Edwin 100 


Kendrick, A. A 519 

Kern, F, J 432 

Kerns, Willia m 304 

Kimball, W. W 150 

King, Charles V 400 

Kingman, Martin 77 

Kirk, Jolin I! 135 

Kc-erner, Gustavus 147 

Kranx, JnUn 277 

Kraus, Adolf 280 


Lake. Chauneey A 465 

Lane. IJ. P 393 

Leonard, J, F 493 

Lewis, 01)ed 192 

Libby, C, P 370 

Lincoln, Abraham 9 

Loose, Jacob L 302 

Low, J. 10 313 

I>owden. F. o 514 


Marsh, C. W 112 

Marsh, William 318 

Mathews, M. W 2(10 

Majer, Levy 470 


McCarty, Samuel 507 

McBroom, James 127 

McCormiek, C. II 185 

JleClellau, R. H 402 

McGi-atb, J. J 350 

Mcllvain, G. H 85 

Means, Archibald 443 

Medill, Joseph 13 

Milk, Lemuel ^ 427 

Millikin, James 175 

Mitchell, P. L 401 

Moore, C. H 490 

Moore, Gilpin 252 

Moore, W. R 315 

Morgan, J. D 311 

Morrison, I. L 2S 

Moses, Adolph. 457 

Munroe, G. II 470 


Nash, John F 307 

Nasou, C. 430 

Neff, James 1 132 

Xewcomb, G. W 247 

Xoble, H. T 193 


Oglesby, R.J 537 


Packard, S. W 387 

Paddock, D. 11 103 

Paddock, J. W 153 

Palmer, W. B 402 

Pease, James 239 

Peck, George R 522 

Pinkerton, W. A 321 

Plumb, Ralph 230 

Porter, Washington 177 

Powers, Orlando 110 

Price, V. C 203 

Prickett, John A 340 

Prickett, Wm. R 378 


Randall, T. D 221 

Reeves, Owen, T 440 

Reeves, Walter 347 

Reynolds, B. P 415 

RickiT. II. F. J 189 


Ridgely, Charh's 195 

Ridgely, X. II 287 

Robinson. I). <i; 478 

Robin.son. T.J j-2.37 

Rogers, G. M 130 

Rogers, J. G 09 

Roseutield, M 411 

Rothschild, A. M 3(JG 

Ro^^ ell, W. D 52(i 

Rybuni. J. S 524 


Scanlau. Kii/kham 335 

Schneider, George ... 30 

Schoeninger, A 521 

Scott, James W 182 

S(Ott, John M 1117 

Seaman, John A 151; 

Sehring, Frederick 512 

SemmelroLh, George 420 

Shaw, W. W KC 

Sheean, David 129 

Sherwood. F. A yi 

Sherfy, C. M 297 

Showalter. J. W co 

Siegel, Henry Sio 

Simonds, E. F 340 

Skinner, Mark 40-1 

Smith, Abuer 33.3 

Smith, George W us 

Snyder, W. H 407 

Stafford, John F 2S:J 

Stahl, Frederick u.'i 

Staver, U. C 301 

Steele, D. A. K 270 

Stevenson, A. E 4.53 

Stoddard, J. A 125 

Stolp, J. G 298 

Stoskopf, Louis 300 

Swan, R. K 108 

Swift, E. C 4S9 

Swift. M. H 480 


Tanner, .lolin R 203 

Taylor, W. F ."i3;! 

Thomau, L. D 02 

Thornton. C. S 451 


Tincher, J. L 245 

Tipton, T. F 220 

Traiuor, J. C r>4(i 

Tripp, Robinson 281 

Turner, John B 30 

Turner, V. C 134 


Ulen, B. L 351 


Velie, S. II 81 

VolintiuG, D 289 


Waite. (k'orge E 518 

AVaiuei', Vespasian 385 

AVariKiik. Hush 288 


Waterman, Levi 375 

Wheaton, J. C 430 

Wheaton, W. I. 433 

White, F. 48fi 

Wildermau, A. S 505 

Willoughby, J. A 458 

Wilmarth, H. M 499 

Wilson, Hiram 343 

Wilson. J. H 3(i0 

Winlvelmann, Wm 382 

Withers, Allen 201 

Woodruff, Gilbert 255 

Wrenn, George L 371 

Wright, A. S 310 


Yerkes, T. P 531 

'fr n'-c/V'X.^ 

^c^ f^^'^- 








ABRAHAM LINCOLN, the sixteenth presi- 
dent of the United States, stands out con- 
spicuously in the category of ilkistrious Amer- 
ican heroes and statesmen, next to Wasliington. 
The one earned the distinguished appellation of 
"Father of his country," the other that of its 
"Savior," from the perils of a fratricidal war. By 
reason of his, commanding position, of his un- 
equaled services, and especially from the fact that 
he was the most eminent son of the great com- 
monwealth of Illinois, his name and fame de- 
mands more than a mere cursory sketch in this 
volume. It was in Illinois that he began his 
career. Here he grew to manhood and her in- 
stitutions and laws bear the impress of his genius ; 
and so long as the flowers grow on her beautiful 
prairies will his name be cherished and honored. 
On the 1 2th of February, 1809, in Larue (then 
Hardin) county, Kentucky, in a cabin on Nolan 
creek, three miles west of Hodgensville, Abra- 
ham Lincoln was bom. His parents were Thomas 
and Nancy (Hanks) Lincoln. Of his ancestry in 
early years the little that is known may best be 
given in his own language: "My parents were 
both born in Virginia, of undistinguished families, 
— second families, perhaps I should say. My 
mother, who died in my tenth year, was of a 
family by the name of Hanks, some of whom 
now remain in Adams, and others in Macon 
county, Illinois. My paternal grandfather, Abra- 
ham Lincoln, emigrated from Rockbridge county, 
Virginia, to Kentucky, in 1781 or 1782, where, 
a year or two later, he was killed by Indians, — 
not in l)attle, but by stealth when he was laboring 

to open a farm in the forest. His ancestors, who 
were Quakers, went to Virginia from Berks 
county, Pennsylvania. An effort to identify them 
with the New England family of the same name 
ended in nothing more definite than a similarity 
in Christian names in both families, such as 
Enoch, Levi, Mordecai, Solomon, Abraham and 
the like. My father, at the death of his father, 
was but six years of age, and he grew up, literally, 
without education. He removed from Kentucky 
to what is now Spencer county, Indiana, in my 
eighth year. We reached our new home about 
the time the State came into the Union. It was 
a wild region, with bears and other wild animals 
still in the woods. There I grew to manhood. 
"There were some schools, so called, but no 
qualification was ever required of the teacher be- 
yond 'readin', writin' and cipherin' to the rule of 
three.' If a straggler, supposed to understand 
Latin, happened to sojourn in the neighborhood, 
he was looked upon as a wizard. There was 
nothing to excite ambition for education. Of 
course when I came of age I did not know much. 
Still, somehow, I could read, write and cipher 
to the rule of three, and that was all. I have not 
been to school since. The little advance I now 
have upon this store of education I have picked 
up from time to time under the pressure of neces- 
sity. I was raised to farm work, \\hich I con- 
tinued until I was twenty-two. At twenty-one I 
came to Illinois and passed the first year in Macon 
county. Then I got to New Salem, at that time 
in Sangamon, now in Menard, county, where I 
remained a vear as a sort of clerk in a store. 



" Then came the Black Hawk war, and I was 
elected a captain of volunteers, — a success which 
gave me more pleasure than any I have had since. 
I went into the campaign: was elected; ran for 
the legislature the same year (1832) and was 
beaten, the only time I have ever been beaten by 
the people. The next and three succeeding bien- 
nial elections I was elected to the legislature and 
was never a candidate afterward. 

"During this legislative period I had studied 
law and removed to Springfield to practice it. In 
1846 I was elected to the lower house of Con- 
gress; was not a candidate for re-election. From 
1849 until 1854, inclusive, I practiced the law 
more assiduously than ever before. Always a 
Whig in politics and generally on the Whig elec- 
toral tickets, making active canvasses, I was los- 
ing interest in politics when the repeal of the Mis- 
souri Compromise roused me again. What I 
have done since is pretty well known." 

The early residence of Lincoln in Indiana was 
sixteen miles north of the Ohio river, on Litde 
Pigeon creek, one and a half miles east of Gentr}'- 
ville, within the present township of Carter. Here 
his mother died October 5, 1818, and the next 
year his father married Mrs. Sallie (Bush) John- 
ston, of Elizabethtown, Kentucky. She was an 
affectionate foster-parent, to whom Abraham was 
indebted for his first encouragement to study. 
He became an eager reader, and the few books 
owned in the vicinity were many times perused. 
He worked frequently for the neighbors as a farm 
laborer; was for some time clerk in a store at 
Gentryville, and became famous throughout that 
region for bis athletic powers, his fondness for 
argument, his inexhaustible fund of humorous 
anecdote, as well as for mock oratory and the 
composition of rude satirical verses. In 1828 he 
made a trading voyage to New Orleans as "bow 
hand" on a flatboat; removed to Illinois in 1830; 
helped his father build a log house and clear a 
farm on the north fork of Sangamon river, ten 
miles west of Decatur, and was for some time em- 
ployed in splitting rails for the fences — a fact 
which was prominently brought fonvard for a 
political purpose thirty years later. 

In the spring of 1831 he, with two of his rela- 
tives, was hired to build a flatboat on the San- 
gamon river and navigate it to New Orleans. 

The boat stuck on a milldam and 'was gotten ofif 
with great labor through an ingenious mechan- 
ical device which some years later led to Lincoln's 
taking out a patent for "an improved metliod of 
lifting vessels over shoals." This voyage was , 
mcmcrablefor another reason, — the sight of slaves 
chained, maltreated and flogged at New Orleans, 
which was doubtless the origin of his deep con- 
victions upon the slavery question. 

Returning from his voyage, he became a resi- 
dent for several years of New Salem, a recently 
settled village on the Sangamon, where he was 
successively a clerk, grocer, surveyor and post- 
master, and acted as pilot to the first steamboat 
that ascended the Sangamon. Here he studied 
law, interested himself in local politics after his 
return from the Black Hawk war, and became 
known as an effective "stump speaker." The sub- 
ject of his first political speech was the improve- 
ment of the channel of the Sangamon, and the 
chief ground on which he announced himself 
(1832) a candidate for the legislature was his ad- 
vocacy of this popular measure, on which sub- 
ject his practical experience made him the highest 

Elected to the legislature in 1834 as a "Henry 
Clay Whig," he rapidly acquired that command 
of language and that homely but forcible rhetoric, 
which, added to his intimate knowledge of the 
people from whom he sprang, made him more 
than a match in debate for his well-educated op- 
ponents. He was re-elected to the General As- 
sembly in 1836, 1838 and 1840, serving four con- 
secutive terms. Admitted to the bar in 1837, he 
soon established himself at Springfield, where the 
State capital was located in 1839, largely through 
his influence; became a successful pleader in the 
State, circuit and district courts; married in 1842 
Mary Todd, a lady belonging to a prominent 
family of Lexington, Kentucky; took an active 
part in the presidential campaigns of 1840 and 
1844, as candidate for elector on the Harrison 
and Clay tickets, and in 1846 was elected to the 
United States house of representatives over the 
celebrated Peter Cartwright. During his single 
term in Congress he frequently appeared in the 
debates and for a new member made a favorable 
impression as a rising statesman. He voted for 
the reception of anti-slavery petitions, for the 



abolition of the slave trade in the District of 
Columbia, and for the Wilmot Proviso ; but was 
chiefly remembered for the stand he took against 
the Mexican war. For several years thereafter 
he took comparatively little interest in politics, 
but gained a leading position at the Springfield 
bar. Two or three non-political lectures and a 
eulogy on Henry Clay (1852) added nothing to 
his notoriety as a politician. 

In 1854 the repeal of the Missouri Compromise 
by the Kansas-Nebraska act aroused Lincoln 
from his indifference, and in attacking that meas- 
ure he had the immense advantage of knowing 
perfectly well the motives and record of its author, 
Stephen A. Douglas, of Illinois, then popularly 
designated as the "Little Giant." The latter 
came to Springfield in October, 1854, on the oc- 
casion of the State fair, to vindicate his policy 
in the senate, and the "Anti-Nebraska"' Whigs, 
remembering that Lincoln had often measured 
his strength with Douglas in the Illinois legis- 
lature and before the Springfield courts, engaged 
him to make a reply. This speech, in the opinion 
of those who heard it, was one of the greatest 
efforts of Lincoln's life, — certainly one of the most 
effective in his whole career. It took the audience 
by storm, and from that moment it was felt that 
Douglas had met his match. Joint discussions 
were held by the distinguished disputants at Peo- 
ria and other points, the effect of which, with 
the fierce campaign against the repeal of the Mis- 
souri Compromise, resulted in the election of an 
anti-Nebraska legislature, and Lincoln was se- 
lected as the anti-Nebraska candidate for the 
United States senate to succeed General James 
Shields, whose term expired March 4, 1855, 
and led several ballots; but Lyman Trum- 
bull was ultimately chosen. The second conflict 
on the soil of Kansas, which Lincoln had pre- 
dicted, soon began. The result was the disrup- 
tion of the Whig and the formation of the Repub- 
lican party. At the Bloomington State Convention 
in 1856, where the new party first assumed form 
in Illinois, Lincoln made the greatest speech of 
his life, in which for the first time he took dis- 
tinctive grounds against slavery in itself. Thence- 
forth he became the leader of his party in the 

At the national Republican convention in 

Philadelphia, June 17, after the nomination of 
Fremont, Lincoln was put forward by the Illinois 
delegation for the vice-presidency, and received 
on the first ballot one hundred and ten votes 
against two hundred and fifty-nine for William L. 
Dayton. He took a prominent part in the can- 
vass of that year in this and other States. In 
1859 Lincoln was unanimously nominated by the 
Republican State convention as its candidate for 
the United States senate in place of Douglas, 
and in his speech of acceptance used the cele- 
brated illustration of a " house divided against 
itself on tlie slavery question, which, while in the 
resulting argument it was made to conduce to 
his defeat, was so handled as to make impos- 
sible the nomination of his opponent as the Demo- 
cratic candidate for president, which was his ob- 
jective point. The seven great debates carried on 
at the principal towns of Illinois between Lincoln 
and Douglas as rival senatorial candidates, re- 
sulted at the time in the election of the latter; but 
being widely circulated as a campaign document, 
it fixed the attention of the country upon the 
former, as the clearest and most convincing ex- 
ponent of Republican doctrine. 

Early in 1859 he began to be named in Illinois 
as a suitable Republican candidate for the presi- 
dential campaign of the ensuing year, and a polit- 
ical address delivered at the Cooper Institute, 
New York, Februan.' 27, i860, followed by simi- 
lar speeches at New Haven, Hartford and else- 
where in New England, first made him known to 
the Eastern States in the light in which he had 
long been regarded at home. By the Republican 
State convention, which met at Decatur, Illinois, 
on the 9th and loth of May, Lincoln was unani- 
mously endorsed for the presidency. It was on 
this occasion that two rails, said to have been 
split by his hands thirty years before, were 
brought into the convention, and the incident con- 
tributed much to his popularity. The national 
Republican convention at Chicago, after spirited 
efforts made in favor of Seward, Chase and Bates, 
nominated Lincoln for the presidency, with Han- 
nibal Hamlin for vice-president, at the same time 
adopting a vigorous anti-slavery platfonn. 

The Democratic party having been disorgan- 
ized and presenting two candidates, Douglas and 
lireckenridge, and tlic remnant of the "American" 



party having put forward John Bell of Tennessee, 
the Republican victory was an easy one, Lincoln 
being elected November 6 by a large plurality, 
comprehending nearly all the Northern States, 
but none of the Southern. The secession of 
South Carolina and the Gulf States was the 
immediate result, followed a few months later by 
that of the border slave States and by the out- 
break of the great Civil war. 

The life of Abraham Lincoln became thence- 
forth merged in the history of his countrj'. 
None of the details of the vast conflict which filled 
the remainder of Lincoln's life can here be given. 
Narrowly escaping assassination by avoiding 
Baltimore on his way to the capital, he reached 
Washington February 23, and was inaugurated 
president of the United States March 4, 1861. 

In his inaugural address he said: "I hold that 
in contemplation of universal law and the consti- 
tution the union of these States is perpetual. Per- 
petuity is implied, if not expressed, in the funda- 
mental laws of all national governments. It is 
safe to assert that no government proper ever had 
a provision in its organic law for its own termina- 
tion. I therefore consider that in view of the 
constitution and the laws, the Union is unbroken, 
and to the extent of my ability I shall take care, 
as the constitution enjoins upon me, that the laws 
of the United .States be extended in all the States. 
In doing this there need be no bloodshed or vio- 
lence, and there shall be none unless it be forced 
upon the national authority. The power con- 
ferred to me will be used to hold, occupy and 
possess the property and places belonging to the 
government and to collect the duties and imports ; 
but beyond what may be necessary for these 
objects there will be no invasion, no using of 
force against or among the people anywhere. In 
your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, is 
the momentous issue of civil war. The govern- 
ment will not assail you. You can have no con- 
flict without being yourselves the aggressors. 
You have no oath registered in Heaven to de- 
stroy the government, while I shall have the most 
solemn one to preserve, protect and defend it." 

He called to his cabinet his principal rivals for 
the presidential nomination, — Seward, Chase, 
Cameron and Bates; secured the co-operation of 
the Union Democrats, headed by Douglas; called 

out seventy-five thousand militia from the several 
States upon the first tidings of the bombardment 
of Fort Sumter, April 15; proclaimed a blockade 
of the Southern ports, April 19; called an extra 
session of Congress for July 4, from which he 
asked and obtained four hundred thousand men 
and $400,000,000 for the war; placed McClellan 
at the head of the Federal army on General 
Scott's resignation, October 31; appointed Ed- 
win M. Stanton secretary of war, January 14, 
1862, and September 22, 1862, issued a proclama- 
tion declaring the freedom of all slaves in the 
States and parts of States then in rebellion from 
and after January i, 1863. This was the crown- 
ing act of Lincoln's career — the act by which he 
will be chiefly known through all future time — 
and it decided the war. 

On the i6th of October, 1863, President Lin- 
coln called for three hundred thousand volunteers 
to replace those whose term of enlistment had 
expired ; made a celebrated and touching, though 
brief, address at the dedication of the Gettysburg 
Military Cemetery, November 19, 1863; commis- 
sioned Ulysses S. Grant lieutenant-general and 
commander-in-chief of the armies of the United 
States, March 9, 1864; was re-elected president in 
November of the same year, by a large majority 
over General McClellan, with Andrew Johnson 
of Tennessee as vice-president; delivered a very 
remarkable address at his second inauguration, 
March 4, 1865; visited the army before Richmond 
the same month; entered the capital of the Con- 
federacy the day after its fall, and upon the sur- 
render of General Robert E. Lee's army April 9 
was actively engaged in devising generous plans 
for the reconstruction of the Union, when on the 
evening of Good Friday, April 14, he was shot 
in his box at Ford's theater, Washington, by 
John Wilkes Booth, a fanatical actor, and ex- 
pired early on the following morning, April 15. 
Almost simultaneously a murderous attack was 
made upon William H. Seward, secretary of 
State. At noon on the 15th of April Andrew 
Johnson assumed the presidency, and active 
measures were taken which resulted in the death 
of Booth and the execution of his principal ac- 

The funeral of President Lincoln was con- 
ducted with unexampled solemnity and magnifi- 

(ij^t^-'^i^y/i^ "^h^L^rlC^lJ^ 



cence. Impressive services were held in Wash- 
ington, after which the sad procession proceeded 
over the same route he had traveled four years 
before from Springfield to Washington. In 
Philadelphia his body lay in state in Independ- 
ence Hall, in which he had declared before his 
first inauguration that "I would sooner be as- 
sassinated than to give up the principles of the 
Declaration of Independence."' He was buried 
at Oak Ridge Cemetery, near Springfield, Illi- 
nois, on the 4th of May, where a monument em- 
blematic of the emancipation of the slaves and 
the restoration of the Union marks his resting 

The leaders and citizens of the expiring Con- 
federacy expressed genuine indignation at the 
murder of a generous political adversary. For- 
eign nations took part in mourning the death of 
a statesman who had proved himself a true rep- 
resentative of American nationality. The freed- 
men of the South almost worshiped the memory 
of their deliverer; and the general sentiment of 
the great nation he had saved awarded him a 
place in its affections second only to that held 
by Washington. 

The characteristics of Abraham Lincoln have 
been familiarly known throughout the civilized 
world. His tall, gaunt, though not ungainly 
figure, homely countenance and his shrewd 
mother wit, shown in his celebrated conversations 
overflowing in humorous and pointed anecdote, 
combined with an accurate, intuitive appreciation 
of the questions of the time, are recognized as 
forming the best type of a period of American his- 
tory in which the strength of the Union was tested 
and the ability of the people to maintain a free 
government in this country was fully established. 
As the years roll by from that stormy period of 
doubt and battle, the name of Lincoln looms up 
with increasing luster. His was the brain that 
shaped the policy of Congress and cabinet, his the 
unconquerable spirit which fed the flames of pa- 
triotism and kept them in a continuous glow of 
fenent heat. With unbending will and a pre- 
science which could pierce the future, the path of 
war was made the way to victory,— the Union re- 
stored, a nation saved. His heart was as warm 
as his hand was strong, and when the great tri- 
umph came his was the voice first to proclaim 
amnesty and peace. 


MR. MEDILL is a son of Scotch-Irish par- 
ents, and was bom April 6, 1823, in the 
city of St. John, New Brunswick. His parents 
were William and Margaret Medill, and 
there the family remained until 1832, when 
they emigrated to Massillon, Stark county, 
Ohio. \\'hile residing on a farm near there, 
Joseph acquired a good foundation of a prac- 
tical education, thorough grounding in the 
elementary branches of knowledge, especially 
in the use of his mother tongue. It is said 
that he showed his thirst for knowledge at the age 
of 16 by walking nine miles even,- Saturday after- 
noon in a winter and spring to get instruction in 
English grammar, Latin, logic and natural philos- 
ophy from Rev. Hawkins, a clergyman of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church in Canton, Ohio. He 
studied five or six months under that gentleman 

and later completed his education in the village 
academy of Massillon, graduating in 1843. The 
next year he marked the attainment of his major- 
ity by voting for Henry Clay, and, this important 
duty done, he began the study of law with the 
Hon. Hiram Griswold. Admitted to the bar in 
1846, he was for some time the partner of George 
\\\ Mcllvaine, since chief justice of the supreme 
court of Ohio. After being engaged in the prac- 
tice of his profession for three years he dissolved 
his partnership with Mr. Mcllvaine and discon- 
tinued his work at the bar. His natural vehicle of 
expression was the pen and the versatility of his 
faculties sought a more natural outlet in journal- 

The great questions which were already forc- 
ing themselves upon public attention and de- 
manding solution, — resistajice to slavery aggies- 


nwGRAPincAL DTCTinNAny AND ran Tu Air gallery of the 

sion, the questions of national sovereignty over 
sectional pretension, — a doctrine to whiah he had 
become converted by reading a speech of Daniel 
Webster, delivered in 1833, — the question of rec- 
onciling the letter of the constitution to the spirit 
of American liberty, the question of substituting 
a protective tarii? in place of the Democratic free- 
trade experiments, which the Southern cotton ex- 
porters were trying at the expense of the young 
industries of the country, and to the profit only 
of cotton-growing in the South and cotton-manu- 
facturing in England, — all these appealed more 
acutely to Mr. Medill's imagination than forming 
canons of common-law precedence and the in- 
creasing' and conflicting statutes enacted in the 
young nation. 

His success in journalism was identified at the 
beginning with these questions. Another condi- 
tion that induced Mr. JNIcdill at least to tempora- 
rily adopt journalism as a profession, was the fact 
that he had three younger brothers for whom he 
desired to find congenial employment. The boys 
were aged respectively nineteen, fifteen and ten 
years. They became compositors and job printers 
and assisted most materially in the mechanical 
construction of the journal. In 1849 he became 
the proprietor of the Coshocton (Ohio) Whig, 
and changed its name to Coshocton Republican, 
stating in it that Republican and not Whig 
was the proper name for the party or its 
organs ; and when chance came his way to reach 
a larger mass of his countrymen, he sold that 
print and in 1852 started the Daily Forest City at 
Cleveland, giving General Scott a strong support 
in the presidential campaign of that year. The 
overwhelming defeat of the Whig candidates,* run- 
ning on the platform which Mr. Medill, who was 
a radical, considered cowardly, convinced him 
that it was time to organize a new party to occupy 
more advanced grounds, in which the doctrines 
of free soil and anti-£lavei7 would be the promi- 
nent features. From this same conception in the 
minds of others grew the national Republican 
party, which boldly took its stand on the platform 
of equal rights, anti-slavery, the sovereignty of 
the nation and protection to American industries. 
Tn 1853 ]Mr. Medill formed a business partner- 
ship with John C. Vaughn, an emancipationist 
from South Carolina, who was publishing the 

True Democrat, a free-soil organ in Cleveland, 
and Edwin Cowles, a job printer. The two pa- 
pers were combined in 1853 under the name he 
proposed, of the Cleveland Leader, and the con- 
solidated venture was highly successful. 

The movement for a new national party, which 
Mr. Medill and others originated in Ohio, began 
in 1853. In the spring and summer of that year 
he wrote and published in his Cleveland "Forest 
City" a series of editorials advocating the sub- 
stitution of the name "Republican" for that of 
"Whig," as the latter belonged to one of the Eng- 
lish parties. He argued that "Republican" meant 
a strong national, masterful government, while 
Democracy had for its model the weak, waning 
confederation of Grecian State sovereignty. As 
the Whig party had to be reconstructed in its plat- 
form so as to attract liberal-minded people, he 
held that it should adopt a more descriptive name. 
He corresponded with Horace Greeley and other 
Whig leaders about changing the party name. 
Greeley replied: "Go aihead and get it adopted in 
Ohio: it is too &oon for us in New York to ad- 
vocate the change of name. We must first suffer 
another bad defeat." 

The same year (1853) the anti-slavery wing of 
the Whig party in Ohio, which had become ripe 
for a change, cast nearly 60,000 votes for Samuel 
Lewis for governer, which caused the overwhelm- 
ing defeat of the conser\'ative Whig candidate. 
Nelson Barrere, and that ended the "Whig" party 
in the Buckeye State. Mm Medill's paper made 
a vigorous campaign for Lewis, the liberal candi- 
date. In April, 1854, a number of prominent 
anti-slavery Whigs, Deimocrats and Free-soilers 
met with Mr. Medill in the "Leader's" editorial 
rooms in Cleveland, and then, after discussion, 
organized a new party, which they cliristened 
"the National Republican party," with opposition 
to the aggressions of slavery as its corner-stone. 
The name and principles of the new party 
were speedily adopted in Michigan, Wisconsin, 
Iowa, Illinois and other States. The sequel is 

Important events in the country's history 
crowded this closely and the growth of the party 
was powerfully assisted by the perfidious repeal 
of the IMissouri Compromise, the passage of the 
Kansas-Nebraska bill and the disgraceful Dred 



Scott decision, which tended to disrupt the old 

Chicago about this time was beginning to at- 
tract attention as a commercial and political cen- 
ter, and in Januan,', 1855, ^^^- Medill disposed of 
his paper in Cleveland to Edwin Cowles, and in 
company with his old partner, Mr. Vaughn, who 
remained in the firm only one year, and Dr. Ray 
of Galena, Illinois, (who continued in the firm 
till 1863), bought the Chicago Tribune, a paper 
which up to that time had been a losing enterprise. 
The individuality of Mr. Medill quickly permeated 
the Tribune. He at once assumed the business 
and editorial management and made the venture 
a successful one from the very start, and a few 
years later succeeded Dr. Ray as editor-in-chief. 

When Mr. Medill became the managerial head 
of the Chicago Tribune, more than forty-one years 
ago, the telegraphic service was then in its in- 
fancy. The mail and railway equipment were 
crude and inadequate to the unforeseen develop- 
ment of the Northwest. The phenomenal 
vigor and rapidity with which Chicago itself 
became the great city of the interior as- 
tounded even the most sanguine prophets of 
prosperity, and the field of journalism, local in 
color but national in tone, Western in sympathy 
but American in scope of political vision, was one 
in which an editor was without predecessors. 
Mr. Medill in those days watched every depart- 
ment of his paper with a scrutiny that never re- 
laxed, and, while always more occupied with great 
principles than small episodes, always more ab- 
sorbed in political conceptions of universal truth 
and national importance than with the evolution 
of the newspaper, made every column of the 
Tribune feel his personal touch. He had to invent 
methods of making the Tribune an adequate ex- 
ponent of this astounding growth. He had to 
create the machinery to make these methods prac- 
ticable. It was he, more than any hundreds of 
men of the Northwest, who brought Abraham 
Lincoln to the forefront of destiny. It was he 
who, long before the name of the Emancipator 
had been heard in the homes of New England or 
debated in the halls of New York, discerned those 
spiritual traits in the rugged exterior of the rail- 
splitter, which, with his genius for making the 
truths of Christianity sound politics for a free 

people, pointed him out to the few who knew him 
well in his obscurity as the man appointed by fate 
to override the shifty partisanship of the time 
and become the expounder before the world of 
the eternal maxims of human liberty and the con- 
servator of the Republic, bound to perpetuate 
equal political freedom or perish itself. 

Lincoln in those days was a tall, gawky, joke- 
telling, modest, ill dressed, astute country law- 
yer, who had some business in the courts of Chi- 
cago. He used to give a few hours now and then 
to Leonard Volk, the sculptor, whose studio was 
the star region of a dingy block on Randolph 
street; but he oftener climbed the stairs of the 
Tribune and with his log-rolling feet on the edge 
of Mr. Medill's desk would plainly state his grave 
convictions upon the paramount questions of the 
time. The ideas of the future president and the 
editor were substantially alike with the exception 
that Lincoln was more of an evolutionist than 
Medill, and believed that the great slaver}' ques- 
tion would in time evolve itself. Lincoln also 
at that time believed that slavery might be abol- 
ished by purchase. Mr. Medill has recently pub- 
lished portions of his reminiscences of Lincoln, 
and much of that mist which for years overhung 
his passage as a man from the margin of back- 
woods politics into the clear sunlight of national 
leadership has thereby been lifted. 

Meanwhile the terrible civil war was on; 
Lincoln was where J\lr. I\Iedill had foretold he 
would be, in Washington, at the national helm, 
and the part the Tribune had to perform was one 
of new and great responsibility. It was not 
enough that soldiers should go to the front; it was 
not enough that their physical wants should be 
carefully supplied ; it was not enough that the com- 
merce and industry should be sustained while 
they were in the field; it was necessary that 
party timidity and the connivance of treason 
should not defeat at the polls the pur- 
pose Unionists were achieving in battle. 
It was Joseph Medill who first suggested that 
tlie soldiers should not forfeit their right to 
cast a ballot while carrying a musket in the field; 
and the invaluable assistance the soldier vote gave 
to loyalty at home in those days of darkness and 
intrigue, history has not fully measured, so en- 
gaged has she been with the more fascinating 



chronicle of military heroism and the story of 
the clash of armies. It was at Mr. Medill's sug- 
gestion that the soldiers in the field were given 
an opportunit>- to vote, and it was the result of 
the election in 1864 which sustained Mr. Lincoln 
in his conduct of the war and made success pos- 
sible. While on his vacation at White Bear Lake 
in Minnesota in the summer of 1862, Mr. Medill 
saw at St. Paul thousands of young men leaving 
their homes as members of regiments bound for 
the front. Fear was expressed by many of the 
older Union men who remained behind that by 
sending the "true blue" boys to war the peace-at- 
any-price Democrats would gain the ascendancy 
and through the ballot obtain control of Congress, 
the president and cabinet, and thus defeat the 
cause of liberty by a minority vote of the LTnion 
States. After reflection Mr. Medill conceived 
the idea of permitting the soldiers to vote 
while in the army. He immediately inspected the 
constitutions of various States and discovered that 
in the majority thereof provision could be made 
by act of legislature to permit a ballot to be taken 
in the field. The first action was in Minnesota. 
Mr. Medill explained his views to Governor Ram- 
sey, who after consulting the attorney general 
immediately called the legislature together and 
recommended that an act be passed to enable the 
governor to appoint commissioners to go to the 
front and to take the ballots which were to be de- 
posited and sealed, to be opened and counted in 
the district in which the voter resided. 

The plan of voting, which was an original 
one, was not only conceived by Mr. Medill, but 
its adoption by many State authorities was also 
due to the energetic manner in which he an- 
nounced and championed it in the Tribune. 

He also early and often insisted upon the 
emancipation of the slaves by the president, and 
advocated arming the freedmen to fight for their 
liberty, believing, in the language of private Miles 
O'Reily, "That a black man could stop bullets 
as well as a white man." 

The war over and the L'nion saved, still another 
era set in. The important work of reconstruc- 
tion was next in order. The editor employed 
all the force that his brain and paper gave him 
to assist in making such a reconstruction of the 
secession States as would seciu^e to the freedmen 

their Lincoln decree of emancipation, and pre- 
vent their re-enslavement in part or whole. 
Hence he fought for the constitutional amend- 
ments and the enfranchisement of the ex-slaves. 

After this great work of the Republican party 
had been accomplished, he tumed his attention to 
the industrial problems as he had been in the right 
settlement of the war. As a student of economic 
data, he is microscopic, and to this minuteness of 
study he conjoins a memory of unusual reach 
and of phenomenal tenaciousness. He has a 
voracious appetite for statistics. Thirty-five 
years ago statistical publications were not the well 
arranged annuals any one can buy now on book 
shelves. Mr. Medill made his own almanacs 
and carried most of their maitter in his head. 
There is not a, phase of economics on which 
he is not ready, clear and accurate. His 
soundness in political ethics and his already well 
demonstrated capacity as a practical politician, 
willing to take no office but equipped better than 
any other man in the sight of the people for for- 
uudating sound modes of government, he was 
elected to the constitutional convention which 
gave Illinois the organic instrument that corrected 
many errors of the earlier advisers of the com- 
monwealth, and formulated many of the pro- 
visions which have proved particularly effectual 
for the protection of the taxpayers, and that for 
the protection of the rights of minorities was 
written by his hand or inserted in the constitu- 
tion by the cogency of his arguments. 

Thus Mr. Medill's entrance into official life in 
Illinois was in 1869, when he was unanimously 
elected a member of the constitutional conven- 
tion. He was the only member of the conven- 
tion who was unanimously chosen, and he re- 
ceived a larger vote than was given any other 
member of that body and represented the largest 
constituency. He framed the provisions which 
secured representations to minorities in the leg- 
islature and in corporations, and was a leader in 
the general work of revision. In 1871 he was 
appointed by President Grant a member of thfe 
first civil-service commission, and in November 
of the same year he was elected mayor of Chi- 
cago by a three-fourths majority. When he as- 
sumed charge of the office the city was in ruins 
from the great fire and disorder and destitution 


prevailed. It was IMr. ^ledill's special work dur- 
ing the ensuing two years to restore order and 
put municipal affairs in proper condition, a 
task which he performed in a highly satisfactory 
and acceptable manner. The intense application 
to duty required of him in this laudable work un- 
dermined Mr. Medill's health and resigning his 
office in September, 1873, he went to Europe for 
a year's recreation. The time passed abroad was 
almost entirely spent in the study of social and 
civic conditions and in writing a series of letters 
thereon for the Tribune, which has made him an 
authority on public affairs in the Old World, and 
especially in Great Britain and Ireland. Upon 
his return to Chicago in November, 1874, I\Ir. 
Medill bought a controlling influence in the Trib- 
une, and took active charge of the editorial de- 
partment. Under his influence the paper rapidly 
regained the high position it had lost during the 
three years of his absence from its helm, and since 
then has become the recognized journalistic rep- 
resentative of the Republican party in the West. 

To Mr. Aledill's efforts may the present high- 
license law of Illinois be credited. For years he 
advocated an increase in liquor licenses from $50 
to $500, claiming that the increase would close 
many of the vile dens in which liquor was sold 
and would do much to regulate the traffic. The 
present law, which places the minimum license 
at $500 and gives to the municipalities the power 
to increase the amount, has had the effect which 
he prophesied, and the city of Chicago has already 
derived over $20,000,000 in additional revenue 
since the passage of the law. 

It makes little difference whether, as used to be 
the case, his own hand wrote a considerable por- 
tion of the daily well filled page, as he now 
dictates the ai-ticles to his staff writers. At no 
time in the history of the Tribune of New 
York did that journal express the exclusive indi- 
viduality of Horace Greeley with more absolute 
unity than the Tribune of Chicago expresses the 
individuality of Mr. Medill. It is true that he em- 
ploys a half dozen persons upon editorial work; 
but they all subordinate their powers to him with- 
out a vestige of personal mannerism, either m 
thought or expression. This is why the writing 
of the editorial page of the paper presents daily 
the ultimate of intellectual economy in literary 

form. The style is direct, ner\-ous, simple, forci- 
ble. There is rarely a line of mere literary adorn- 
ment. There is never a line bearing the impress 
of an effort for embellishment. The aim is ap- 
parent in the longest leader — which is never a 
long article — to tlie shortest paragraph, to say 
something tliat is to be said without any 
consciousness as to the maainer of saying it 
beyond clearness, force and completeness. 
There is rarely a redundant word. There is 
never a superfluous sentence. Each article is 
devised to cover a specific idea: when that is 
done tlie article is at an end. In these quali- 
ties of simphcity without vulgarity, force with- 
out excitement, of precision without rigidity, 
the Tribune editorial page is a model. Every man 
who can read can understand it; and as Mr. Me- 
diil's aim is always to persuade by convincing, 
his diction is that of a plain, frank, well trained 
and powerful writer who knows how to reach the 
reason of readers by the shortest road. 

His personal habits inevitably create this per- 
sonal stamp upon his paper. He has no life 
which he considers higher than that of the editor; 
there are no recreations that absorb his facilities 
as happily as his duties; no pleasures tempt him 
from work with allurements equal to those it pos- 
sesses. His success enables him to indulge a 
loving and generous disposition toward his own 
household. In his elegant home on the north 
side, in what is called the "aristocratic" portion of 
Chicago, he has twtry comfort that intelligence, 
wealth and taste can supply. There, immediately 
after breakfast, his day's duties are assumed. Be- 
ing for several years somewhat deaf, he has more 
time for reading and reflects with less distraction. 
He reads everything, the newest books, the best 
magazines, the foreign periodicals. He keeps 
abreast with the thought of the day in every ad- 
vance. By the time he sets out for the office he 
has selected the editorial topics for the staff and 
digested clearly what he proposes to say about 
them. With the instinct of the true journalist 
he seizes daily upon those themes which are up- 
permost in the mind of the day, and to each gives 
that relative allotment of space to which it is in- 
trinsically entitled. Thus there are never ab- 
stract disquisitions upon the editorial page, no 
mere space-filling with literary g)TTmastics, no 



message, no scattering of intellectual power. 
Every topic is of the instant and of large public 
interest. Each fresh aspect of a permanent inter- 
est is discussed within logical bounds. He bal- 
ances his daily quota of editorial with regard to 
the various phases of general concern. While 
pre-eminently a man of serious disposition and 
profoundly convinced that the world is most 
deeply involved in politics, commerce, manu- 
factures and the common, every-day materialism 
of existence, he always looks on the horizon for 
the new in human interest, and he gives to the 
arts, to literature and science to which he is a de- 
votee, and to social questions, ample recognition. 
When he has allotted his topics and outlines 
the treatment of them, he reads again; and his 
own scissors are quick to clip the pungent allu- 

sion, the pithy paragraph or the suggestive story. 
He is visited by scores of people every day and is 
accessible and afTable to everybody. He listens, 
gives every man his attention and those he likes 
his tongue. But he forms his own conclusions 
upon every newspaper topic. When the day's 
editorial '"copy" is handed in, he carefully goes 
over every line. Few lines, scarcely a para- 
graph, escape his discriminating and improv- 
ing pen. Sometimes he completely alters the 
aspect of an article, the treatment of which 
he had not sufficiently sketched to the writer. It 
is not uncommon for stafT writers to say that they 
scarcely recognize in print the articles which 
they had written: so, in every fair and reasonable 
sense, all the editorial articles are his, represent- 
ing his views on the imjxjrtant events of the day. 



BORN of good \Velsh-American stock, on 
March 9, 181 5, in Cecil county, Mar>'land, 
Judge Davis was naturally endowed with a hardy 
earnestness and a large-souled common sense 
whicli made him through life popular among ail 
classes yet incapable of becoming arrogant to- 
ward those below him, as he rose to his great 
height of fame. By the death of his father, at 
an early age, he was enabled to follow the educa- 
tional bent of his mind without having his ener- 
gies divided between his studies and the problem 
how to secure the means of a livelihood. But 
although a considerable estate was left to him, so 
that he received a primary- education in the public 
schools of his native State, he attended Kenyon 
(Ohio) College, read law in the office of Judge 
Henry W. Bishop, of Lenox, Massachusetts, and 
afterward took a legal course in the New Haven 
law school. Although he was thus able to thor- 
oughly ground himself, intellectually and profes- 
sionally, he found, when he was ready to go out 
into the world, that his property had disappeared, 
and he was called upon to shift for himself with 
no capital but his character and his acquirements. 
Fortunately, these proved all sufficient. 

Wise young man that he was, he had early 

taken his own measure, realizing that he was 
not to make a name as an advocate at the bar or 
a silver-tongued orator. From the date of his 
admission to the bar in 1835, and his emi- 
gration to Illinois during the same year, up 
to the time of his elevation to the Supreme Court 
of the United States, in 1862, Judge Davis con- 
tinually impressed upon the public, both as a law- 
yer and minor judge, the fact that his mind was 
C'.f the rugged, large, philosophical type. 

As stated, he came to Illinois during the year 
of his admission to the bar in 1835, first settling 
at Pekin, but removing during the succeeding 
year to Bloomington, which place he called his 
residence for the following half a century. Two 
years later (in 1838) he married a lady whom he 
had met while studying his profession in Leno.x, 
Massachusetts, I\Iiss Sarah W. Walker, daughter 
of Judge Wm. P. Walker of that town. 

Judge Davis had not been long settled in his 
new home before his fellows discovered his popu- 
lar as well as his substantial qualities, and, al- 
though his party was decidedly in the minority, 
in 1840 he was put forward by the Whigs as their 
candidate for State senator in the Bloomington 
district. He made an energetic canvass and a 





good run, but, as was generally anticipated, was 
beaten by Governor John Moore, an experienced 
and most popular Democratic leader. Four 
years later (1844) he was elected to the lower 
house, declining a renomination. Here, as a 
legislator, Judge Davis added to the reputation 
which he had already earned as a lawyer, a repu- 
tation for the thorough examination and clear 
analysis of any matter entrusted to his charge, 
and for a judicial and impressive manner of pres- 

His work in the legislature was so satisfactory 
to his constituents, and, although a young man 
of but thirty-two, his judgment was alread}' ac- 
counted so mature, that he was elected to the con- 
vention which formed the State constitution of 
1848. Although he expected no reward, his 
labors there in behalf of the establishment of a 
more uniform State judiciary were so valued by 
both the profession and the laity that he was 
chosen one of the circuit judges without opposi- 
tion, at the first election held under the provisions 
of the new constitution. In those days the posi- 
tion was far from a sinecure, if it ever approached 
it. Judge Davis' circuit consisted of fourteen 
counties, and, without the aid of a railroad, he 
was obliged to hold two sessions annually in each 
county. But the incumbent was at length in his 
element, and was fully equal to the emergency ; 
in order, however, to fulfill his duties to his own 
satisfaction he was obliged to bring into play 
ever}- fiber of the bodily strength and intellectual 
acumen for wnich he was noted. In this capacity 
he continually met his old associates of the bar, 
Mr. Lincoln, Judge Douglas, Colonel Baker, 
Judge Trumbull, Colonel Hardin, Judge Logan 
and others; and it is the highest tribute to Judge 
Davis" sterling worth that none of his decisions 
ever aroused a feeling of personal antagonism, 
even among those with whom he was so long a 
fellow practitioner and several of whom were his 
acknowlcilged superiors in brilliancy and versa- 
tility. But his honesty, his solid judicial quali- 
ties, and his remarkable industry and executive 
force were received by all as full compensation for 
the eloquence and magnetism which are indis- 
pensable to the successhil advocate. At rare in- 
tervals in the world's history the judicial, the 
eloquent and the magnetic are combined, as in 

the personality of Abraham Lincoln, but Judge 
Davis was accepted at tlie standard which he had 
himself fixed and to which he adhered through 
life. During the fourteen years of his faithful 
service as circuit judge few appeals were taken 
from his decisions. Literally, he considered him- 
self the servant of the people, and had it not been 
lor his admiration and love for Mr. Lincoln it 
is doubtful whether he would have entered so 
actively as he did into the campaign of 1858, 
which witnessed the Douglas-Lincoln debates 
and finally elevated his warm and great friend 
to the presidential chair. It was at Mr. Lincoln's 
personal request that Judge Davis attended the 
convention of Republicans which met at Chicago 
on :May 16, i860, being a delegate at large and 
the chosen leader of the Lincoln forces. After he 
had assisted his friend to take the first step in his 
open ambition, he left the management of the 
campaign to others, and returned unassumingly 
to his judicial duties. 

In 1 86 1, with Gen. Holt and Mr. Campbell, 
of bt. Louis, Judge Davis was appointed by 
President Lincoln to adjudicate the conflicting 
and multitudinous claims against the quarter- 
master of the Department of the Missouri. The 
work involved an enormous amount of investiga- 
tion, legal acumen and business talent, but the 
nnuings of tne commission were eminently satis- 
factory and have stood the test in the highest 
courts of the land. 

In November, 1862, a vacancy having occurred 
on the bench of the United States Supreme 
Court, in the circuit including his native State, 
Judge Davis was called by the president to as- 
sume the duties of that high office. It is needless 
to inform even the careless student of history tliat 
these were trying times — that to assume an of- 
fice, in the midst of war, the discharge of whose 
duties involved the interests of millions of people, 
was a responsibility which was almost terrible 
in its import. But for the succeeding fifteen 
years Judge Davis brought the most power of 
his mind to bear upon questions of personal lib- 
erty, the belligerent riglits of enemies, the powers 
of militar)- commissions and the financial policy 
of the Government. It was especially his .stand 
after the war, in defense of the legal tender acts 
of 1862-3, that brought him into prominence 



before the people of the whole country. A ma- 
jority of the Supreme Court, m the case of Hep- 
burn vs. Griswold, held that credit currency was 
not a legal tender in payment of debt. Judge 
Davis was of the dissenting minority, and a short 
time afterward had the satisfaction of being with 
the majority which reversed the former decision, 
and held that "the acts of Congress known as 
the legal tender acts are constitutional when 
applied to contracts made before their passage, 
and are also applicable to contracts made since." 
Undoubtedly the position so firmly taken by 
Judge Davis, with the conviction, which for 
nearly forty years had been strengthening and 
expanding, tliat his was one of the stanchest, 
most sympathetic and popular personalities in 
the coimtry — these considerations induced the 
so-called Labor-Refonn party to nominate him 
for the presidency in January, 1872. The finan- 
cial question and the general wave of reform 
which swept the country during that year caused 
a portentous division in the Republican party and 
the secession of such leaders as Sumner and 
Greeley. This minority, with a large element of 
the Democracy, united in the so-called Liberal 
movement. At its convention, held in May, 
1872, Judge Davis was submitted as a presiden- 
tial candidate, but as Senator Trumbull also had 
a strong following in the Illinois delegation he 
went before that body with only a divided sup- 
port from his own State. Although Horace 
Greeley was nominated by the Liberals for the 
presidency, the independent elements in Illinois 
kept him in mind, and in March, 1876, to break 
the deadlock in the legislature over the selection 
of a United States senator, they united upon 
Judge Davis and elected him over John A. 
Logan. The contest had continued for t\vo 
months, and the final choice was spontaneous, 
the term of service being for six years from 
March 4, 1877. 

Judge Davis entered upon his career in the 
United States senate when within a few days 
of his sixty-second birthday. Although he had 
passed twenty-nine years in judicial labors, his 
experience as a public legislator had been con- 
fined to one tenn in the lower house of the Illi- 
nois legislature before he had reached his thir- 
tieth year. In taking leave of his confreres on 

the supreme bench, therefore, it was no unmean- 
ing assertion when he said: "Having passed 
all the years of my active life at the bar or on the 
bench, it is not without serious misgivings that 
I enter upon a new sphere of public service." 
Nor was it a mere act of customary politeness 
which prompted the court to reply to his letter 
of resignation and his farewell address in the 
following strain: "We have received with sincere 
regret your letter announcing that your official 
connection with us is closed. During the fifteen 
years in which you have been a member of this 
court, questions of the gravest character have 
come before it for adjudication, and you have 
borne your full share of the labor and responsi- 
bility which their decision involved. We shall 
miss you in the conference room, your wise 
judgment and your just appreciation of facts; 
in the reception room, your kind and courteous 
greetings. With the hope that your life in the 
future may be as useful as it has been in the 
past, and that the ties of personal friendship 
which now bind us to you may never be broken, 
we subscribe ourselves very sincerely your 

But notwithstanding his natural misgivings 
Judge Davis not only served upon the judiciary- 
committee with such tacticians and statesmen 
as Conklin, Edmunds, Carpenter and Thurman, 
the equal of any, but was acting Vice-President 
for nearly two years; and although he had en- 
joyed little experience as a parliamentarian, not 
one of his decisions was ever reversed by the sen- 
ate. At the expiration of his term he devoted 
himself to his extensive business interests, but 
was not fated to enjoy the well-earned ease of 
old age, as his death occurred on the 26th 
of June, 1886, after an illness of several 

Judge Davis was twice married, his first wife 
dying at her home in Massachusetts, in Novem- 
ber, 1879. In March, 1883, upon the expiration 
of his senatorial term, he was married to Miss 
Adeline Burr, of Fayetteville, N. C. His sur- 
viving children were George Perrin Davis and 
Mrs. Sarah D. Swayne. But although a kind 
husband and father had been lost, the country 
and the country's history had gained a great 
and an honest fame. 





THE ancestors of General Atkins were of Eng- 
lisli extraction, who, on coming to America, 
settled in the New Haven Colony, Connecticut. 
'I'heir descendants emigrated thence to Orange 
coimty. New York, and later to Chemung county, 
same State. The father of General Atkins was a 
soldier in the war of 1812, and his grandfather in 
the Revolutionary war. 

General Smith D. Atkins was born on the 9th 
of June, 1836, near Elmira, in Chemung county, 
New York, and came with his father's family to 
Illinois in 1846, where he lived on a farm until 
1850. He was educated at Rock River Seminary, 
Mount Morris, Illinois. He became a printer's 
apprentice in the office of the "Prairie Democrat" 
in 1850, continuing his studies during his spare 
hours, and in 1852 was made foreman of the 
Mount Morris Gazette, while he was yet a student 
in the seminary. In 1853 he became associated 
with C. C. Allen, who, during the war of the Re- 
bellion, was a major on the staff of Major-Gen- 
eral Schofield. They bought the "Mount Morris 
Gazette," and with the plant established the Reg- 
ister at Savanna, Carroll county. In the mean- 
time General Atkins had detennined upon the 
law as a profession, and in 1854 he entered the 
office of Hiram Bright, in Freeport, as a student, 
and was admitted to practice June 27, 1855. 
After his admission to the bar, however, he con- 
tinued his law studies for some time in the office 
of Goodrich & Scoville at Chicago, and then 
entered upon practice in Freeport, September i, 

He early manifested a great interest in political 
matters, and in i860 made a spirited canvass as 
a candidate for prosecuting attorney for the Four- 
teenth Judicial Circuit, and one address which 
he delivered in that campaign, and which was a 
careful and thorough review of the Dred Scott 
decision, was published and went through sev- 
eral editions. 

In November, i860. General Atkins was elected 
State's attorney for the Fourteenth Judicial Cir- 
cuit of Illinois, and on the 17th of April, 1861, 
while trying a criminal case in the Stephenson 

county circuit court, a telegram was received 
stating that President Lincoln had issued his first 
call for troops to suppress the Rebellion. Gen- 
eral Atkins immediately, in the court-room, drew 
up an enlistment roll which he headed with his 
own name, being the first man to enlist as a pri- 
vate soldier in his county. Hastening out of the 
court-room, he went into the streets of Freeport, 
urging his fellow citizens to rally in defense of 
the Union cause. Before dusk 100 men had 
signed the roll, and in the evening a company 
organization was formed, with him as captain. 
He and his companions in arms went to Spring- 
field, where they were mustered in as Company 
A of the Eleventh Illinois Infantn.-. Before the 
expiration of his three-months service, he re-en- 
listed for three years as a private, but was again 
mustered in, as captain of the company just men- 
tioned, at Bird's Point. At the battle of Fort 
Donelson he commanded his company, with an 
unexpired leave of absence, on account of sick- 
ness, in his pocket; he took sixty-one men into 
that desperate engagement and came out with 
but twenty-eight, having lost more than fifty per 
cent! For gallant service in this battle he was 
promoted to the position of major of that regi- 
ment, and by special assignment of General Grant 
went on the stafif of General Hurlbut, as acting 
assistant adjutant general, Fourth Division, Army 
of the Tennessee, and in that capacity was en- 
gaged in the battle of Pittsburg Landing. His 
service in that battle secured special mention in 
the general orders after that fight. Ill health com- 
pelled his resignation after the battle of Pitts- 
burg Landing, and he spent the two subsequent 
months on the sea-coast. 

It was his intention to return to his connnand, 
but at the solicitation of Governor Yates he took 
the stump to try to recruit eight companies in 
the eight counties, composing what was then 
Washburn's Congressional district. He covered 
the territory, speaking often three times a day. 
morning, afternoon and evening, and put into 
camp at Rock ford forty-four full companies, in- 
stead of the eight which had been the limit of 



Governor Yates' hopes. He was chosen colonel 
of the Xinety-second Illinois Volunteers, Septem- 
ber 4, 1862. He remained in command of that 
regiment until Januar}- 17, 1863, when he was 
placed in command of a demi-brigadc. 

While the Xinety-second was at Mount Ster- 
ling, Kentucky, Colonel Atkins, commanding 
the post, a grave issue arose. It was the first 
Yankee regiment that had visited that section, 
and hundreds of slaves flocked to the camp beg- 
ging for protection and offering their services 
to fight for freedom. They refused to return to 
their masters, and when their owners demanded 
them as chattels Colonel Atkins declined to en- 
tertain the request, not feeling that his force 
should be used to drive them back. The owners 
appealed to the commander of the brigade, a 
Kentuckian, who ordered General Atkins to re- 
turn the slaves, but the latter persistently declined 
to do this, and never did, his reasons being that 
he was not responsible for the escape of the 
slaves, and that his men had not enlisted to act 
in the capacity of blood-hounds to hunt them 
down and drive them back. The order issued 
is worthy of preservation, and is as follows: 

Headquarters Camp Dick Yates, ) 
Mt. Sterling, Kv., Nov. 2, 1862. j 
General Order No. i. 

In compliance with general order Xo. i issued 
from the headquarters of the brigade, I hereby 
assume command of the post of Mt. Sterling and 
the vicinity. 

Loyal citizens will be protected as such, and 
the civil authorities assisted in the enforcement 
of the laws. 

All loyal citizens and soldiers of ]Mt. Sterling 
and the vicinity are commanded to give infor- 
mation of the whereabouts of any one who is now 
or has been in any capacity in the Confederate 
service, and to arrest all such parties found in 
Mt. Sterling or the vicinity, and report them in 
custody to the commander of the post for further 

All loyal citizens are commanded to give in- 
formation to the commander of the post of the 
whereabouts of any citizen who has at any time 
during hostilities given any aid or comfort to the 
common enemy. 

F"armers are invited to bring their products 
to the town and camp for sale, and will be granted 
protection in so doing. 

Dealers in intoxicating liquors are commanded 

not to sell or in any way dispose of any intoxi- 
cating lifjuors to any soldier. Any one so doing 
will for the first offense have his stock in trade 
destroyed, and for the second offense be severely 
punished and confined. 

Loyal citizens who are the owners of slaves 
are respectfully notified to keep them at home, 
as no part of my command will in any way be 
used for the purpose of returning fugitive slaves. 
It is not necessary for Illinois soldiers to become 
slave hounds to demonstrate their loyalty. Their 
loyalty has been proven upon too many bloody 
battle-fields to require new proof. 

By command of 

Smith D. Atktns, 
Co/. g2iid III. Vol. Com. Post. 

I. C. Lawyer. Adjt. 

With reference to the order the general edi- 
torially says: 

" The last paragraph of that order gave us no 
end of trouble. The colored people would flock 
into camp; at night all who were not employed 
in the ofificers' service would be turned out of 
camp ; some of them would 'streak it' for the 
Xorth Star, while others would return to their 
masters. Our own servant was a colored man, 
born at Elkhorn, Wisconsin. But we were held 
responsible for every one of our fellow citizens of 
African descent who disappeared from the plant- 
ations about Wi. Sterling. After the regiment 
was ordered away the judge of the circuit court 
convened a special grand jury, and we were duly 
indicted for stealing 'niggers.' We were not ar- 
rested, because the sheriff found it inconvenient 
to place us in custody, there being too many blue- 
coated soldiers around. Champ Furgusson, a 
rebel guerrilla, went to Mt. Sterling, and some of 
the citizens of Mt. Sterling being loyal people 
and belonging to the Episcopal church, Fur- 
gusson set fire to the Episcopal church, from 
which the courthouse caught fire and burned up. 
including the indictments. We have never heard 
anything of them since then. In the end the war 
freed all the colored people of Kentucky and of 
all the States where slavery existed. The South, 
when there was no danger of the abolition of 
slavery, took up the sword to save slavery and 
thereby lost slavery. Those who took up the 
sword perished by the sword." 

Colonel Atkins on June 17, 1863, was placed 
in command of the Second Brigade, Third Di- 



vision, Army of Kentucky, which he commanded 
while in the Department of the Ohio. When the 
Xinety-second regiment was removed to the De- 
partment of the Cumberland he was placed in 
command of the First Brigade, First Division 
of Gordon Grangers corps, and when the regi- 
ment was mounted and transferred to Wilder's 
brigade of mounted infantry, he accompanied it 
and commanded it until transferred to Kilpat- 
rick's cavalry division. When General Kilpat- 
rick reformed his division, preparatory to the 
great march with Sherman, he assigned the com- 
mand of the Second Brigade to Colonel Atkins. 
When Sherman advanced southward he aimed to 
throw his army between the rebel forces and Sa- 
vannah. The task of deceiving the enemy and 
holding them while the movement was being ef- 
fected was given to Colonel Atkins by Kilpat- 
rick, and he skillfully accomplished it. At Clin- 
ton he charged the enemy and drove them four- 
teen miles to Macon. He assaulted their lines 
about the city, forced them into the works and 
held them there until Sherman swept to the east, 
leaving him with the enemy in his rear and noth- 
ing before him to impede his rapid progress. 

In all the engagements in which he partici- 
pated with his brigade, Colonel Atkins distin- 
guished himself, especiall}' so at ^\'aynesboro, 
where Wheeler and his cavalry were overwhelmed 
and defeated. While leading the charge of his 
troops against the rebel columns his color-bearer, 
Gede Scott, was shot down by his side, and his 
brigade flag attracted the attention of the enemy, 
who poured upon it their concentrated fire. In 
that storm of leaden hail he escaped injury, lead- 
ing prominently in the van and cheering on his 
troops to victor}'. At Savaimah he was brevet- 
ted brigadier-general for gallantry, and was as- 
signed to duty under his commission as briga- 
dier-general by brevet by the special order of 
President Lincoln, and at the close of the war 
he was brevetted major-general. 

In all his stations as commanding officer he was 

popular w ith both rank and file. He was a perfect 
disciplinarian, but was kind and considerate to the 
men under him. His courage and judgment as 
a strategist won their confidence, and they read- 
ily and heartily supported him wherever he went. 
The military career of General Atkins was highly 
creditable and one of which his descendants mav 
feel proud. 

After his military service was ended, General 
Atkins returned to Freeport, where he has since 
resided. For many years he has been, and is now, 
the editor of tlie Freeport Journal, a daily and 
weekly newspaper, and for nearly twenty-four 
years he held the office of postmaster of the city 
of Freeport. General Atkins is a thirty-second- 
degree Jilason, and during the war the Smith D. 
Atkins Lodge, A. F. & A. M.. under a dispensa- 
tion from the Grand Master of Illinois, was or- 
ganized in the Xinety-second Illinois regiment, 
of which he was colonel. He was verA" active in 
organizing the Stephenson County Soldiers' j\Ion- 
ument Association, and made speeches in every 
township in the county; and he drew the plans 
for the county soldiers' monument, of cut stone, 
nearly eighty feet high, now on the courthouse 
square in Freeport. He earnestly advocated the 
establishment of the free public library in Free- 
port, and when it was established he was elected 
the first president of the board of directors, has 
been annually re-elected, and is now serving in 
that capacity. He is also a member of the Free- 
port Board of Education, and is one of the Illi- 
nois commissioners of the Chickaniauga and 
Chattanooga X'ational Militan.- Park. His life 
has been one of great activity, and whatever part 
he played in public affairs has been with great 
energy and fidelity. 

General Atkins stands to-day one of the re- 
spected and highly esteemed citizens of the city of 
his adoption. His friends are legion, as his 
genial courtesy and kindly bearing are calculated 
to win confidence, which his sterling integritv' 
and unquestioned candor serve to maintain. 





THE parents of Shelby M. Cullom, Richard 
Northcraft and Elizabeth (Coffey) Cullom, 
were both of Southern origin, the former having 
been bornin Man,'land and the latterin North Car- 
olina. The parents of both removed from their 
respective States to Kentucky, where in the course 
of time was consummated the marriage of our 
subject's parents. The Cullom family had its 
origin in Scotland, and its predominating char- 
acteristics, transmitted through one generation 
after another, were strong and rugged in physical 
constitution, sturdy rectitude of character and a 
willingness and capacity for labor. In this con- 
nection it is interesting to note that the father 
and his five brothers were each over six feet in 
height, — men who possessed sound minds and 
sound bodies. His grandfather Cullom died at 
the age of sixty-one or sixty-two, but his grand- 
mother lived to record in her days the lapse of 
nearly an entire century. The maternal ancestry 
was also one notable for longevity. Hon. Alvin 
Cullom and Hon. William Cullom, brothers of 
Richard N., were both prominent lawyers in Ten- 
nessee, the former having been for many years 
a judge on the bench, and for a time a member 
of the lower house of Congress; while the latter 
became attorney general of the State, and sub- 
sequently a member of Congress and clerk of 
the house of representatives; he is still living, 
having attained the venerable age of eighty-four 
years and standing as the only surviving repre- 
sentative of the original family. The name of 
Cullom, in both its lineal and collateral ramifi- 
cations, has ever been synonymous with strength, 
energy, courage and ability, and representatives 
of the family have in turn emerged from obscurity 
to occupy positions of high public honor. Thus it 
would seem that our subject has gained prestige 
by heredity as well as having won it through his 
personal endeavors. He is one of not a few of 
the men of the Cullom stock who have attained to 
distinguished position in public life. 

Shelby M. Cullom was born in Wayne county, 
Kentucky, November 22, 1829, and within the 
following year his parents removed to Illinois, 

settling in Tazewell county, where they passed 
the residue of their days and where they now sleep 
the sleep of the just. The father, Richard North- 
craft Cullom, was for many years a leading citi- 
zen of Illinois, and was well known by all the 
prominent men of his time throughout the State. 
He was a member of the State Legislature several 
times and was a close friend of Abraham Lin- 
coln, Stephen T. Logan, John T. Stuart, Benja- 
min S. Edwards and other representative Whig 
politicians and lawyers, his identfication with the 
old Whig party being a very active and intimate 
one from the time of its inception. 

The son of a farmer, our subject became early 
accustomed to the hardy but plain fare and the 
laborious duties attaching to farm life, the dis- 
cipline being a valuable one during the form- 
ative period of his life, for those who live 
in so close sympathy with nature can • scarce 
fail to absorb from her a spirit of honesty; 
can scarce fail to come to a realization of the fact 
that in all fields of endeavor, seed-time and har- 
vest maintain their regular alternation, and that 
the harvest, with its valued aftermath, comes alone 
to those who have labored for its securing. Young 
Shelby did his share of all kinds of farm work, 
making a full hand in the harvest and hay fields, 
at feeding cattle, clearing land, splitting rails, etc. 
In those days educational facilities in the newer 
Western States were very limited in scope. Young 
Cullom had early in life decided to adopt the 
law as his chosen profession, and so realized the 
necessity of a broader and more liberal educa- 
tion than the country schools afforded. His am- 
bition and determination soon led him to the 
practical consultation of ways and means; he 
prevailed upon his father to lend him a team of 
oxen and a plow, and with this primitive equip- 
ment he began the battle of life on his own re- 
sponsibility, engaging for several months in 
breaking prairie at two dollars per acre. He then 
taught a country school for six months, at a sal- 
ary of eighteen dollars per month for the first 
three months, and at twenty dollars for the re- 
maining three. The money thus earned enabled 


him to attend school at tlie Rock River Seminary, 
Illinois, for two years. He was a hard and as- 
siduous student, and the magnificent physical 
strength which he had attained by following the 
plow and swinging the ax came into great use 
as the mental portion of his system was called 
upon for its more vigorous work. After return- 
ing from school he went to that city which was 
to figure as his future home, Springfield, Illi- 
nois, and there began the study of law, entering 
the office of Messrs. Stuart and Edwards, who 
constituted one of the strongest and best known 
law firms of that place and period, each of the 
members being a personal friend of the young 
student's father. In 1855, two years after he be- 
gan his legal studies, Mr. Cullom was admitted 
to the bar, and immediately thereafter came to 
him his first official preferment, that of city at- 
torney of Springfield. It was a year of excite- 
ment on the temperance question; the city had 
passed ordinances prohibiting the sale of liquor, 
and young Cullom did all in his power to en- 
force the laws, proving quite successful in his 
prosecutions. He soon, however, entered upon 
a broader field of practice, finding in the circuit 
court a higher plane for the exercise of his tal- 
ents, and meeting here, as antagonists, some of 
the foremost practitioners of the day. As a law- 
yer his presentation of a case was always logical 
and concise. His object was to explain, and not 
to clothe with doubt; to convince rather than to 
overwhelm with flights of oratory. In judgment 
he showed himself to be keen and accurate, with 
that judicial ability which implied intuitive wis- 
dom. He is a man of inflexible principles and 
has never been known to sacrifice what he con- 
siders right to any rule of expediency. He soon 
gained a lucrative practice, and had he seen fit 
to remain in private life he might to-day have 
been counted among the men of wealth, instead of 
as one who has in a measure sacrificed personal 
ambition for the purpose of rendering ser\nce to 
the public. 

In 1856 he was nominated and elected a mem- 
ber of the house of representatives in the State 
legislature, was re-elected in i860, and was 
chosen speaker. Cullom was strongly arrayed 
in the support of the Republican party, but his 
election came, notwithstanding the dift'erenccs in 

political creed between himself and the majority 
of his constituents in Sangamon county, thus 
showing that as a man he was held in highest esti- 
mation. At the election in i860 the county gave the 
Douglas Democratic electors a small majority, but 
such was Cullom's personal popularity that he was 
elected to the house by a majority of sixty- two 
votes. The Republicans being now, for the first 
time, in the majority in the Legislature, and his 
pronounced eligibility being admitted, he was 
chosen speaker, and upon him fell the honor of 
being the youngest man upon whom this respon- 
sible position had been conferred in the State. 
In 1862 President Lincoln, who was, a warm per- 
sonal friend of our subject, appointed him, in 
connection with Governor Boutwell,' of Massa- 
chusetts, and Charles A. Dana, of New York, a 
commissioner ito'!pass upon the accounts of quar- 
termasters and commissary officers, — a trust of 
more importance than is indicated by a super- 
ficial glance, and one which demanded the' ex- 
ercise of discriminating care and sound judgment. 
The able report, which was'in due time presented, 
shows the care and fidelity with which the inci- 
dental duties were performed. In the same year, 
Mr. Cullom was prevailed upon to become a can- 
didate for the State senate, but the feeling in his 
county was so intense at this crucial period and 
so opposed to the war, and to freeing the slaves 
that naturally, as the representative of a party 
pledged to the L^nion and to freedom, he 
was defeated. In 1864 he was nominated and 
elected by the Republicans of the old Eighth 
district for representative in the popular branch 
of Congress, his opponent being one of his former 
preceptors, Hon. John T.. Stuart. Two, years 
later he was re-elected to the same office, and 
again in 1868, on which occasion he found as 
his antagonist Hon. Benjamin S. Edwards, his 
other preceptor, who likewise met defeat at the 
hands of his former J^rotcge. Mr. Cullom entered 
into the national Congress during that interest- 
ing period of reconstniction when the best 
thoughts of the ablest men of the country- were 
brought into constant requisition in the effort to 
effect a solution of the many perplexing ques- 
tions that presented themselves. The official rec- 
ords attest the fact that he was an active and ag- 
gressive member, even assuming his full share 



in the debates, the while maintaining a conserva- 
tive attitude, with decisive opinions adequately 
fortified. Within his last term in the house, he 
was made chairman of the committee on Ter- 
ritories and prepared a bill for the suppression of 
polygamy in Utah Territory, which passed the 
house but failed in the senate. This bill, which 
provided stringent measures for the suppression 
of that practice which constituted a foul blot on 
our national escutcheon, became the practical 
basis of subsequent legislation, the enforcement 
of which has effaced the dark spot and destroyed 
the institution of polygamy. 

After returning from Congress Mr. CuUom was 
urged by his neighbors and friends in Sangamon 
county to consent once more to enter the State 
legislature, and thus to aid in insuring what was 
deemed a very imperative measure, — the revision 
of the laws of the State, and also to lend his ef- 
fective co-operation in retaining the capital at 
Springfield, a spirited contest for its removal 
having been in progress for several years. He 
consented to become a candidate and was again 
elected to the lower house in 1872, and was once 
more chosen speaker by his party colleagues, 
who were in the majority. Nothing further was 
heard of the project for the removal of the capi- 
tal, and the legislature undertook and com- 
pleted the most effective revision of the laws that 
has perhaps ever been made in the State. In 
1874 our subject was for the fourth time elected 
representative of his county in the assembly, 
and became the choice of his party for speaker, 
but was defeated, owing to a successful combina- 
tion between the Democratic and independent 
members of the house. This assemWy became 
notorious as the "Haines Legislature,'" which has 
passed into history as the worst the State ever had. 
It was at this juncture that the friends of Mr. 
Cullom began to put forward his name in con- 
nection with the candidacy for governor of the 
State, — a position for which he was admirably 
fitted by reason of his distinctive ability and his 
wide experience in public affairs. In 1876 he 
accordingly received the nomination at the Re- 
publican State convention, and was elected as 
governor over the combined forces of the Dem- 
ocrats and independents, the same coalition which 
had the year before defeated him for the speaker- 

ship. His administration as chief executive of 
the great commonwealth of Illinois was highly 
satisfactory to the people of the State, whose af- 
fairs were never in better condition than when he 
retired from office. At the end of his term not a 
word could be urged against his executive pol- 
icy, even by his political adversaries, and he was 
elected to serve a second consecutive term, — the 
first instance of the sort in the history of the State. 
Within the period of his administration the last 
of the State debt, which had hung over the State 
from its early history, was paid, as an example 
of the economic and judicious policies which 
the executive had insisted upon. 

In March, 1883, by the expiration of the term 
of United States Senator David Davis, there 
came up the matter of electing his successor; and 
though Governor Cullom was at this time but half 
way through his second term, the Republican 
caucus of the Thirty-third General Assembly 
nominated him to represent the State in the na- 
tional senate, and he was duly elected, — a fitting 
recognition of the meritorious services rendered 
the State in various capacities. Mr. Cullom re- 
signed his office as governor in February, 1883, 
and his career as senator began March 4th of 
the same year. At the expiration of his first temi, 
ill 3889, he was elected as his own successor; and 
was again elected in January, 1895, for a third 
term, which began March 4th, 1895. No pub- 
lic ofificer has been more faithful to public 
duty. In whatever position he has been placed 
he has been a man of work, one who has had no 
idle moments. 

As senator it is said that, before he took his 
seat, he determined to do all in his power to ac- 
complish three things: first, to prevail on the 
government to construct the waterway known as 
the Hennepin canal, commencing at or near Rock 
Island, on the Mississippi river, and terminating 
at Hennepin, on the Illinois river, thereby con- 
necting the upper Mississippi river with the Great 
Lakes, at Chicago; second, to bend every effort 
to carry forward to successful issue that endeavor 
which had enlisted his attention while a member 
of the lower house, — the abolition of polygamy 
in Utah; and third, to vitalize the commercial 
clause of the constitution by an act of Congress, 
"regulating commerce among the several States," 



etc., etc. What better criticism of his efforts can 
be offered than this: polygamy has been oblit- 
erated and Utah has been admitted into the Union 
as a State; the Hennepin canal is being con- 
structed; and an act of Congress was passed 
in 1887, known as the Cullom act, "regulating 
commerce among the several States." 

It is in connection with the last and most im- 
portant measure of this notable list that Senator 
Cullom has become most distinguished as a legis- 
lator. He was at the head of a committee which 
made an exhaustive investigation of the condition 
of inter-State commerce as conducted by the com- 
mon carriers of the country, and which finally 
brought about the passage of the act already men- 
tioned. This, the Cullom act, which was ap- 
proved in 1887, is regarded by very many of the 
ablest men of the country as the most important 
measure which has been enacted since the close 
of the war. 

While governor of Illinois, Mr. Cullom did 
all in his power to regulate commerce in the 
State over which he presided, and he then dis- 
covered that State regtdations without Congres- 
sional legislation would prove ineffectual and 
abortive so far as remedying existing evils was 
concerned. Therefore, when he was elected to 
the senate he determined that one of the first ef- 
forts he would make as a representative of his 
State in the great conservative body of the na- 
tional legislature, would be to secure the regu- 
lation of commerce among the several States by 
an act of Congress. He at once took hold of 
the question and pursued it with a degree of en- 
ergy and power that effectually overcame all re- 
sistance, and which eventuated in the speedy 
passage of the act which now stands as one of 
the most valued chapters of Congressional leg- 
islation. The provisions of this law were urged 
upon the attention of the common carriers of the 
countr)- almost before they were made aware that 
justice had laid a summary hand upon their in- 
discriminate operations. While this act has been 
much criticised and abused and its author op- 
posed by men who were in certain lines of com- 
merce and transportation, yet the public have 
always believed that its provisions were right 
and just; and the longer it has remained upon 
the statute books and the more it has been tested 

by practical experience, the stronger has it be- 
come in the judgment of fair-minded people. 

Incidental to his sen'ices in Congress, Sena- 
ator Cullom has twice been designated as one 
of the visitors to the Military Academy at West 
Point, and has for several years been a member 
of the board of regents of the Smithsonian In- 
stitution at Washington. 

Senator Cullom is a conservative man and must 
be regarded as a statesman, always striving to 
build up for the benefit of the people and to insure 
a continuous national progress, believing that 
nations, like men, cannot stand still; they must 
go forward or backward ; they cannot go back- 
ward without decay, therefore it is imperative 
that they go forward. He has become some- 
what conspicuous as a public officer who is al- 
ways at his post of duty and always at work. No 
man has ever represented Illinois, either as mem- 
ber of the State Legislature, as a representative 
in the lower house of Congress, as Governor of 
the State, or as a United States senator, who has 
been more faithful to the trust reposed in him 
by the people. His mental characteristics are 
of the solid and practical rather than of the os- 
tentatious and brilliant order. He is essentially 
strong in intellect and capable of reaching safe, 
reasonable and prudent conclusions. In person 
the Senator is tall and thin: his hair is black, 
tinged with gray; his forehead is high and mas- 
sive, indicatmg his intellectuality, and his features 
mobile and clearly cut. He has an ease of car- 
riage and a grace and courtesy of address which 
have in no slight degree contributed to his pop- 
ularity. "A strong man," mentally and physically, 
best describes the individual of our subject. 

In conclusion we turn briefly to the domestic life 
of Senator Cullom. In December, 1855, at Spring- 
field, Illinois, was consunmiated his marriage to 
Miss Hanna M. Fisher, who entered into eter- 
nal rest in 1861, leaving two little daughters, Ella 
and Catherine. Both grew to womanhood, re- 
ceiving the best of educational advantages and 
enjoying all the privileges of a cultured and re- 
fined home. Miss Ella became the wife of Mr. 
William Barrett Ridgely, a young successful busi- 
ness man of thorough education and practical at- 
tainments, resident in Springfield, Illinois, where 
she presides over an elegant home. She is de- 


sen^edly prominent in social and cluirch matters 
in the city of her birth. Miss Catherine married 
Mr. Robert Gordon Hardie, an artist of distinc- 
tion in New York. Her untimely demise occurred 
May 17, 1894, bringing great sorrow to her de- 
voted husband, her honored father, and all who 
had known and appreciated the beauty of her 
character. Of great personal attractions, accom- 
plished, and imbued with the abiding graces of 
true Christian character, she was a woman whose 
death leaves a void in many loving hearts. 

Some years after the death of his first wife, Mr. 
Cullom married her younger sister. Miss Julia 
Fisher. Two children were born of this union, 
but both died in infancy. Concerning Mrs. Cul- 
lom we cannot do better than to quote from a 
published article touching her individuality. She 
is spoken of as "one of the most modest and re- 
tiring women at the capital, but a woman of 
marked intelligence and sterling character in every 
sense of the word, as unbending as her Presbyte- 
rian faith. She is a most conscientious member 
of that church and is rarely absent from her place 
in the Church of the Covenant. In dischars^ing 

the duties of her high position she is most affable 
and cordial to all. No one has ever heard her 
speak of another but to praise; if she has criti- 
cisms to make no one outside of the sacred circle 
of their happy home ever hears them. She was 
educated at the Young Ladies' Institute at Spring- 
field, Illinois. =;= * * Senator Cullom has oc- 
cupied most distinguished positions ever since 
their marriage and ]\Irs. Cullom has consequently 
known no reverses, and has been continuously 
most conspicuous, always filling her position 
with great credit to herself and fidelity to her hus- 
band's interests. * * * Her perfect equipoise 
of temperament is most attractive, and has made 
its reflex on her beautiful face, which is that of a 
much younger woman than we find her to be 
after consulting the calendar. Her influence has 
been for the betterment of mankind and the ele- 
vation of her sex. * * * jj^ Springfield and 
^^'ashington she has ever been most active in 
works of charity. At the capital she is a member 
of the board of managers of the Foundlings' 
Home, and of other organizations of a benevo- 
lent character." 



ISAAC L. MORRISON, for more than forty 
years one of the leaders of the bar of Illinois, 
was born in Barren county, Kentucky, January 
20, 1826. His father, John O. Morrison, was a 
native of Virginia, whither his father, Andrew 
Morrison, had immigrated from the north of Ire- 
land. Andrew Morrison enlisted in the Conti- 
nental army during the Revolutionary war and 
was killed at the battle of Brandywine. Mater- 
nally Mr. Morrison is a descendant of the W'el- 
born family of North Carolina. His maternal 
grandfather, Samuel Welborn, was also a Rev- 
olutionary soldier and served under General Na- 
thaniel Greene in his campaign in the Carolinas. 
Afterward he moved to what is now Monroe 
county, Kentucky, in which State John O. Mor- 
rison, who had immigrated thither in 1793, and 
Elizabeth Welborn were united in marriage. 
John O. Morrison was a farmer. He died 

when Isaac L. was fifteen years of age, and there- 
fore a great amount of responsibility rested upon 
the youthful shoulders of the latter. He attended 
the common schools during the winter months, 
and after his father's death a large share of the 
management of the farm devolved upon him, 
and for several years thereafter he was able to de- 
vote but little time to study. When the oppor- 
tunity offered itself he entered the ]\[asonic Sem- 
inar}- located in La Grange, Kentucky, and later 
studied law in the office of Addison M. Gazelay, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1849. He began 
to practice his profession in La Grange, but clients 
being few and being an opponent of the insti- 
tution of slavery and its advocates, he determined 
to locate in a different section, where the oppor- 
tunities to advance were better and where slavery 
did not exist. 

In 185 1 he settled in Jacksonville, Illinois, and 



although he had no friends or acquaintances in 
the state he quickly gained an enviable reputa- 
tion as a lawyer of ability and as a man of un- 
doubted integrity. By constant application and 
honesty of action and purpose he soon earned 
for himself a prominent position in the front 
ranks of his profession, and his career at the 
bar of the State has been one long continued 
series of triumphs. His intellect is vigorous 
and acute, his judgment quick and compre- 
hensive, and his argument is close and rigid 
in logic, skillful in method, agreeable and 
forcible in manner. In legal learning, in what 
may be called the erudition of his profes- 
sion, he has no superior at the bar, and those 
qualities have given to him the eminent standing 
so readily accorded him. As a pleader at the bar 
he endeavors to make his argument so as to place 
the facts before the court without embellishment; 
but should occasion seem to require force he can 
bring a flood of eloquence to bear upon the facts, 
and in some cases uses refined sarcasm with effect. 

He has not always practiced his profession 
alone but at various times has had partners. 
At the time of the Rebellion Herbert G. Whit- 
lock, then a student, left his office to enter 
the army. After his return from the war he 
was admitted by Mr. Morrison into a partnership, 
which continued for twenty-two years. For seven 
years, between 1861 and 1869, Mr. Morrison was 
associated with Cyrus Epler, now circuit judge. 
At present his son-in-law, Thomas W'orthington, 
is his business partner. 

Air. Morrison has never been a politician in 
the sense of office-seeking. His love of freedom 
and opposition to slavery naturally placed him 
in the ranks of the Whigs, and he was one of the 
active organizers of the Republican party. He 
was a delegate to the first Republican State con- 
vention in 1856, and also in i860. In 1864 he 
was a delegate to the Republican national con- 
vention at Baltimore, which renominated Lincoln 
for the presidency. He represented his district 
in the Illinois legislature for three terms and ren- 
dered valuable service to the people. In the ses- 
sion of 1883 the Republicans had but one nia- 
jorit)', and having organized the house were held 
responsible for the legislation. One of their num- 
ber was taken sick, and, being thus without the 

means for controlling the house, the services of 
a competent leader were badly needed, and Mr. 
Morrison naturally took command. 

His ability as a legislator was unquestioned, 
and his knowledge of the law and parliamentary 
usages made him a power in the deliberations 
and acts of the body. As chairman of the ju- 
diciary committee he assisted in molding all the 
important measures of the session. The so-called 
Harper high-license bill, which was introduced 
by Mr. Harper and given his name, was con- 
ceived and drafted by j\Ir. Morrison and Alajor 
James A. Connolly, then United States attorney 
for the Southern District of Illinois. The law 
has been beneficial in many ways and has been 
the pattern after which the various high-license 
laws of the several States which have adopted high 
license have been drawn. Mr. ]\Iorrison led the 
champions of high license in the house and carried 
it successfully. The opposition to the measure was 
great, and the vote was not entirely upon party 
lines. The final victory was largely due to the 
management of Mr. Morrison, and the ability 
that he displayed therein commanded the respect 
of most of his fellow members whether of his 
own party or of the opposition. An examina- 
tion of the full history of the proceedings of the 
legislature during the three months which were 
occupied by its deliberation of the bill would dis- 
close Air. Morrison's name mentioned with honor 
on each page. 

In 1880 Air. Alorrison was nominated for Con- 
gress, and made a spirited canvass of his district, 
which consisted of Christian, Sangamon, Me- 
nard, Cass, Alorgan and Scott counties. The dis- 
trict was overwhelmingly Democratic and he did 
not expect to be elected, but he succeeded in 
materially reducing the usual Democratic major- 
ity. For the past ten years Air. Alorrison has 
not been active in political matters, but has aided 
his party during its campaigns by public speak- 
ing in advocating the principles of the Repub- 
lican party. He was a delegate to the State con- 
vention in 1892 and as chairman of the commit- 
tee on resolutions drafted a resolution indorsing 
President Harrison for the presidential nomina- 
tion. However, he has devoted himself almost 
exclusively to the practice of his profession. 

He was general counsel for the Jacksonville 



Southeastern Railroad Line before it was 
placed in charge of a receiver, and is still counsel 
for some of the stockholders; was also vice-presi- 
dent of the Chicago, Peoria & St. Louis road. 

Mr. Morrison was married in 1853 to Mrs. 
Anna R. Rapelje, lur Tucker, a native of New 
York city. They have two children: Miriam A., 
the daughter, is the wife of Thomas Worthington, 
who is a partner of Mr. Morrison in the law firm 
of Morrison & Worthington. The son, Alfred 
Tucker Morrison, resides at home. 

Mr. Morrison owes his success entirely to his 
own efforts. He has not feared that laborious 
application that his profession requires of all its 
successful members, and, combined with indus- 
trious habits, he possesses a mind which constant 
application has stored with a knowledge of the 
law and its adaptation. His career should serve 
as an inspiration to the young law student, and 
should induce him to exert himself to his fullest 
capacity and endeavor to emulate the example 


FEW persons unacquainted with his career 
would dream that the gray-haired president 
of the National Bank of Illinois, with his quiet 
manners, approaching almost to diffidence, and 
kindly benevolent features, has been an active 
revolutionist in two continents. Yet facts are 
stubborn things, and it is not likely that George 
Schneider, journalist, revolutionist, government 
official, banker and financier, will ever attempt to 
deny the impeachment. Nay, he is e%-en proud 
of the record he established in the past and of 
the principles for which he made such a gallant 
fight, both in the old world and the new, as are 
also those of his friends who have an intimate 
knowledge of his honorable career. 

A native of Rhenish Bavaria, George Schneider 
was born in Pirmasens, December 13, 1823. A 
liberal education, received in the Latin school of 
his birthplace, amply equipped him for newspaper 
work, which chosen field he entered as soon as 
he attained his majority. It was while he was 
engaged in journalistic pursuits that he first be- 
came a revolutionist, taking an active part in the 
revolt of Rhenish Bavaria against the Bavarian 
government. As is well known, in 1848-9 an at- 
tempt was made to unite Germany, and a revo- 
lution broke out which had for its object the de- 
fense of the constitution promulgated at Frank- 
fort-on-the-Main and the unification of Germany. 
South Germany, and particularly Rhenish Ba- 
varia and Baden, was almost a unit in favor of 
a German parliament and against the numerous 

princes of Germany. An army was raised which 
took the field, but after a prolonged contest the 
patriots were defeated and the insurgents, who, 
as later events proved, were only a few years in 
advance of the times, were forced to flee the 
country. In this revolt the yoimg editor, George 
Schneider, was a prominent leader, and his ef- 
ficient service for the cause he had at heart, and 
which he has lived to see successfully realized, 
made him a marked man. 

Escaping to France, Mr. Schneider remained 
there, vainly hoping for a renewal of the contest 
under better auspices; but finally, seeing the fu- 
tility of his desires, he sailed for the United States, 
arriving in New York in July, 1849. To a light 
purse was supplemented a dauntless courage, a 
good education, and a determination to succeed, — 
not a bad capital for any young man. From New 
York he drifted to Cleveland, thence to St. Louis, 
where, with his brother, he established the Neue 
Zeit. a German daily of liberal, anti-slavery tend- 

At about the same time that George Schnei- 
der reached the new world came hundreds of his 
fellow sympathizers, the flower of the youth and 
intellect of Germany. Highly educated, full of 
ideal views and bursting with eloquence, it was 
natural that many of these should take kindly to 
the pen, and as a consequence in a short time, 
from New York to the far \\'est and southward 
to New Orleans, the German press invaded the 
country and was presently established on a firm 



foundation. It was at this interesting period 
that the "Missouri Compromise'" measures were 
being agitated, the spirit of which the German 
population by no means understood. Their news- 
papers had instilled into their receptive hearts 
a wholesome horror of slavery, and any compro- 
mise was intensely repugnant to their sentiments. 
They were naturally averse to the movement after 
reading the bitter attacks on slavery in the Ger- 
man newspapers, the editors of some of which 
were more violently outspoken than such noted 
abolitionists as Garrison, Lovejoy or Eastman, 
of the Chicago Western Citizen. 

It will be remembered that the state of the 
country, prior to the introduction of the Nebraska 
bill in the senate by Douglas, as chairman of the 
committee on Territories, was decidedly inimical 
to slaver}-, but after the election of Pierce, in 1852, 
the violent opposition of the Democratic party 
to slavery dwindled down to its acceptance of 
the "Compromise Measures." The commerce of 
the country, even, was committed to slavery, and 
any attempt to impair existing conditions was 
considered revolutionar}'. This was the situa- 
tion when George Schneider was publishing his 
Xeue Zeit, at St. Louis. That his Democratic 
free-soil paper helped to instill into the hearts of 
his German readers an honest hatred for slavery 
is unquestioned, and, having become violently 
opposed to its institution in spite of the predic- 
tion in its favor evinced by the native population 
of Missouri, the Germans were ready at the out- 
break of the war to fight for the Union and the 
principles it represented, tjrant, in his Memoirs, 
says that the Germans, through the capture of 
Camp Jackson and by their vmited opposition to 
slavery, undoubtedly kept that State in the Union. 

After the plant of the Xeue Zeit was destroyed by 
fire, in 1850, its homeless editor accepted a pro- 
fessorship of foreign languages and literature 
in a college not far from St. Louis, but the news- 
paper fever was in his veins and in a short time 
he resigned his chair and removed to Chicago, 
where, in 1851, he began the jjublication of the 
daily Illinois Staats Zcitung, which had previously 
been establishcil as a weekly newspaper. At this 
time the feeling of the North was rather for up- 
holding the relations with the South, and the 
compromise measure passed Congress, includ 

ing the Fugitive Slave Law, to which, of course, 
some lingering opposition was kept up in dif- 
ferent portions of the countrj-. The Staats Zeit- 
ung prospered under the efficient m.anagement 
of Mr. Schneider, and grew in favor, but although 
its politics were Democratic, its editor was op- 
posed to the Missouri Compromise and took 
such a decided stand against the measure in the 
columns of his paper that it aroused the wrath 
of some of his constituents, who were not among 
the faithful, and, in 1856, an unsuccessful attempt 
was made to wreck the office. 

But prior to this the agitation over the obnox- 
ious measure resulted in a meeting where was 
originated the anti-Nebraska bill, which notable 
event took place January 29, 1854, at Warner's 
Hall, on Randolph street, near Clark. Editor 
Schneider was one of the small but courageous 
body of men that assembled for this purpose, 
and after the bill was framed a telegram was sent 
to John Wentworth. then Democratic represent- 
ative in Congress, notifying him of the result 
and urging him to vote against the Nebraska bill. 
He promptly responded that he would accede 
to the wishes of his constituents, especially as thev 
coincided with his own views, and this conver- 
sion is all the more significant because of its be- 
ing the first Democratic vote pledged against the 
hated bill. 

This meeting, held at Warner's Hall, January 
29, 1854, really marked the birth of the Repuij- 
lican party. Thousands of Americans and Ger- 
mans, indignant and horrified at the violation of 
the compact, hastened to join the new movement, 
and of course in the Northern States this whole- 
sale secession influenced the Democratic partv 
to such an e.xtent that in large cities like Chicago 
it became almost free-soil in its tendencies, and 
as a result a large part of the best Democrats 
joined the Republican party. It was at this crit- 
ical juncture that Douglas and a few other Dem- 
ocratic leaders came to Chicago to tr\- to check 
the disaffection in the party. By special apjioint- 
ment Editor Schneider met the "Little Giant" at 
the Tremont House, and. in company with Gen- 
eral Cameron and a few other friends, the situa- 
tion was discussed. Mr. Douglas used all his 
persuasive eloquence in the effort to convince the 
editor that he was in the wrong. I le told the fear- 



less advocate that he was only leading his friends 
into the woods, from which there was no pos- 
sible egress, and urged him to retreat before he 
was hopelessly entangled. But the German- 
American said the woods had no terrors for him, 
he was unalterably opposed to slavery and had 
cast his lot with the new party for better or worse. 

About this date a movement sprang up in the 
East, unfortunate in itself, which for some time 
threatened the disruption of the new party. This 
was the famous "Know Nothing" movement, 
which, in the New England States and at Chicago, 
attracted so many young Americans that it took 
the utmost moral courage of the free-soil Demo- 
cratic Germans to maintain their ground inside 
the new organization. ]\Ir. Schneider and his 
friends found themselves in a difficult and trying 
position. Behind were the burned bridges that 
formerly connected them with the Democratic 
party under Douglas; ahead and right in their 
new camp was an element inimical to their inter- 
ests and to that of their countrymen. They had 
to determine to fight slavers^ and at the same time 
were forced to defend themselves against their 

Of the greatest value in the new party to the 
German Republicans w-ere such men as Lincoln, 
Lyman Trumbull, John M. Palmer and Governor 
Koerner, all of whom were ready to act with them 
inside the party against the spirit of the native- 
American organization. At the convention held 
at Decatur, in 1855, to which ]\Ir. Schneider was 
a delegate, the sturdy editor introduced a resolu- 
tion so as to fortify his position, pledging the 
party against the impairing or changing of the 
then existing naturalization laws. This provis- 
ion in the new platform created consternation 
among the men who came from districts infected 
with the spirit of Know-Nothingism, but the 
greatest help at this tn,-ing time came from Abra- 
ham Lincoln, who was at that period a leader in 
the Whig party and was trusted absolutely for his 
wisdom and discretion. The resolution, after a 
very stormy session, was referred to him, and he 
decided in favor of its adoption. It was then 
carried to the State convention of 1856, at Bloom- 
ington, where it had a similarly exciting experi- 
ence, but was finally passed. 

At the Bloomington convention delegates were 
elected to the national convention of 1856, at 

Philadelphia, and among them were John M. 
Palmer, Norman B. Judd and George Schneider 
— the last named as delegate at large. Contem- 
porary with the convention of 1856 was called 
the convention of the North American party, by 
which name the Know-Nothing organization 
was styled. At the Bloomington convention 
General Bissell was nominated for governor and 
Francis Hofifman for lieutenant governor, while 
among the electors was the gallant Frederick 
Hecker, who afterw-ard was one of the famous 
captains of the Union army. At Philadelphia 
the North American party began to negotiate 
with the Republican convention and everything 
was done to prevent a coalition between the 
parties, for had it been known that the young 
Republican party had united with the North 
American part}' it would have been impossible to 
carry States like Illinois, Wisconsin, Indiana, 
and Missouri; even Ohio would have been in 
doubt. Such a imion, in fact, meant certain death 
to the new party, which must have been strangled 
in its cradle. Think of the result! There never 
could have been a war for the Union because all 
the concessions possible would have been made 
to slavery. 

The delegates from Illinois, especially John M. 
Palmer, Norman B. Judd, George Schneider and 
a few others of like spirit, made a determined 
fight and forced the convention to adopt the res- 
olution to maintain unimpaired the naturaliza- 
tion laws, which in itself would kill the attempted 
fusion between the two conventions. To accom- 
plish this end a compromise was efifected with the 
Indiana delegation under the lead of Governor 
Henry Lane, to whom was offered the chairman- 
ship of the Republican convention provided he 
would agree to appoint on the committee on res- 
olutions such men as would insure the adoption 
of their resolution. He expressed his willingness 
to do all that was fair and honorable and carried 
out his compact to the letter. When the resolu- 
tion was reported by the committee it created a tre- 
mendous sensation, raised the greatest excitement 
and evoked the stormiest scenes ever witnessed 
in the history of any public meeting. 

Thad. A. Stevens, who was known to be iden- 
tified with the North American party, rose in the 
convention and denounced the resolution as an 
insult to the American party of Pennsylvania 



and moved to lay it on the table. Delegates from 
Illinois immediately rose to their feet and threat- 
ened to secede from the convention if this motion 
carried. Knowing that such a bolt would disrupt 
all the arrangements of the party and eternally 
damn the ticket previously nominated at Bloom- 
ington, — because Governor Hoffman and Fred- 
erick Hecker would have resigned at once, — 
amid indescribable confusion a vote was called, 
which Governor Lane declared carried. The 
new party was made on a Republican-Demo- 
cratic basis, and Fremont was nominated. En- 
thusiastic meetings were held all over the country, 
but the party was defeated, although it carried 
the great Western States. New history was made ; 
Lincoln arose on the scene; the war followed, 
and slavery received its death blow. 

In this spirit a writer not long ago remarked 
that Carl Schurz and George Schneider had done 
more to kill slavery than any other two men in 
the countr}'. If so, it was through the spirit devel- 
oped and described above. How the conven- 
tion, reviewed years after, would appear is best 
shown in a letter written by Governor (now Sen- 
ator) John yi. Palmer, who was then closing his 
term as Republican governor of Illinois. Dated 
at the executive chamber, Springfield, Januarv 
13, 1872, _and addressed to George Schneider, 
it read as follows: 

My Dear Sir: — I am just leaving the executive 
rooms to make way for my successor, and avail 
myself of the last moment to thank you for your 
kind and friendly note. Among the most interest- 
ing of my memories are those that are connected 
with the events to which you refer (the conven- 
tion of 1856), and I shall hereafter make no friends 
to whom my afTections cling so fondly as to those 
who encountered the storms of obloquy and the 
bitterness of party to initiate the great movement 
for the overthrow of slavers- and the preservation 
of republican institutions upon this continent. 

You are entitled to a full share of the honors of 
this great revolution, for you aided to conuuit 
that great people, the German Americans, to the 
movement, and their tongues and pens and swords 
have done noble scr\'ice at all points, and in all 
fields where their contest was maintained. Mav 
God bless you and them for the noble service you 
and they have rendered! 


John M. P.'^l.meu. 

This is a noble tribute to the man who worked 
so faithfully and ardently in support of princi- 
ples he believed to be right; and who will say it 
is undeserved? In the Republican convention 
of i860, to which Mr. Schneider was a delegate, 
although a personal friend of Abraham Lincoln, 
he favored the nomination of William H. Seward 
for the presidenc)-, believing him to be the most 
available candidate; but in the famous "wigwam," 
when he found himself in the minority, he yielded 
gracefully, and promptly and heartily supported 
Abraham Lincoln, who later showed his esteem 
for Mr. Schneider by appointing him consul to 
Denmark, with the special mission of negotiating 
the placing of United States bonds abroad. He 
accomplished his mission satisfactorily, but, re- 
signing the consulship in 1862, he returned to 
Chicago, where, having sold his interest in the 
Staats Zeitung to Brentano, he was appointed col- 
lector of internal revenue by Lincoln. 

The duties of this ofifice naturally brought him 
in close contact with financial interests, and at 
the close of his term ]\Ir. Schneider engaged in 
the banking business. In 1871 he was elected 
president of the National Bank of Illinois, of 
which institution he was the founder and whose 
interests he has watched so closely and success- 
fully that to-day the bank ranks with the fore- 
most financial institutions of Chicago. As a busi- 
ness man he is discerning, conscientious and con- 
servative, doing many charitable acts of kindness 
in a quiet, unostentatious manner that is charac- 
teristic of the man. His domestic life has been a 
poem of happiness, and seven accomplished 
daughters have been the result of his marriage, 
which took place in June, 1853. He lives in a 
large, roomy mansion, which he built, on the cor- 
ner of Michigan avenue and Twentieth street, 
over a score of years ago. Passionately fond of 
flowers, his tables are seldom without a few rare 
orchids or roses, which he raises himself in his 
hothouse on the premises. All his daughters are 
happily married and live on the North Side, where 
his friends think he will some day follow them; 
but Mr. Schneider is fondly attached to his com- 
fortable home on the avenue and denies that he 
entertains any notions of moving. 

When President Harrison was forming his cab- 
inet, there was considerable talk of the treasury 



portfolio being offered Mr. Schneider, but the 
presidency of his bank was probably a more at- 
tractive position than a cabinet portfolio. A 
prominent member of the World's Fair Board of 
Directors, he was on three of the most impor- 
tant committees, viz., ways and means, press and 
printing, and agriculture, and was a valued and 

active worker in all. A member of the Union 
League, Germania and Press Clubs, of which 
latter organization he has long been the honored 
treasurer, Mr. Schneider has endeared himself to 
all his associates by his courtly demeanor, demo- 
cratic ways and kindliness of heart. 


Go into any village, town or city in this great 
Xorthwest of ours; seek out the men who 
are the leaders in spirit, thought and action ; learn 
the history of their lives, and you will find that 
there is usually a striking similarity which leads 
to the inevitable conclusion that like conditions 
produce like results. The story usually begins, 
"Born in New England, parents poor, somewhat 
numerous family, self-made, etc." Now this fact, 
for fact it is, illustrates most aptly one of the 
salient features of our American civilization. 
There is an opportunity offered here under our 
emblem of liberty for every human being to work 
out and develop the best there is in him. 

The record of a self-made man, however, is al- 
ways of interest and profit, and the lessons learned 
therefrom are valuable ones. To this honored 
class belongs Dr. Barnes, who was born in Clare- 
mont. New Hampshire, on the 15th of March, 
1824, and who numbers among his ancestors 
some of the best families among the early colo- 
nists. On the paternal side his ancestors were 
- residents of Connecticut, locating there long be- 
fore the Revolution. The grandfather, "Bill 
Barnes," was born in Farmington, Connecticut, 
and when a young man emigrated to New Hamp- 
shire, becoming one of the first settlers of Clare- 
mont. He married Aliss Esther Spaulding, lived 
on a farm adjoining the village, reared there a 
family and became one of the substantial and 
respected citizens of the community. His second 
son was Ira N. Barnes, who married Harriet 
Eastman, and had a family of five children, 
namely: William A., whose name heads this rec- 
ord; Joseph D., a prominent farmer and stock- 
raiser of \'alparaiso, Indiana; George E., who 

was killed at the battle of Chapultepec, in the Mex- 
ican war; Dr. Ira N., who has been one of the 
leading physicians of Decatur for more than thirty 
years ; and a daughter who died in infancy. 

William A. Barnes was only six years of age 
when his father died, and from that time on was 
practically reared by his grandparents. He pur- 
sued a course of study in the Claremont Academy, 
and at the age of fifteen removed to Dayton, 
Ohio, making his home with a cousin. General 
Phelps, while he continued his studies at the Day- 
ton Academy. When it became time to choose 
a work or profession which he wished to follow 
through life his tastes and inclinations led him to 
take up the study of medicine, and for three years 
he pursued a course of study in that direction 
under the supervision of Dr. Van Harlengen, of 
Centerville, Ohio. Subsequently he attended lec- 
tures and was graduated at the University of 
Pennsylvania, in the class of 1850. 

Upon the completion of that course Dr. Barnes 
at once returned to Centerville, and continued in 
practice there until autumn, when he removed to 
\'alparaiso, Indiana, doing a successful business 
there in the line of his chosen work through the 
three succeeding years. In the fall of 1853 he 
came to Decatur, Illinois, then but a small vil- 
lage, and from that time to the present has been 
one of its most respected citizens. He had saved 
some money and having confidence in the future 
of this new country he invested his capital in 
farming lands near the village. Other business 
enterprises also claimed his attention, and in the 
fall of 1855 he embarked in the drug trade, which 
he continued for three or four years. 

Almost from the beginning of his residence 



here, Dr. Barnes has been a prominent factor in 
public affairs. In 1861 he was appointed master in 
chancery of the circuit court for the county of 
Macon, which office he held for several years. 
Ever active and a true representative of American 
enterprise and versatility, he saw an opening for 
a manufacturing venture, and, in company with 
William Lintner, he established a plant for the 
manufacture of hay presses, pumps, agricultural 
implements, etc. Success attended the new un- 
dertaking and he continued his connection with 
it until some years later, when he disposed of his 
interest in the same to Messrs. Peddecord & Bur- 
rows, and the large works of the Decatur Furni- 
ture Company are the outgrowth of the plant of 
this establishment. The Doctor has always con- 
sidered investment in land as safe and profitable, 
and in Macon and adjoining counties owns many 
fertile and productive farms which yield to him 
a good income and thus prove the wisdom of 
his views. 

Since his retirement from active commercial 
business he has not devoted his entire attention to 
pastoral pursuits. Always an earnest advocate 
of the education of the masses, he was for many 
years a member of the board of education of De- 
catur, and for most of the time its president. He 
was one of the organizers of the Free Public Li- 
brary of the city, and has been for nearly twenty 
years president of the board. He has been twice 
a member of the board of supervisors and was 
the first mayor of Decatur under the present char- 
ter of the city. He was one of the organizers of 
the Republican party in the State of Illinois, and 
has always been an adherent of the principles of 
that party, though he has never sought official 
favor. Socially, he is connected with l\Iacon 
Lodge No. 65, F. & A. M. 

Dr. Barnes was married on the 30th of Octo- 
ber, 1849, to Eleanor Sawyer, a daughter of John 
Sawyer, of Dauphin county, Pennsylvania, and 

they became the parents of five children, but one 
son died in infancy. The others are: Albert, now a 
leading business man of Decatur; Charles M., 
who was a distinguished attorney of Boston, 
Massachusetts, and died March 9, 1893; Mary, 
wife of George R. Stanton, of the city of Mex- 
ico; and William, a prominent surgeon of De- 
catur. The mother of this family died April 22, 

The man who attempts to write of men as they 
are meets two difficulties on the very threshold 
of his undertaking. He is liable to say too much 
— he is liable to say not enough. This much may 
be truly said of Dr. Barnes, however: he presents 
a splendid type of our best American manhood. 
Although past the age of seventy years, he is stal- 
wart, vigorous, well preserved physically, men- 
tally and morally. He has so deported himself 
that he not only has the good will but the re- 
spect and love of the entire community in which 
he dwells. He is an honorable man whose repu- 
tation is above reproach, and his word is as good 
as his bond. He is a progressive man who has 
always sought to enlighten and elevate the peo- 
ple among whom he has lived; he is a liberal and 
generous man, to which fact the community at 
large will testify; he is a philosophic man, for 
he has succeeded in getting the best out of life 
that there was in it. Since his retirement from 
active business pursuits he has traveled exten- 
sively in both the old world and new. His con- 
tact with his fellow men has broadened his na- 
ture and his views, if such were possible; and 
hale, hearty, erect and vigorous at three score 
years and ten, his faculties undimmed, his 
physique but little impaired by age, many years 
of undiminished usefulness yet seem before him. 
Such men are rare, and the world is not slow to 
appreciate them. It is safe to say no man in De- 
catur has more or warmer friends than Dr. 
William A. Banies. 





THE man that has bridged over space and 
practically annihilated time by the work of 
his inventive and enterprising spirit, deserves to 
be numbered among the benefactors of the race. 
'Tis an age of progress, when vast commercial 
transactions involving millions of dollars depend 
upon rapid transportation. The revolution in 
business that the past half a century, or even 
less, has witnessed, has been brought about by 
the means of the railroads ; and the man in whose 
brain originated the scheme of establishing the 
highway of travel throughout the Northwest was 
John Bice Turner. Through this means he 
opened up to civilization a vast region with un- 
limited resources, providing for every means of 
labor, giving homes to the miner, the farmer, 
the commercial man. The advent of railroads 
has marked the advancing civilization in all coun- 
tries, and has been the means of uniting the differ- 
ent portions of America, making it one and an 
inseparable union. Mr. Turner was a great rail- 
road organizer, an important factor in uniting, 
expanding and consolidating the intersecting 
and co-operative lines of railway, which extend 
from coast to coast and from the Gulf to the cold 
border of British America. 

Mr. Turner began life almost with the century 
and spent the first half of his career in close touch 
with the interests of the East. He was then 
closely identified with Chicago until shortly before 
the great fire, when, on the 26th of February, 187 1, 
at the ripe age of seventy-two years, he passed 
away. Born in 1799, in Colchester, Delaware 
county, New York, he lost his father when but 
two years old, and at the age of fourteen became 
an orphan by the death of his mother. He was 
adopted by a Mr. Powers, with v^'hom he re- 
mained until his twentieth year, assisting in the 
work of the farm and of the tan-yard, while in 
the winter season he attended school. He was 
always industrious and self-reliant and used 
every opportunity for attaining the high stand- 
ard which his ambition placed before him. 

In 1819 Mr. Turner married l\Iiss Martha Vol- 
untine, of Malta, Saratoga county. New York, 

who died in March, 1855. He afterward wedded 
Miss Adeline Williams, of Columbus, Georgia. 
Among his six children, three of whom are sons, 
the eldest, Voluntine C. Turner, a well-known 
citizen and a man of scholarly attainments, is 
living a retired life in Chicago, but was long at 
the head of the North Chicago Street Railway. 

Soon after his first marriage }ilr. Turner se- 
cured an interest in a farm, but in 1824 sold it 
and opened a store, mill and distillery at Malta- 
ville. Six years later reverses came and he lost 
much of his property. What then seemed a great 
misfortune proved otherwise, for it was the means 
of his turning his attention to railroading. Dur- 
ing the next five years of struggle to regain 
his lost wealth he was becoming more and more 
interested in the future possibilities of railroads 
as means of transportation, and in April, 1836, 
he contracted to build seven miles of the Troy 
& Saratoga Railroad, — a work done with such 
completeness and success that he was placed in 
charge of the road. The company purchased 
thirty horses, and barns were erected every ten 
miles, for most of the trains were drawn by horses. 
There was but one five-ton locomotive in the 
United States, and the second one, the Cham- 
plain, was placed on this road by Mr. Turner. 
His scrupulous honesty, which avoided even the 
appearance of speculation that might suggest 
personal profit, won him a reputation as great 
as did his services as a railway organizer. In 
November of the same year he joined a partner 
in constructing the Delaware division of the New 
York & Erie Railroad. When the panic of 1837 
came on the road suffered to some extent, be- 
ing afTected by the general stagnation of busi- 
ness, but was soon again in a thriving and pros- 
perous condition. In connection with his broth- 
er-in-law, John ^'ernam, he constructed the Gen- 
esee Valley canal, which for a time promised to 
be a financial failure, but aftenvard yielded a 
rich return to its promoters. This and a section 
of the Troy & Schenectady Railroad were both 
finished by the spring of 1843. 

These enterprises placed Mr. Turner's affairs 

"yyL. Ji D. 




once more on a firm financial basis, and it was 
then that he determined to examine the great 
Mississippi valley. He was so impressed with 
its possibilities that he came to Chicago, then an 
insignificant town by the lake, and' here he was 
far-sighted enough to realize the favorable op- 
portunities of location and to see promises of 
future development. A man who had foreseen 
the advantages of uniting the lakes with the sea- 
board naturally thought to unite the lakes, the 
great water-way, with the interior. On the 15th 
of October, 1843, ^^^ established his family in the 
old Tremont House of Chicago. The following 
spring he purchased one thousand acres of land 
south of Blue Island and put upon it a great 
flock of Ohio sheep, that he might have some 
other business interests than railroad projection 
and construction, — then a somewhat uncertain 

While Mr. Turner was engaged in his earlier 
railroad work in the East, the Galena, Chicago 
&- Union Railroad had been surveyed (in 1837) 
and a small section constructed, but work was 
then suspended for ten years. On the 5th of 
April, 1847, Mr. Turner joined William B. Og- 
den in reviving the work and the latter became 
president of the company, while the former was 
made director of operations. A survey was made 
by Richard P. Morgan, and the officials began 
collecting subscriptions for the new concern. By 
December, 1850, the line had been extended be- 
yond Elgin, and the year 1852 saw it at Free- 
port, connecting there with the Illinois Central. 
Mr. Turner became president of this company 
in 1850, and, in connection with the work before 
mentioned, completed, within the next few years, 
the Dixon Air Line and partly the trunk line 
across Iowa. In 1853 he organized the Beloit 
& Aladison Railroad Company, and though he 
resigned the active presidency in 1858 he was 
equally influential with Mr. Ogden in the direc- 
tion of its affairs. In June, 1864, when the Ga- 
lena road was united with the Chicago & North- 
western in one system, he was made the chair- 
man of the managing committee. His mana- 
gerial and executive ability were of a high order, 
his energy and enterprise seemingly inexhausti- 
ble, and his resolute purpose carried forward to 

successful completion whatever he undertook. 
As the city grew and there was a demand for local 
transportation, he became a director in the North 
Chicago Street Railroad. 

It was during the time of the war that an in- 
cident occurred which showed the lofty regard 
in which he was held by the leaders of the country. 
There was a growing suspicion tliat the railways 
were defrauding the Government in the West and 
Southwest. John B. Turner was the man whom 
the investigating committee chose to examine 
the situation -and present to the Government fig- 
ures concerning the accounts, and his figures 
were accepted as final without alteration. 

All who knew Mr. Turner or who knew of him 
had the utmost confidence in him, and his pub- 
lic and private life were alike above reproach. 
He retained connection with the great railway 
system which he had created until his death, and 
made it one of the most important in the country. 
Its lines were extended, its trafflc increased and 
the enterprise became one of the paying indus- 
tries of the great Northwest, and success paved 
the way for other similar successes and demon- 
strated by what means the tidings of enlighten- 
ment and civilization were to come to the utter- 
most ends of the earth. His loss to railway cir- 
cles was irreparable; for, in the words of Gen- 
eral Manager Dunlap, he was a "judicious and 
faithful counselor, genial companion and Chris- 
tian gentleman. His devotion to the national 
interests of the country was excelled only bv the 
patriotism which never lost sight of the highest 
duties of citizenship. His good works live after 
him and will keep his memory forever green. 
He was one of those far-sighted forefathers who 
laid deep and broad the foundations upon which 
the men of later days are building; and when the 
marvelous history of railroad development ui 
America and of the world shall be written the 
name of John Bice Turner will occupy an hon- 
ored place as that of a great originator, con- 
structor, organizer and operator who dared when 
others dared not, and was modest in his claim to 
public notice when his small imitators were clam- 
oring for the credit of his work. He lived and 
labored and dicfl like the truly great man that 
he was." 





AUGUST 26, 1850, in La Grange county, 
Indiana, is the date and place of Mr. Aid- 
rich's birth. He lived upon a farm until he was 
sixteen years of age, when his father removed to 
Orland, Steuben county, Indiana, for the purpose 
of sending his children to an excellent school then 
in existence in that village. 

The subject of this sketch was a delicate, fragile- 
looking boy, fond of reading and of studious 
habits, and when taken from the outdoor life of 
the farm to the more confined life of the school, 
his health became so imcertain that his father con- 
cluded that he could not survive the education 
which had been promised him, and that he would 
be unable to follow the profession of law to which 
he looked forward. The father therefore re- 
fused to send him to the university, whereupon the 
son left home and worked for his board until he 
finished his preparation for college and part of 
his college course. A kind friend became inter- 
ested in the ambitious and gifted youth, and in- 
sisted upon advancing as a loan the money re- 
quired to pay the expenses during the last half of 
the college course, and later made further ad- 
vances that the young man might go at once into 
the study and practice of his profession and not 
k se time in teaching. The record made by a 
youth pursuing his studies under such circum- 
stances was, of course, a highly creditable one. 
He was graduated at Michigan University, in the 
classical course, in 1875, and the university has 
since conferred upon him the honorary degree 
of Master of Arts. 

He commenced the practice of his profession at 
Fort Wayne, Indiana, and remained af that place 
until April, 1886, when he removed to Chicago 
It is safe to say that in these early years no man 
in the legal profession in Indiana of his age had 
a higher reputation as a lawyer and gentleman, or 
was more esteemed by the older lawyers and by 
the bench. He enjoyed the confidence and friend- 
ship of such men as Thomas A. Hendricks, 
Colonel Abram Hendricks, Benjamin Harrison, 
W. H. H. Miller, Joseph E. McDonald, John M. 
Butler, Oscar B. Hord, Noble E. Butler, W. P. 
Fishback, R. S. Taylor, Allen Zollars, etc., many 

of whom had then or have since acquired a 
national reputation. 

In Chicago, Mr. Aldrich soon took high rank 
as an able and successful lawyer. He is modest 
and retiring, adhering to the old views of profes- 
sional etliics, which discountenance all manner of 
advertising and self-adulation. He is a public- 
spirited citizen, always ready to support real re- 
forms of existing abuses in the law or its admin- 
istration and to encourage and support institutions 
calculated to aid his fellow men. He prefers to 
do this modestly and no noise is ever made about 
his action. There is no efTort on his part to be- 
come a leader. His tastes lead him to choose 
a quiet life of work in his profession, study and 
reflection. His home, his profession and the 
questions of the day, covering a wide range of 
study, absorb him, and in these he finds his great- 
est enjoyment. Few men have a more intimate 
knowledge of the history of the country or its 
public men, or have devoted more time to the 
study of the social and economic questions of the 

Mr. Aldrich was appointed special counsel for 
the Unted States in its Pacific railroad litigations 
growing out of the so-called Anderson act in 
1890. He was successful in both cases, which he 
argued in the circuit courts of the United States 
for Nebraska and California, and these successes, 
opposed as he was by some of the leading counsel 
of the United States, led to his selection as Solici- 
tor General of the United States, to succeed Wil- 
liam H. Taft, who was in 1891 appointed a judge 
of the United States Court of Appeals. He held 
the ofifice of Solicitor General until June, 1893. 
There was but one opinion, irrespective of party, 
as to the manner in which he discharged his duties, 
and that was that the office was never more ably 
filled. In a brief time he impressed himself upon 
the country as an able lawyer and a fearless and 
conservative administrative officer. The Chinese 
Exclusion, Hat Trimmings, the Cherokee and 
other cases gave evidence of his power as a lawyer; 
and while defeat came in one of these, a justice of 
the supreme court has said that the argument was 
one of the most masterly he had ever heard and 

The Century Miiishmg &S.ngr3:/:i,g C ; 

C^..^<A^^*4j^i^^2^2^:;^^i:i^ i 



unfortunate precedents alone was responsible for 
the result. 

The opinion prepared by ^Ir. Aldrich upon the 
power of the national Government in matters of 
public health and quarantine regulation, also upon 
the scope and effect of the election law, showed 
a broad grasp and met the cordial approval of the 
legal profession conversant with the questions, 
while his opinion that the administration might 
issue bonds to maintain resumption and keep the 
money of the United States at a parity was prac- 
tically adopted and has been acted upon by Mr. 
Cleveland's second administration. 

Mr. Aldrich is an earnest Republican, a mem- 
ber and trustee of the First Presbyterian Church 
of Evanston, a member and first vice-president 
of the Union League Club of Chicago, and also 
a member of the University Club of Chicago, the 
Literary Club of Chicago, the Evanston Club and 
the Country Club of Evanston. He also belongs 
to the American Bar Association, the Illinois 
State Bar Association, of which he is first vice- 
president, and to the Chicago Bar Association 

and the Lawyers' Club of New York city. He 
is also a member of the Central Council of the 
Civic Federation of Chicago, and was chairman 
of the conmiittee which prepared a new charter 
for the city, which has met with the highest praise 
by those who have given much attention to the 
principles of municipal government, but which 
has not yet received the approval of the legisla- 
ture of this State. 

When asked what public act of his he regarded 
with the most satisfaction, he answered: "My 
attempt to put an end to what I regard as the 
oppressive and fraudulent telephone monopoly, 
and which I have faith will yet prove suc- 

He was married October 13, 1875, to Miss 
Helen Roberts, and three children bless their 
union. In vigorous health, enjoying a large and 
lucrative practice, esteemed by all who know him, 
blessed with a happy home and those temporal 
aids with which a home can be made beautiful, 
the subject of this sketch may well be called a 
successful man. 


S A:\1UEL cook EELLSwasbominWalton, 
Delaware county, New York, March 19, 1822. 
The Eells family is of New England origin, de- 
scending from one of the early Colonial families 
that emigrated from the old world. The paternal 
grandfather of the subject of this sketch, who 
also was named Samuel, was an independent 
farmer, and in 1800 became a pioneer of Delaware 
county. It was during the latter year that 
Nathaniel G. Eells, the father of our subject, was 
born. He was brought up to the hardy occupa- 
tion of a farmer, and also engaged in the lumber 
business. He married Betty St. John, a native 
of Connecticut, whose grandfather and six of his 
sons served in the Revolutionary war. Nathaniel 
Eells died when a young man, and his wife was left 
in straitened circumstances, with four children to 
care for. 

Samuel, who was the second child and eldest 
son, was reared on a farm, assisting, as soon as 
he became able, in its cultivation. His primary- 

education was such as he could obtain at the local 
school, supplemented by a course at an 
academy. Here he made rapid progress, and 
when he was sixteen years of age was amply qual- 
ified to teach, a profession that he at once entered 
upon. When nineteen years old he became a 
clerk in a general store in his native village and 
continued in that capacity until 1854. In that 
year he came to Dixon, at the solicitation of Mr. 
John S. Coleman, of the firm of Robertson & 
Coleman, of Rockford, who was interested in a 
bank at Dixon. Mr. Eells entered the employ of 
Robertson, Eastman & Company as bookkeeper; 
and a year later, when Mr. Eastman withdrew 
from the firm, he became his successor, the new 
title being Robertson, Eells & Company. In 1859 
another change occurred, and the firm of Eells & 
Coleman conducted the business until 1865, when 
it became the Lee County National Bank, with 
Mr. Eells as cashier. This position he filled ably 
and creditably until the expiration of the bank's 



charter in 1885, at which time the City National 
Bank was organized, with nearly the same stock- 
h.jlders as the Lee County National. ]\Ir. Eells 
continued as cashier until the death of President 
Joseph Crawford in 1891, and then became presi- 
dent. The capital stock of the bank is $100,000, 
with a surplus fund of $20,000 and an average 
deposit account of $250,000. Its career has been 
a most successful one and may be ascribed to the 
careful, conservative management of Mr. Eells 
and to his close attention to all the minute details 
of its affairs. 

In politics Mr. Eells is a strong Republican and 

was formerly a Whig. Before he came West he 
served as superintendent of schools in Delaware 
county for three or four years, but he has since 
then had no ambition for public office. The 
peaceful, quiet walks of business life, undisturbed 
bv outside causes, are far more to his liking, and 
here has been the true sphere of his usefulness 
and here he has ever been successful. 

In 1854 he was united in marriage to Miss 
Anna More, of Delhi, Delaware county. New 
York, and they have three children: Caroline W., 
Anna, now Mrs. Charles C. Upham, and Bessie 


WHATEVER else may be said of the legal 
fraternity, it cannot be denied that mem- 
bers of the bar have been more prominent actors 
in public affairs than any other class of the Amer- 
ican people. This is but the natural result of 
causes which are manifest and require no expla- 
nation. The ability and training which qualify 
one to practice law also qualify him in many re- 
spects for duties which lie outside the sphere 
of his profession and which touch the general 
interests of society. The subject of this record is 
a man who has brought his keen discrimination 
and thorough wisdom to bear not alone in pro- 
fessional patlis but also for the benefit of the 
city which has so long been his home and with 
whose interests he has been thoroughly identified. 
He holds and merits a place among the repre- 
sentative legal practitioners and citizens of Chi- 
cago, and the story of his life, while not uramatic 
in action, is such an one as offers a typical ex- 
ample of that alert American spirit which has 
enabled many an individual to rise from obscurity 
to a position of influence and renown solely 
through native talent, indomitable perseverance 
and singleness of purpose. In making the record 
of such a life contemporarj' biography exercises 
its most consistent and important function. 

Lester L. Bond, son of Jonas and Elizabeth 
(Story) Bond, was born at Ravenna, Ohio, on 
the 27th day of October, 1829. On the pater- 
nal side Mr. Bond is descended from John Bond, 

the original ancestor of the family in America, 
who settled in the colony of Massachusetts about 
the time of the landing of the Pilgrims, and from 
whom, in direct and collateral lines, are supposed 
to have descended the several branches of the 
Bond family now represented in divers sections 
of the Union. The family name is well known 
in this country, and many who bear the name 
are to-day holding high positions in business and 
professional circles of the United States. Tlie 
old Bond homestead, which still stands, at Ips- 
wich, Massachusetts, is one of the historic land- 
marks of New England, its erection having taken 
place scarce more than a decade subsequent to 
the arrival in America of the Pilgrim Fathers. 
A volume might consistently be written on the 
New World history of this family, — indeed, there 
is one such, either published or in course of pub- 
lication, in which those represented claim John 
Bond as their common ancestor. On his moth- 
er's side Mr. Bond is connected with another 
family well known in American history, that is, 
the Story family, for his mother was the daughter 
of a cousin of the renowned Judge Joseph Story, 
of Massachusetts. 

The subject of this review acquired his early 
education in the public schools of his native town 
and later pursued an academic course. As he 
grew older and was able to make himself of value 
in the line of manual labor, he attended school 
during the winter only and in the summer was 



employed at various times in a box facton', a 
steam sawmill and in a machine shop, and 
it was this same experience which ([uickened his 
ambition and led him to determine upon the 
study of law as a profession. He was of de- 
termined character and was soon able to so 
slUipe his affairs as to begin the study of law 
in the office of F. W. Tappan, completing 
his studies under the preceptorage of Messrs. 
Bierce & Jefifries, the latter of whom sub- 
sequently became comptroller of the currency 
under President Johnson. Mr. Bond was admit- 
ted to the bar on the 15th of October, 1853. He 
came to Chicago on the 28th day of May, 1854, 
and here commenced the practice of his profes- 
sion, continuing a common practice for a period 
of five years, and a mixed practice for about ten 
years, since which time he has devoted his at- 
tention exclusively to patent law. In this branch 
of the legal profession Mr. Bond is a recognized 
authority and his record is one of the highest or- 
der. His interest in mechanical and other inven- 
tions was early awakened in the shops and mills, 
and from thoughts of invention it was but in nat- 
ural sequence that professionally he should turn 
his attention to the protection of inventors and 
their work. 

At the outbreak of the war of the Rebellion 
Mr. Bond tendered his services to the Govern- 
ment, but owing to the fact that he had but re- 
cently passed through a severe illness, which 
left him somewhat impaired in constitutional 
vigor, the recruiting officers declined to receive 
his enlistment, and consequently he was not per- 
mitted to lend his aid to the Union cause on the 
field of battle, though his efiforts in behalf of the 
same were not without result as exercised in a 
civic capacity. Reared an abolitionist, he has 
been a Republican since his first ballot was cast, 
and in his earlier manhood he frequently served 
his party in official capacities. Thus he served 
two terms in the common council of Chicago, 
from 1862 to 1866, and did good service for his 
constituents, being for two years chairman of the 
finance committee. In 1868 he was one of the presi- 
dential electors from Illinois, and in 1871 he was 
again elected to the city council, serving for two 
years, during a portion of which time he was 
acting mayor of Chicago. Mr. Bond was also a 
member of the State legislature for two terms, 

and it was within his second term that he brought 
to successful issue that measure which has since 
so greatly redounded to his credit and to the ad- 
vantage of that portion of Chicago lying west 
of the river. The issue during the campaign had 
been on the establishment of the South Side 
parks, and the West Side delegation, con- 
sisting of Mr. Bond and two other gentlemen, 
was elected on the anti-park ticket, and went to 
Springfield with the intention of fighting to the 
bitter end the proposed legislation to establish 
the South Side park system. Early in the con- 
test Mr. Bond discerned the fact that they were 
entering upon a useless struggle, and being de- 
termined to at least secure as much considera- 
tion for the West Side as he could, he called his 
two coadjutors into his private room and laid 
before them his views on the matter. They con- 
curred with him, and after a conference with 
their late opponents they pushed tlirough the 
South Side park bill, thus incidentally giving the 
West Side the magnificent parks with which it 
is now graced. Mr. Bond believed that this ac- 
tion would for a time place him under a cloud 
with his constituents, but he was willing to make 
the sacrifice, knowing that the wisdom of his 
course would not fail to be justified later. Sub- 
sequent events have proven the correctness of 
his views, and to him west Chicago largely owes 
the establishment of her magnificent park system. 

After sening his second term in the legisla- 
ture J\lr. Bond saw that his political service was 
interfering too much with the business of his 
office, and so concluded to give up politics and 
devote his entire attention to his legal business. 
This decision he has never had cause to regret, 
for his business has shown a most gratifying in- 
crease from year to year, and to-day the firm of 
which he is the head is one of the best known 
patent-law firms in the Union. 

On the 1 2th day of October, 1856, Mr. Bond 
was united in marriage to Miss Amy S. Aspinwall, 
daughter of the Rev. N. W. Aspinwall, of 
Peacham, \'emiont. and a lineal descendant of 
Peregrine White, celebrated as the first child of 
English parentage in Xcw England. They have 
one daughter, Laura, who is now the wife of Mr. 
John L. Jackson, a member of the firm of law- 
yers of which Mr. Bond is the senior member. 

Mr. Bond has been for vears identified witli the 



Methodist Episcopal Church, and has ever been 
a Hberal contributor to all objects tending to ad- 
vance the welfare of the church, and in his daily 
walk has shown himself to be consistent with the 
btliefs which he professes, being generous and 
charitable in answering the appeals of the dis- 
tressed. He has been a member of the Masonic 
fraternity for many years, having advanced to 
the thirty-second degree of the Scottish rite, and is 
past commander of Chicago commandery of 
Knights Templar, No. 19. 

He has visited nearly every point of interest in the 
United States, having traveled over every State in 
the Union, excepting Oregon, and made two voy- 
ages to Europe, where he visited the principal cities. 
In his social relations he is identified with the 
Union League and the Illinois Clubs, and is 
popular alike with the members of each. In 
personal appearance Mr. Bond is a niagnificent 

specimen of physical manhood, being slightly 
over si.x feet in height and weighing about 270 
pounds. In manner he is genial and courteous 
and his friends are in number as his acquaintances. 
He is deservedly popular with all classes, and only 
his decision, made many years ago and so strictly 
adhered to, has kept him out of public office. 

During the short time that he served the pub- 
lic in an official capacity he made an admirable 
record, giving equal satisfaction as alderman, 
member of the board of education — which latter 
office he held for four years — and as a legislator. 
As a lawyer he stands high with the profession, 
while in his special branch he has no superior. 
He has sustained the honorable record made by 
the family, and the roster from the time of John 
Bond to the present day shows no truer man or 
better citizen than Lester L. Bond, the pioneer 
patent lawyer of the Northwest. 


MR. AR]\IOUR is distinctively American: 
so were his ancestors, both lineal and col- 
lateral, for generations. In the early history of the 
jiaternal wingof the family, special mentionismade 
of the ancestors as having "bright ideas, and noted 
for their clever acts." The maternal branch of the 
family is of old Puritan stock, and said to possess 
an unusual amount of good conmion sense. Such 
was the ancestry of Danforth Armour and Julianna 
Brooks, the father and mother. 

They left Union, Connecticut, Septemlaer, 1825, 
and settled at Stockbridge, Aladison county. 
New York, where Philip D. Armour was 
born, May 16, 1832. There were si.x broth- 
ers and two sisters. Farming was their oc- 
cupation. Habitual frugality and industry 
were the fundamental principles and charac- 
teristic features of the parents. These fam- 
ily tenets were laid down in their simplest 
forms and instilled with human sunshine into the 
life of each child. Their school days were the 
best the local red school-house could afford. 
Some of the children were fortunate enough to 
attend the neighboring village seminary. This 
was the case with Philip, and many are the anec- 
dotes that are related of him. He was genial to 

a degree, healthy, resolute and strong; he held his 
own wherever events found him, — not a follower, 
but a leader, of his schoolmates, as later events 
Were bound to make him among his fellow-men. 
During the winter of 1851-2, the excitement 
attending the gold discovery in California hav- 
ing spread over the country, a party was organ- 
ized to make the overland trip. Mr. Armour was 
invited to join them, and was influenced by a 
growing desire to get out into the world. A 
country life on Stockbridge hills was too obscure 
for one so tempered. He was entering his man- 
hood, and to go was only to satisfy his ambition. 
The party left Oneida, New York, in the spring of 
1852, and reached California si.x months later. In 
making this trip they were not exempt from the 
trials and dangers attending similar journeys. 
A miner's life, as every one knows, has its pri- 
vations and uncomfortable surroundings. Thgse 
were not to be endured in vain. The pitfalls and 
vices so common in a country that was turned 
over to so many adventurers could not find 
lodgment with one of so resolute a character and 
fixed a purpose. The vicissitudes of his early ex- 
perience rather tended to broaden his views and 
knit together his dominant characteristics. 


l/ruiJ^ J /Yv.^.'^-'*-'-^-*- 



In 1856 he returned to the East and visited his 
parents, whom he always held in reverential 
affection. He minutely laid before them all he 
had accomplished during his absence. To a few 
of the most intimate friends of the family the 
father whispered the fact of the young man hav- 
ing brought back some money with him. 

After remaining with them for a few weeks, he 
once more turned westward and finally located in 
Milwaukee, where he formed a co-partnership and 
entered the commission business with Frederick 
B. Miles. After a successful run they dissolved, 
in 1863. The dogmatic and persistent way in 
which he pursued his business, his characteristic 
manner in grasping out for new ideas, brought 
him prominently before his fellow townspeople. 
Tliough yet young, he was looked upon by many 
with almost envy at the prestige he had attained. 

In the spring of 1863, there occurred what later 
years proved the forerunner of a very successful 
business engagement in the partnership arrange- 
ment between John Plankinton and Philip Ar- 
mour. Mr. Plankinton had been for some years 
previously engaged in the pork-packing industry 
with Frederick Layton. This firm had dissolved, 
as that also of Miles & Armour before men- 
tioned. Mr. Plankinton was Mr. Armour's 
senior, and had been a resident of Milwaukee for 
a much longer period. He had established a most 
thriving business, which had been conducted with 
unerring judgment. He stood high as a mer- 
chant and commanded the respect of all as a 
public-spirited citizen. This was Mr. Armour's 
opportunity. How well he handled himself and 
the business that fell to him, the histor}' of the 
conmiercial world is alone our witness. To the 
pork-packing business of Mr. Plankinton he 
brought that unremitting labor and concentration 
of thought that were so peculiarly his own. The 
fluctuations in the price of provisions at the 
closing scenes of the war left the firm with a 
fortune. This with the developments of the 
country gave them an opportunity of extending 
their growing business. 

At Chicago, in 1862, Mr. Armour's brother, 
Herman O. Armour, had established himself in 
the grain commission business, but was induced 
to surrender this to a younger brother, Joseph F. 
Armour, in 1865, and take charge of a new firm 

in New York, then organized under the name of 
Armour, Plankinton & Company. The organiza- 
tion of the New York house was most natural. 
The financial condition of the West at that period 
did not permit of large lines of credit necessary 
for the conducting of a business assuming such 
magnitude, and it was, therefore, as events proved, 
most fortunate that the duties devolving on the 
head of this house should fall to one so well 
qualified to handle them. He was not only equal to 
ihe eraergcncy,but soon became favorably 'Known 
as a man possessing great financial ability, and 
was, in fact, the Eastern financial agent of all the 
Western houses. 

The firm name of H. O. Armour & Companv 
was continued at Chicago until 1870. They con- 
tinued to handle grain, and commenced packing 
hogs in 1868. This part of the business, how- 
ever, was conducted under the firm name of 
Armour & Company, and in 1870 they assumed 
all the business transacted at Chicago. The 
business of all these houses, under their efficient 
management, grew to dimensions that were the 
marvel of the trade. Their brands became as 
well known in all the markets of the world as 
at home. 

It became evident in 1871 that the stock-pro- 
ducing power of the countrj- was migrating west- 
ward, snd in order to keep abreast of the times 
they established at Kansas City the firm known 
as Plankinton & Armours. This enterprise was 
under the immediate supervision of Mr. Simeon 
B. Armour, an elder brother. The failing health 
of Joseph, at Chicago, necessitated assistance, 
and Milwaukee, as we have already seen, had 
brains to spare: consequently Philip moved to 
Chicago in 1875, where he has since resided. 

The fraternal feelings manifested on every occa- 
sion for the welfare and prosperity of his own 
family were noticeable in the organization of the 
Armour Brothers Banking Company, at Kansas 
City, Mo., in 1879. At that time there remained at 
the old homestead at Stockbridge, the last of the 
Armours, Andrew \\'atson. This new institution 
was created for this brother, and he assumed the 
presidency of its management, conducting its 
affairs with signal ability. As an illustration of the 
acuteness and quick perception which is the fam- 
ily trait, we must be allowed to digress and relate 



an incident of this man. Soon after first having 
been installed in office, a member of a Montreal 
firm, who had enjoyed extensive transactions with 
the Chicago house, and stood high in commercial 
circles, while at Kansas City, on his way to a 
depot from his hotel, it occurred to him he had 
not sufificient money to procure the necessary 
transportation to a point in Texas to which he 
was bound. Looking around he noticed the bank- 
ing sign and thought of his relations with the 
Chicago house. It occurred to him that the 
bank might be induced to cash a draft on his 
Montreal house for twenty-five dollars, notwith- 
standing he was a total stranger. He applied to 
the teller and related his story, who promptly 
refused, but told him he had better see the cash- 
ier. He also declined, but told him to lay the 
matter before ]\Ir. Armour. So, for the third 
time, he repeated his story to Mr. Armour, who 
asked him if twenty-five dollars was not a pretty 
small amount, and if he would not be better 
pleased with fifty dollars. He replied in the nega- 
tive, and said twenty-five dollars was sufificient. 
As quick as a flash the former president told him 
he could have the money. If he had been a ras- 
cal he would have taken the fifty dollars. It is 
needless to say the draft was paid. 

It is not to be wondered at that the manage- 
ment of the many millions that were invested at 
the other points mentioned should take their cue 
and follow in the footsteps of the wise and in- 
trepid California pioneer at Chicago. This was 
done invariably with alacrity, and so harmoni- 
ously that it has made them all renowned. It is 
impossible to convey to one not familiar with the 
scope of the business its magnitude. The dis- 
tributive sales of the Chicago house alone are 
in excess of the gross receipts of any railroad cor- 
poration of the world. Even in a business of 
these dimensions there was nothing too great 
for Mr. Armour to handle, nothing so small that 
he could overlook. 

Mr. Armour's capacity for work is something 
wonderful. He is at his desk by 7 a. m., and fre- 
quently before. Fatigue is an unknown term. 
He has traveled extensively, but wherever time 
has found him it has been among those who con- 
sumed his products, and where, necessarily, his 
agencies had been established; his mind would 

turn intuitively to his industries, and thus his 
recreation became a source by which he quali- 
fied himself as to the merits of his representatives 
as well as the requirements of the people and their 
condition. He is a close observer and can give 
as clear and accurate a forecast of the coming 
financial condition of the country as it is possible 
to do. 

At the earnest solicitation of the late Alex. 
Mitchell, he became one of the director)' of the 
St. Paul railway. This is the only office he has 
ever held. Political preferment is not the bent 
of his mind or his ambition. He was never known 
to occupy a public of^ce. 

Mr. Armour was married to Belle Ogden, at 
Cincinnati, Ohio, in October, 1862. She was the 
only daughter of Jonathan Ogden. Their home 
life has been singularly happy. Domestic econ- 
omy was no more truly one of the hearthstones 
of Mr. Armour's inheritance than it was of Mrs. 
Armour's. These family precepts were laid down 
and fostered in every way. They have two sons, 
Jonathan Ogden and Philip D., both under thirty 
years of age and active partners with their father. 
He has made them millionaires. It can safely be 
said they will carry their honors gracefully and 
with becoming modesty. They are quiet in man- 
ner; nothing can agitate them, and it is pretty 
sure guessing that the name of Armour will never 
be tarnished by their acts. Their father, the most 
afifable of men, approachable, notwithstanding 
his great cares and responsibilities, leaves all of 
this at his office and enters his family circle to 
find that joy and contentment which alone springs 
from an administration of home life that is so 
simple, gracious, and of such an unostentatious 

In January, 1881, Joseph F. Armour died, and 
bequeathed one hundred thousand dollars for 
the founding of a charitable institution. He 
wisely directed that the carrying out of his benev- 
olent design should be chiefly entrusted to his 
brother, the subject of this sketch. In accept- 
ing the trust so imposed, he has given to it 'the 
same energetic and critical attention that he has 
given to his private afifairs, and has added a large 
amount to his brother's bequest; and it may also 
be said of Mr. Armour, that while he is disposed 
to be liberal in his religious views, his time on 



the Sabbath day is mainly given to the churches 
of his choosing. In the afternoon of every Sun- 
day during the year this wonderful protege, 
founded by his brother and cherished by himself, 
receives his individual care and attention, and it 
is the individuality of the patron that gives so 
much life to the institution. 

It is this combination of industry, untiring 
energy and philanthropy that has made the name 
of Philip D. Armour not only so potent in the 
West but also a recognized leader among the 
merchants of the world. 

Such is a brief histor\^ of a man who, by his 
own energy, perseverance and indomitable 
strength of character, has achieved a reputation 
that entitles him to rank among the leading mer- 

chants of the world, due alone to his keen fore- 
sight and honesty of purpose, and a bright ex- 
ample to the rising generation of what can be 
accomplished by untiring energy and attention 
to business. His success has been truly wonder- 
ful, and due alone to his individual efforts. One 
of the most active of men, never idle, and keep- 
ing his wealth in motion for the interests of the 
city he lives in, his name in commercial circles 
is a tower of strength, and with him there 
is no such word as "fail" in anything he 
undertakes. Of medium height, with a keen 
and expressive eye, he is to-day the embodi- 
ment of health, and it is to be hoped he may 
"live long"' to enjov the fruits of his industrious 



JOSEPH NEWTON CARTER, associate jus- 
tice of the supreme court of Illinois, was bom 
in Hardin county, Kentucky, March 12, 1843, 
being the fourth of the nine children of William 
P. and JMartha (Mays) Carter, the former a son 
of Tames Carter, a Virginian of English ancestry 
and a farmer by occupation. 

The early days of our subject's career were 
spent upon his father's farm and at the village 
school, where he obtained a good education even 
under disadvantages. In the latter part of 1856 
his parents removed to Charleston, Coles county, 
Illinois, arriving there on the first day of Janu- 
ary, 1857, and the following year removed to 
what is now Douglas county, where Mr. Carter, 
senior, had purchased several hundred acres of 
wild prairie land, which during the years 1858-9 
he improved and cultivated. 

Young Joseph continued to assist his father 
during the summers and continued his school- 
ing during the winter months. For four years 
he was a student at Tuscola and was then em- 
ployed for three temis as teacher of a countiy 
school. In 1863 he entered Illinois College, at 
Jacksonville, at which he graduated in 1866. 
Having long since determined to adopt the law 
as his profession he entered the law department 

of the University of Alichigan, at Ann Arbor, 
graduating in 1868, and returning to Illinois, 
began looking about for a location. Ho 
went to Ouincy, in July, 1869, and, be- 
ing pleased with the city and its people, 
resolved to make it his future home. He was 
admitted to practice at the Illinois bar the third 
day of the following November. In 1870 a part- 
nership with William H. Covert was established, 
which continued successfully for nine years, at 
which time Judge Joseph Sibley, who had just 
retired from t\venty-four years' ser\'ice on the 
circuit and appellate court benches, became a 
member of the firm and continued as such until 
1884. In 1888 Theodore B. Pape was admitted 
to the partnership, the firm name becoming Car- 
ter, Covert & Pape, and ranking as one of the 
leading law firms, if not the leading, of the city 
of Ouincy. Certainly, hardly an important case 
came before the courts of that section in which 
the firm were not engaged. 

In 1878 Mr. Carter was chosen a member of 
the Thirty-first General Assembly, and in 1880 
was re-elected to the Thirty-second, and also 
sensed in the called session of 1882, whicli was 
convened to redistrict the State into Congres- 
sional and senatorial districts. In 1882 he was 



the Republican candidate for State senator, and 
was defeated by a majority of only 500 in a dis- 
trict which ordinarily gave a Democratic ma- 
jority of 1,500. In 1892 he was a candidate for 
lieutenant governor, and in May, 1894, was 
nominated for justice of the supreme court to 
succeed Hon. Simeon P. Shope. The election 
was held the fourth of the following month and 
resulted in a victory of Mr. Carter, he defeating 
his Democratic adversary, Hon. Oscar P. Bon- 
ney, by 4,207 votes. On the i6th of the same 
month he was sworn in and took his seat as 
aissociate justice, being the youngest member 
of the tribunal. 

The Chicago Legal News, in its issue of De- 
cember 22, 1894, says: "An extended general 
practice throughout the central portion of the 
State for many years, together with the knowl- 
edge of men and things, acquired by mixing with 
the people, has peculiarly fitted Judge Carter for 
the judicial position he now occupies. He is 
pleasing in manner, writes a clear and concise 
opinion, and in arriving at conclusions shows 

that he is possessed of a great amount of com- 
mon sense. Although the yovmgest in commis- 
sion, he is considered by his brother judges as 
an able member of the court." 

While he has ever been devoted to his pro- 
fession, Judge Carter has taken a warm interest 
in the welfare of the city of his home, and is con- 
sidered one of her ablest citizens. Every enter- 
prise calculated to promote her interests finds 
cordial support at his hands, and he has been an 
invaluable factor in her prosperity. 

Though his application to his practice has been 
close and assiduous, he has nevertheless found 
time to travel extensively, and has visited almost 
every State in the Union. 

Judge Carter was married on the 3d of Decem- 
ber, 1879, to Miss Ellen Barrell, daughter of the 
late Captain George Barrell, of Springfield. Of 
this union have been born three children, — Henry 
Barrell, William Douglas and Josephine. The 
Carter residence in Quincy, erected in 1892, is 
delightfully located, and is one of the elegant 
mansions in that city of handsome homes. 


SAJNIUEL E. GROSS was born on the nth 
of November, 1843, on the banks of the Sus- 
quehanna river, near the town of Dauphin, Penn- 
sylvania, and is a son of John C. and Elizabeth 
(Eberly) Gross. He is a descendant of Captain 
John Gross, of Huguenot ancestry, who won 
his title in the war of the Revolution, receiving 
his commission November 25, 1776. When the 
independence of America was achieved he located 
in Dauphin county, Pennsylvania, where he 
owned a large farm and some milling property. 

The first ancestor of whom we have record is 
Seigneur Jean de Gros, of Dijon, France (died 
1456), married Peronette Le Roye; their eldest 
son, Jean, of Dijon, secretary of the Due de Bour- 
gogne, married Philliberte de Sourlan; their son. 
Ferry, of Dijon in 1521, married Phillipolte Wie- 
landt; their son, Jean, of Dijon (died 1548), mar- 
ried Catherine Laursan; their son, Jean, of Dijon 
in 1599, married Jacqueline do Berneincourt; 

their son, Jean, of Dijon in 1620, married Leo- 
nore de Briard; their son Jacob married Marie 
De Bar and removed from France at the time of 
the persecution of the Huguenots to the Pala- 
tinate, Germany, and later removed to Mannheim 
on the Rhine; their son, Johann, of jNIannheim 
in 1665, married a daughter of Neihart; their son, 
Johann Christopher, of Mannheim in 1703, mar- 
ried Elizabeth i\Ietger; and their son Joseph in 
1 719 accompanied IMennonites from the Pala- 
tinate to America. He married and owned prop- 
erty in the neighborhood of the Trappe, 
Montgomery county, Pennsylvania, previous to 
1726, and land in Philadelphia county,, in 
1728, and died in 1753; their son, John, mar- 
ried and lived in Montgomery county, Pennsyl- 
vania, and died in 178S; their son, John, born 
in 1749, was a captain in the war of the Revolu- 
tion. In 1778 he married Rachel Sahler, and 
died in 1823; their son. Christian, born in 1788, 


;i an 

o. married Leo- 

rn in i;.'!^. 




of Dauphin, Pennsylvania, married Ann Custer, 
of Montgomery county, and died in 1843; their 
son, John C, born in 1819, married in 1843 Eliz- 
abeth Eberly, of Cumberland county, Pennsyl- 
vania, and died in 1895; and their eldest son, Sam- 
uel E., is the subject of this review. His mother 
descended from the German and Swiss families of 
Eberly, Erb and Hershey, who were among the 
first early settlers of Lancaster county, Pennsyl- 
vania, about the year 171 8, and who have been 
prominent in the religious, educational and com- 
mercial history of that State. 

Through his great-grandmother, Rachel Sah- 
ler, wife of Captain John Gross, of Revolutionary 
fame, Samuel E. Gross directly descends from 
Cornelius Barentsen Sleght, of Holland Dutch 
stock, and prominent in the early Colonial wars; 
and from Matthew Blanshan, Louis Du Bois 
and Christian Deyo, Huguenots, who, like Jacob 
De Gros, at the time of the persecution, removed 
to the Palatinate in Germany, and thence emi- 
grated to America in the middle of the seven- 
teenth century. Matthew Blanshan and his fam- 
ily were the first of the refugees to try their fate 
in the New World, sailing from the Palatinate 
April 2y, 1660. Louis Du Bois and Christian 
Deyo soon followed, and were two of the twelve 
patentees who in 1677 obtained title to all the 
lands in Eastern New York State lying between 
the Shawangunk mountains and the Hudson 
river, and were instrumental in founding New 
Paltz and Kingston, in Ulster county. Many of 
their children, and the wife of Louis Du Bois, were 
carried into captivity by the Indians during the 
early Esopus wars, and were recovered by a res- 
cuing expedition led by Louis Du Bois. 

Rachel Sahler was the daughter of Abraham 
Sahler and Elizabeth Du Bois. Her mother, 
Elizabeth Du Bois, was the daughter of cousins, 
Isaac Du Bois and Rachel Du Bois. Isaac Du 
Bois, her father, was the son of Lieutenant Solo- 
mon Du Bois; and her mother, Rachel Du Bois, 
was the daughter of Lieutenant Solomon Du 
Bois' eldest brother, Abraham Du Bois. The 
mother of Rachel Du Bois was Margaret Deyo, 
daughter of Christian Deyo, the patentee. Abra- 
ham Du Bois, Rachel's father, and Lieutenant 
Solomon Du Bois, her husband's father, were 
both sons of Louis Du Bois (the patentee and 

founder of New Paltz) and his wife, Catherine 
Blanshan, daughter of Alatthew Blanshan, the 
first of these Huguenot arrivals. Thus from hon- 
ored Colonial ancestry :\Ir. Gross of this review 
has descended. 

In 1845 liis parents removed from Dauphin 
county, Pennsylvania, to Bureau county, Illinois, 
and later to Carroll county, in which places he 
received his early education, common-school and 

Prompted by a spirit of patriotism he enlisted, 
in 1861, in the Forty-first Illinois Infantr)-, but 
being only seventeen years of age was soon mus- 
tered out. He then entered \Vhitehall Academy, 
of Pennsylvania, where he was pursuing his 
studies when the Confederates entered the State. 
He could not contentedly remain at his books, 
and again enlisted, joining Company D of the 
Twentieth Pennsylvania Cavalry, of which he 
was conmiissioned First Lieutenant on June 29, 
1863, being one of the youngest to hold that 
rank in the L'nion service. He served in the pur- 
suit of Lee after the battle of Gettysburg, and in 
special detached service, cavalrs^ scouting and 
guerrilla fighting through the remainder of 1863. 
On the 17th of February, 1864, he was made Cap- 
tain of Company K of the same regiment, and 
served with his command through Virginia in 
1864 and 1865, taking active part in the battles 
of Piedmont, Lynchburg, Ashby's Gap. Winches- 
ter and many others, and after the close of the 
war was mustered out, on July 13, 1865. 

At this time the West was in a state of rapid 
development, and Chicago was becoming the 
metropolis of the Mississippi valley. The enter- 
prising and progressive spirit of Captain Gross 
was attracted by this improvement, and in 1865 
he located in that city, entering the L'nion Col- 
lege of Law, where he was graduated and ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1866. He began practice as 
a member of the legal fraternity, but in the mean- 
time had made some investments in real estate 
and began to give more and more time to his 
interests in that line. In 1868 and 1869 he took 
an active part in the establishment of the immense 
park and boulevard systems of Chicago, which 
are unequalod in any other city of this country. 
At the time of the great Chicago fire his office 
was located at the corner of Clark and South 


Water streets. During the terrible night of the 
9th of October, 1871, he held his office so long 
as it was tenable, then, gathering up his legal 
and business papers, abstracts of titles, etc., 
crossed the river in a row-boat and deposited 
them on board a tug which evaded the flames 
and returned the precious documents safely three 
days later. Even before he had recovered his 
papers he had recommenced his real-estate busi- 
ness, displaying the courage, enterprise and ac- 
tivity which is so characteristic of the man. 

In 1873 a financial panic came on, asd there 
was a dullness in real-estate operations which con- 
tinued for six years, but Mr. Gross was not idle 
during this period. He practiced law, studied sci- 
ence, art, literature and political economy, ana 
wrote articles which were an important contribu- 
tion to the literature of those subjects. He also 
gave some attention to mechanics and took out 
several patents for mathematical instruments and 
improvements in street paving; but real estate 
was his favorite field of labor, and, even when 
there was little doing in that line of enterprise, 
he purchased land, which had hitherto been used 
for farming purposes, and converted it into city 
lots; for he had an unshaken faith in the future 
of the city; and time has justified his sagacity 
and foresight. He has established many of Chi- 
cago's most beautiful suburbs, including New 
City, to the southwest; Gross Park, to the north; 
Brookdale, Calumet Heights and Dauphin Park, 
to the south; Under the Linden, to the north- 
west; and East Grossdale, Grossdale and West 
Grossdale, to the west. He not only laid out the 
towns, but has erected upon them thousands of 
homes of various styles of architecture, from cot- 
tage to mansion. He has enabled many to secure 
homes by his methods of sale. He has disposed of 
largeamountsof property on the partial-payment 
plan, and may be numbered among the benefactors 
of the city and country on account of his generous 
and helpful methods. The most gigantic work 
that he undertook was in 1889, when, west of 
the city limits, he founded the town of Grossdale, 
and transformed over five hundred acres of land 
from farm to city property. We judge of a man's 
character by the work that he has done ; and his 
work will live after him in the sixteen suburban 
towns that he has established, the seven thousand 

houses he has built and the forty thousand lots 
that he has sold. 

In 1874 Mr. Gross was united in marriage with 
Miss Emily Brown, of English parentage, a lady 
of culture and refinement, who to-day occupies 
a prominent position in social circles. Their home 
is a beautiful residence at the corner of Lake 
Shore Drive and Division street, in which 
vicintiy stand some of the finest residences of 

Mr. Gross is a valued and prominent member of 
various social and fraternal organizations, being a 
member of the Chicago, Union, Iroquois, Athletic, 
Marquette, Union League, Washington Park 
and Twentieth Century Clubs, the Union Veteran 
Club, U.S. Grant Post, No. 28, G. A. R., the West- 
ern Society Army of the Potomac, the Sons of 
the American Revolution, and the Society of 
Colonial Wars. He is also a member of the Hu- 
mane Society and other benevolent organizations, 
and is a patron of the Art Institute. He was 
elected the first captain of the Chicago Continental 
Guard, composed of the Sons of the American 

While an intensely practical man and giving 
utility its proper place in the history of Chicago, 
he is a strong believer in the refining and edu- 
cating influences of art. He finds in travel a 
chief source of recreation and pleasure, and has 
visited many of the noted and historic places of 
Europe and the land of Montezuma as well as 
the beautiful scenes of his own country. The po- 
sition which he occupies in the regard of the 
public is shown by the fact that in 1889 he was 
nominated by the united workingmen's societies 
as their candidate for mayor; but declined the 
honor on account of his pressing business duties. 
It is difficult to analyze the life of such a man as 
Mr. Gross, whose character seems so completely 
rounded out. As a citizen he meets every re- 
quirement and manifests a commendable interest 
in everything that is calculated to promote the 
city's welfare in any line. In private life he is 
sympathetic and generous, extending a helping 
hand to the poor and needy and always ready to 
aid those less fortunate than himself. In man- 
ner he is pleasant, genial and approachable, and 
all who know him esteem him highly for his gen- 
uine worth. 





IN a comparison of the relative value to man- 
kind of the various professions and pursuits 
to which men devote their time and energies, it 
is widely recognized that none is more important 
than the medical profession. From the cradle 
to the grave human destiny is largely in the hands 
of the physician, not alone on account of the 
effect he may have on the physical system but 
also upon man's mental and moral nature. In 
a review of the life of Dr. Grosvenor one of the 
most noticeable features is his use of this power. 
A strong mind dwells in a strong body, and it 
is no less true that a mind filled with bright, 
cheery, pure thoughts reacts upon the physical 
system. Realizing deeply this truth, the Doctor 
has labored earnestly and successfully for the 
benefit of the young, — that the "temple of the 
soul" may be a holy shrine, — and his deep and 
abiding interest in young men and women has 
been manifest in a helpfulness that has borne 
rich fruit. Not the hope of pecuniary reward 
but the noble purpose of making the world bet- 
ter has permeated his entire professional career. 
From sterling ancestors has the Doctor de- 
scended, — from earnest, upright, sturdy men, 
and women of piety and grace of character. His 
father, Deacon Silas S. Grosvenor, was a lead- 
ing business man of Paxton, Massachusetts, and 
came of a family that has furnished to this countr}' 
men prominent in its histon*. The Conants, his 
maternal ancestry, were no less important factors 
in American annals on account of their promi- 
nence in the ministry and in work in anti-slavery 
fields. J\Irs. Mary A. Grosvenor, mother of our 
subject, was a daughter of Rev. Gains Conant, 
who for twent}-five years was pastor of the Pax- 
ton Congregational Church. She trained her 
children to habits of morality and virtue, and it 
was her special desire that her eldest son, Lem- 
uel, should follow in the steps of his eminent 
grandfather, between whom and the boy there 
existed the most intimate and close relations and a 
strong attachment that was mutually shared; 
but the boy's tastes led him to other fields of 
labor, and from an early age it was his earnest 

and cherished desire to enter the medical profes- 
sion. Partly from his ancestors, and partly as the 
result of wise training in his youth, he received 
physical development that brought him a rugged 
constitution which has carried him through the 
arduous duties of his later life, and a strength of 
character was obtained from home training and 
from his own honorable instincts that has brought 
him into positions of influence and trust. 

In his early boyhood the Doctor attended Wil- 
liston Seminary at East Hampton, jMassachusetts, 
and in 1846, at the age of thirteen years, he ac- 
companied his parents on their removal to Wor- 
cester, where he attended the high school for 
four years. There he took an active part in the 
work of the literary society and entered upon his 
career as a public speaker. From that time his 
words have been gladly received in parlor or 
lecture room in discussion of various questions 
of interest, and the oratorical power of the school- 
boy has grown with the man until to-day he is 
considered one of the ablest speakers of Chicago. 
It was while still in high school that he also gave 
considerable attention to the study of music, and 
since that time "the divine harmony of sound" 
has been one of his chief delights and means of 
rest and recreation. When the Doctor was sev- 
enteen years of age he entered upon a new epoch 
in his life's history, and great was the change 
which occurred. From the center of learning in 
America — Massachusetts — he was transferred to 
the \Vestern frontier, his parents removing to 
Sauk county, Wisconsin, and there he imbibed 
the spirit of liberty, of commendable independ- 
ence and self-reliance, which rounded out his 
character. The winter after his arrival he taught 
the first winter school ever held in West Point, 
Columbia county, Wisconsin, "boarding round" 
among his scholars and receiving at the end of 
the season sixty dollars in gold. Not content 
with his own education he obtained his fathers 
consent, and with his pack upon his back started 
on foot for Milwaukee, a distance of one hun- 
dred miles, whence he made his way to his old 
home in Worcester, Massachusetts. Tiiere he 



again entered the liigli scliool, to perfect himself 
in liigher mathematics and surveying, support- 
ing himself by manual labor for a time and after- 
ward by teaching evening classes. In the winter 
of 1849 he resumed teaching, which he followed 
with marked success for ten years, being first 
employed in a district school at Scituate and 
afterward in a select school at Rutland and the 
Union high school at Scituate Harbor. He was 
then offered the principalship of the South Hing- 
l;am grammar school and two years later was ap- 
pointed head master of the old Mather school, 
in Dorchester, now the Sixteenth ward in Bos- 
ton, which was established in 1639, — the oldest 
free school in the United States. For seven years 
he served in that capacity, and it was a time of 
development to the young man. There he often 
heard the famous orators of the day, Charles 
Sumner, Edward Everett and Wendell Phillips, 
and had many rare opportunities for culture and 
iinprovement. His ability as an educator was 
widely recognized, but nevertheless, while in Bos- 
ton, his resolution to enter the medical profession 
became firmly fixed. 

iMr. Grosvenor was a member of the Amer- 
ican Institute of Instruction, and for three years 
secretary of the Massachusets Teachers" Associa- 
ion. He returned to the West to take up medical 
study, declining a chair in the Brooklyn Poly- 
technic School, and in the spring of 1864 was 
graduated at the Cleveland Medical College. At 
the age of thirty-one he entered upon private prac- 
tice, and for three years was "located in Peoria, 
Illinois. This State has been the field of his la- 
bors since, and rapidly did he make his way to 
the front rank of the fraternity within its borders. 
His next home was in Galesburg, where he built 
up a fine practice, but the metropolis of the West 
attracted him, and in 7870 he estal^lislied an of- 
fice in Chicago. 

As soon as he was fairl)- embarked on the 
professional sea Dr. Grosvenor returned to the 
East and was united in marriage with Miss Ellen 
M. Proutv, of Dorchester, daughter of Lorenzo 
Proutv, and granddaughter of David A. Prout}-, 
the inventor of the first iron plow. Her maternal 
grandfather was John Alears, Sr., the inventor 
of the center-draft plow, which was awarded the 
first premium at the World's Fair in London, 

England. All her immediate ancestors were 
noted inventors and members of the old Boston 
firm of Prouty & Mears. Mrs. Grosvenor died 
m 1874, leaving three children: Lorenzo N., Wal- 
lace F. and Ellen Efleda. The elder son was 
born in Galesburg in 1868, and acquired his lit- 
erary education in the public and high school 
of Chicago and in Oberlin College, Ohio. He 
then pursued a course of study in the Chicago 
Homeopathic Medical College, and was gradu- 
ated in 1889, taking a post-graduate course in 
1892. He is now engaged in practice in Edge- 
water, one of Chicago's beautiful suburbs, and 
bids fair to gain an equal prominence with his 
father in his chosen work. The younger son was 
born in Galesburg, January 4, 1870, graduated at 
Oberlin College in 1892, and he, too, has en- 
tered the medical field. 

In 1877 the Doctor wedded ?iliss Naomi Jo- 
sephine Bassett, of Taunton, Massachusetts, a 
highly educated }'Oung lady \\\\.h. unusual literary 
tastes and talents and charming accomplishments. 
She had taught school for several years, and this, 
combined with her natural fondness for children, 
well fitted her for the care of the two mother- 
less little boys, who render to her the loyal love 
that they would have given to their own mother, 
so faithfully has she performed her task. Four 
children have been born of the second marriage, 
but Inez died at the age of two years and Ger- 
trude at the age of three. David Bassett and 
Lucy Ella are still with their parents and give 
light and life to the pleasant home which is the 
center of culture, refinement and. Christian grace. 

The Doctor, since locating in Chicago, has 
enjoyed a large and remunerative general prac- 
tice, and as an obstetrician he has no superior. 
He has given this line his special attention, and 
his services in alleviating the discomforts of in- 
fant life and reducing the drudgery of mother- 
hood should class him among the benefactors of 
the race and bring him lasting renown. Fie and 
his estimable wife devised a beautiful and hy- 
gienic dress known as the Gertrude Baby SUit, 
named after their little daughter, for whom it 
was first made. 

When the new building for the Chicago Home- 
opathic Medical College was completed, a special 
chair of sanitary science was created for Dr. 


a^^__ ^^^t/^-h./^ 



Grosvenor, it being the first full professorship in 
that department created by any college. For 
several years he has been on the executive board 
of the college and for t^venty-f^ve years a member 
of the Chicago Academy of Physicians and Sur- 
geons, having served for three terms as its presi- 
dent. He was for two years presidentof the Ameri- 
can Paedological Society and for many years has 
been an honored member of the American Insti- 
tute of Homeopathy, in which he is now a 

During the great Chicago fire of 1871 Dr. 
Grosvenor performed a work for the city that 
should never be forgotten. He was the only physi- 
cian on the whole North Side whose house was not 
destroyed in the flames. With a labor that knew 
no tiring and a patience that knew no faltering, 
he worked for the destitute and homeless, finding 
his patients in improvised shelters, in tents, school- 
houses, churches, police stations or wherever 
cover from the elements could be found. The 
streets, blocked with debris, were impassable 
save to foot passengers, so he walked all over 
the neighborhood, administering with medicine 
a dose of cheerfulness in the form of encourag- 

ing, hopeful words, and it is ditftcult to say which 
proved the more beneficial tonic. 

We have before made slight reference to the 
Doctor's work among young people. He enjoys 
nothing more than his class lectures, for thereby 
he reaches young men. Among his noted lec- 
tures are those on Character. (3ur Itovs, \'alue of 
a Purpose, Stimulants and Narcotics. P.rains, Our 
Girls, How to be Beautiful, Roses without Cos- 
metics, and The Talent of Putting Things. He 
holds a membership in the Lincoln Park Congre- 
gational Church and was for several years presi- 
dent of its board of trustees. He is also a char- 
ter member of the Chicago Congregational Club. 

In political sentiment he is a Republican. In 
the rush and hurry of business life the holier du- 
ties are often neglected, but with Dr. Grosvenor 
this has never been so. Kindliness and benevo- 
lence beam from his eye and sympathy and char- 
ity are shown forth in his bearing. Honored alike 
by young and old, rich and poor, humble and 
great, he is a man well worthy to be represented 
in the Biographical Dictionary and Portrait Gal- 
lery of Representative Men of tlie United States. 


pioneer settlers of Moline, Illinois, ex-king 
plow manufacturer of the world, and third son of 
William Rinold and Sarah (Yates) Deere, was 
born at Rutland, Vermont, February 7, 1804. 
His father was a native of England and his 
mother of Connecticut. His grandfather Yates 
came to this country as a captain in the British 
army during the Revolutionary war, and served 
his king right royally until the independence of 
the colonies was no longer a question, when he 
foreswore allegiance to all foreign powers, par- 
ticularly to that of King George, and lived there- 
after in strict loyalty to the stars and stripes. 

In 1805 the father of the subject of this sketch 
removed to Middlebury, \'ermont, and there car- 
ried on merchant tailoring for about seven years. 

He died in t8i2, at the age of fifty-five years, 

while in England for the purpose of purchasing 
goods. His widow conducted the business left 
by her husband until her death, which occurred 
in 1826, at the age of about forty-six years. 

John Deere attended the common schools of 
\'ermont while a boy, and acquired a good or- 
dinary education. Without the knowledge of his 
mother he worked for a tanner at grinding bark, 
and earned a pair of shoes and a suit of clothes 
before he was sixteen years of age. WMien sev- 
enteen years of age he apprenticed himself to 
Captain Benjamin Lawrence, of Middlebury, to 
learn the blacksmith's trade, which he fully mas- 
tered in four years, receiving in the meantime for 
his services, each year respectively, the sum of 
thirty, thirty-five, forty and forty-five dollars. 
.After a year or two at "jour." work he removed 
to Burlington, \'crmont, wiiere he hammered 



out by hand the iron work for a saw and oil mill, 
erected at the neighboring town of Colchester, 
and acquired thereby quite a local reputation as 
a mechanic and iron-worker. After carrying on 
his trade for several years at various places in 
his native State, his shops and other property 
were twice burned in quick succession. He was 
a married man, with a small family to support, 
and profits were small, so he accumulated 
slowly; but by perseverance and economy the 
year 1837 found him ready and determined 
to try his fortune in the great West. By 
canal and the lakes he landed at the sickly 
little village of Chicago, a place opulent 
in chills and fever but frugal indeed in essential 
resource — at least so it appeared to -Mr. Deere, 
and he at once transferred all his effects to 
wagons, nor lingered he until he planted him- 
self at the village of Grand Detour, Ogle county, 
Illinois. An inventory of his material wealth at 
that time showed him the possessor of seventy- 
three dollars and seventy-three cents in cash, a 
good set of blacksmith's tools and a limited com- 
plement of household goods; but he had the mus- 
cles of a giant, brains enough to successfully com- 
mand an army, and a heart that never shrank 
within him. 

A good mechanic is always an important ac- 
cession to a new country, and his arrival was par- 
ticularly opportune for this settlement, and his 
mechanical ability was immediately brought into 
requisition to put into repair a sawinill which 
was standing idle from the breaking of a pitman 
shaft. There was no forge in readiness, but he 
at once set to work, and with stone from a neigh- 
boring hill constructed a rude forge and chimney, 
by digging a hole in clay soil and making the 
mortar of the clay; and within two days after his 
arrival the mill was running, thus saving the 
owners and customers many days that otherwise 
would have been occupied in procuring the work 
from far distant shops. 

Mr. Deere was an excellent mechanic, and the 
few people residing in his vicinity soon found it 
out. They piled upon the floor of his shop their 
broken trace chains and clevises, their worn-out 
"bull tongues" and worse worn shares ; and while 
the young blacksmith hammered out lap rings 
for their chains, welded their clevises, "drew out" 

their "bull tongues" and laid their "shares," his 
mind dwelt upon the improvement of the plow, 
the implement of greatest importance to the pio- 
neer. Mr. Deere soon added the building of plows 
to his general work. He began to see, however, 
that the iron plow with wooden moldboard could 
not be made to do good service in the prairie 
soil. It entered the ground with difficulty, clogged 
up and failed to scour. Then began the series 
of experiments and improvements, which, not 
successful at first, to be sure, yet finally resulted 
in the present perfect steel plow; and John Deere 
lived to know that his name was familiarly spoken 
in every civilized tongue on the globe. 

With characteristic energy and will the battle 
was pushed until success came. There was a de- 
mand for a good plow, and the good plow must 
be made. The first one that did satisfactory work 
was made in this way: Wrought-iron landside 
and standard, steel share and moldboard cut from 
a sawmill saw, and bent over a log shaped for 
the purpose, and beam and handles of white-oak 
rails. In 1838 two of these plows were made, 
with which the farmers were well pleased, doing 
unusually good work for those days; and after 
these first plows he had a great deal of trouble 
experimenting, in getting a plow to scour satis- 
factorily in ground that had been plowed four 
or five times, especially on the bottom, black, 
sticky soil. He went to different farms to try his 
plows, in Ogle, Lee, Whiteside and other coun- 
ties, where farmers had never been able to make 
plows scour. 

During this year Mr. Deere built a dwelling- 
house eighteen by twenty-four feet, and brought 
his wife and fivechildren from the East. Itwas not 
then a few hours' ride in a moving parlor, as now, 
but a weary journey of six weeks by stage coach 
and lumber wagon. 

Settled in his little home, often shaking with 
the ague, the work was pushed, and in 1839 ten 
plows were built, and the entire iron works of a 
new saw and flouring mill made, with no help 
except that of an inexperienced man as blower 
and striker. In 1840 a second anvil was placed 
in the shop, a workman employed and forty plows 

His fame as a plowmaker was now rapidly ex- 
tending, and in 1841 he built seventy-five steel- 



moldboard plows, and a brick shop thirty by 
forty-five was erected, and the year following 
one hundred new plows were added. The tide 
which was then set clearly in his favor afterward 
bore him steadily on to fortune. In 1843 he took 
Major Andrus into partnership, and, enlarging 
his buildings by erecting a brick shop two stories 
high, added horse power for the grindstone, es- 
tablished a small foundry, and turned out four 
hundred improved plows. 

In 1846 the annual product had increased to 
one thousand, and as time advanced improve- 
ments were made, but the difficulty of obtaining 
steel of proper dimensions and quality was found 
to be a great obstacle to the complete success of 
the business. Air. Deere accordingly wrote to 
Kailor & Company, importers, of New York, 
explaining the demand of the growing agricul- 
tural States of the West for a good steel plow, 
and stated the size, thickness and quality of the 
steel plates he wanted. The reply was that no 
such steel could be had in America, but they 
would send to England and have rollers made 
for the purpose of producing the special sizes of 
steel. An order was sent and the steel made and 
shipped to Illinois. 

Within this same year, with the view of devel- 
oping a market nearer home where he could ob- 
tain material for his plows, Mr. Deere opened 
negotiations in Pittsburg for the manufacture of 
plow steel, as is shown by the following extract 
from I\Ir. James Swank's book, "Iron in All 
Ages," in which volume, page 297, occurs the 
following: "The first slab of cast plow steel ever 
rolled in the United States was rolled by William 
Woods, at the steel works of Jones & Quiggs, 
in 1846, and shipped to John Deere, Moline, Illi- 
nois, under whose direction it was made." 

In this connection it may be proper to sav that 
it was in the shaping of the moldboard that Mr. 
Deere's ingenuity more particularly manifested 
itself. He was undoubtedly the first man to con- 
ceive and put in operation the idea that the suc- 
cessful self-scouring of a steel moldboard de- 
pended pre-eminently upon its shape. The idea 
was his and he worked upon it until the correct- 
ness of it was fuily demonstrated. 

Mr. Deere's practical foresight enabled him to 
see that his location was not advantageous for 

growing business. Coal, iron and steel must be 
hauled from La Salle, a distance of forty miles, 
and his plows taken a long distance to market 
in the same slow and expensive manner. He 
therefore sold his interest in the business at Grand 
Detour to his partner, Mr. Andrus, and removed 
to Moline, Illinois, in 1847. Here was good water 
power, coal near in abundance, and cheap river 
transportation. A partnership was formed be- 
tween Mr. Deere, R. N. Tate and John M. Gould, 
shops built and work commenced, resulting the 
first year in the production of seven hundred 

About this time the English steel arrived and 
fifty plows were made from it and sent to differ- 
ent parts of the countn,- where the soil was known 
to be most difficult for plowing. The test proved 
the success of the implement and the manufacture 
sprang at once to the enormous number of one 
thousand six hundred plows a year, which num- 
ber were made in 1850. 

In 1852 Messrs. Tate and Gould retired from the 
firm, Mr. Deere buying their interests. In 1853 
the shops were enlarged, new machinery- added 
and the sales continued to increase. Mr. Deere 
continued alone until 1857, which year he made 
ten thousand plows. In 1858 he took his son, 
Charles H., and Stephen H. Velie, one of his 
sons-in-law, into the business as partners, and 
the business continued under the name of Deere 
& Company until 1868, when it had assumed 
such proportions that a company was incorpo- 
rated under the general laws of the State, with 
John Deere as president, a position which he 
held until his death, Charles H. Deere being vice- 
president and manager, and Stephen H. Velie 
secretary. During all the subsequent years the 
business has had a steady and mar\-eIous growth, 
requiring the annual addition of shop room, men 
and machinerii'. 

We can truthfully say that John Deere was 
the archiect of his own fortune. His great wealth 
was acquired by his individual effort and industr>-. 
From the time when Moline was a struggling 
and unimportant little village, Mr. Deere has 
been identified with its interests. The silent and 
unwritten history of her streets, her railroads 
and her public institutions is replete with his spirit 
and untiring energy. 


liioonAPHirAL !>icrinyAi:r .i.vzi porthmt oalleuy of the 

It is conceded that John Deere, of this sketch, 
is the Oiig'inatvir of tne ^lCcI plow. When he 
manufactured his first steel plows, there was not 
only no steel plows in America, but no steel man- 
ufactured of which to make them. The influence 
of this improvement in the manufacture of plows 
cannot be estimated. The name of John Deere 
is a familiar one throughout the West, and his 
plows are sent to Mexico, South America, tlie 
West Indies, New Zealand, the Sandwich Isl- 
ands, China, Japan, South Africa, France, Ger- 
many, Holland, Belgium, Russia, and the British 
possessions in America. They hav^ been awarded 
medals at almost numberless county. State and 
national exhibitions in this country, and they re- 
ceived the highest award at the Paris exposition 
in 1878 in a field trial in which over fifty plows 
from all nations competed. 

Mr. Deere was twice married: In 1827, at Gran- 
ville, Vermont, to Miss Damaris Lamb, who died 
at Moline, February 17, 1865. Of the eight chil- 
dren she bore five now survive (1895): Charles 
H., Mrs. Jennette D. Chapman, Mrs. Ellen S. 
Webber, Mrs. Emma C. Velie and Mrs. Alice 
M. Cady. His second marriage occurred in 1867, 
also at Granville, and to a younger sister of his 
first wife. 

Mr. Deere was elected mayor of the city of 
Moline and served two years. He was also pres- 
ident of the First National Bank of Moline, and 
a director to the day of his death. He was also 
a large contributor toward the founding of the 
public library, and a director of the same for many 

In personal appearance. Mr. Deere was large 
and well proportioned, and hati strength capa- 
ble of almost unlimited endurance. In his better 
days he would stand at his anvil from five o'clock 
in the morning until nine o'clock at night, build- 
ing plows, shoeing horses and constructing ma- 
cliinerv for sawmills. His strong features indi- 

cated great power and decision of character. 
His frank and open face and his address generally 
bespoke him what he was — a man of tender so- 
cial nature and noble character. His feelings 
lay near the surface, and he was singularly sen- 
sitive to pathos, whether of sorrow or of joy. His 
sympathy and help quickly responded to the call 
of trouble or of misfortune, and he rejoiced in the 
prosperity of all about him. Absorbed in busi- 
ness, he had neither the desire nor time for the 
public offices which sought his services. He 
was, however, always in sympathy with public 
interests, and gave liberally of his means to ad- 
vance them. He was a Republican in politics 
from the organization of that party, an active 
member of the Congregational Church and a 
generous contributor to local and foreign ob- 
jects of benevolence. The religious, moral and 
educational interests of society had in him a friend 
and patron. A generous hospitality was always 
shown at his comfortable home, and few men 
were more entertaining in the social circle, or 
had a more happy faculty of making every one 
feel at home. 

Mr. Deere was active and strong until his last 
illness, which was of short duration, and which 
consisted more especially in a general giving 
out of the entire system than in any local malady. 

He passed away at his home in ]\Ioline, Illinois, 
on May 17, 1886, in the eighty-third year of his 
age, being gathered to his rest full of years and of 
good deeds. Suitable resolutions were passed 
by the various associations, business and other- 
wise, with which he was connected, showing the 
high appreciation in which he was held by all 
who knew him and were associated with him. 

His portrait, which is given in this connection, 
was taken from a photograph made in 1885, and 
is a remarkably faithful likeness. It shows at 
once the strength of his character, and indicates 
the kindhness of his disposition. 




CHARLES H. DEERE bears a name that is 
known throughout the country and is now 
at the head of an industry that has been a bless- 
ing to the agricultural class of this country, as 
well as a source of financial benefit to himself 
and family. 

He was born March 28, 1837, in Hancock, 
Addison county, Vermont, and is the only living 
son of the late Hon. John Deere. 

In the common schools of Grand Detour and 
Moline Charles Deere began his education, later 
attended Knox and Iowa Academies, and was 
afterward graduated at the Bell Commercial Col- 
lege, of Chicago, in 1854. He was now fitted 
for a business career and naturally became inter- 
ested in the extensive plow works of which his 
father was the originator and the controlling 
spirit. He was first assistant and then head 
bookkeeper, then traveler and purchaser for the 
firm. When the business was incorporated in 
1868 he became vice-president and general man- 
ager, thus serving until his father's death, when 
he succeeded to the presidency, and has since 
been not only the nominal head but has been 
the power that has made this immense organiza- 
tion a financial success. He has the active part 
in building up and extending this, one of the 
chief and largest industries in its line developed 
in this country. He is also the founder of the 
Deere & Mansur Company corn planter works, 
president of the Moline Water Power Company, 
director in various other works in Moline, as well 
as in the large branch houses of Deere & Com- 
pany in Kansas City, iMinneapolis, Des Moines, 
Council RIufFs and San Francisco, and in various 
other business enterprises. 

For several years Mr. Deere was the chairman 
of the Bureau of Labor Statistics for the State 
of Illinois, appointed by the governor, but re- 
cently he has resigned. He was the second man 
appointed as State Commissioner of the World's 
Columbian Exposition, and was a commis- 
sioner to the exposition in \'ienna, in 1873, for 

the State of lllinuis. He is, politically, an active 
Republican and was chosen an elector at large 
in the presidential campaign of 1888. He has 
frequently been urged to accept nominations for 
important political ofifices, but has persistently 
refused to allow his name to be used, though 
never failing in a generous expenditure of time, 
money and energy for the success of the party. 
Mr. Deere is a- man of liberal ideas, having ex- 
tensively traveled in this country and abroad. 
Socially he is a pleasant companion, and manv 
a '"friend in need'' has found him "a friend indeed." 
In 1862 Mr. Deere married Miss Mary Little 
Dickinson, of Chicago, where she was well known 
and much admired for her fine qualities of mind 
as well as for her imusual personal beauty. Go- 
ing to her new home a bride, Mrs. Deere identi- 
fied herself with the interests of the communitv 
in a thoroughly characteristic manner, where she 
is beloved for her generous, unostentatious char- 
it}', her ready sympathy with even,- movement 
for the benefit of any worthy object, and her un- 
swerving adherence to principle and duty. 
.Added to a charming personiui, Mrs. Deere 
possesses distinct social talents which render her 
a most gracious hostess, and at their beautiful 
home, ■"Overlook," Mr. and Mrs. Deere have 
drawn about them friends and distinguished guests 
from every point of the compass, and all from 
far and near have been royally welcomed and en- 
tertained. The Misses Deere were educated in 
Xew York city, have traveled extensively, and 
are attractive, cultured young ladies, well known 
in society in Xew York, Chicago and Washing- 
ton. The elder daughter was married some time 
since to William Dwight Wiman, of Xew York 
city, and the second is now Mrs. \\'illiani Butter- 
worth. Mr. and Mrs. Deere arc especially fortu- 
nate in their daughters, whose many fine quali- 
ties — social and personal graces — reflect the 
influences of the charming atmosphere of cul- 
ture by which they have always been sur- 




DURING a residence of four decades in Chi- 
cago the subject of this biography has 
gained distinctive recognition as one of the lead- 
ing financiers, not only of this city but also of 
the nation, having shown a marked capacity for 
the successful conduct of affairs of great breadth. 
It is not alone compatible but practically imper 
ative that there be incorporated in this Colum- 
bian memorial volume a review of his life, since 
few have been more conspicuous or have con- 
tributed a greater quota in insuring the magnifi- 
cent success of what has become recognized as 
the Chicago World's Fair. 

Lvman J. Gage is a native of Madison county, 
New York, having been bom in 1836, the son 
of Eli A. Gage, who was one of the pioneers of 
that county and a hatter by occupation. At the 
age of seventeen 3'ears our subject completed his 
studies in school and entered upon those studies 
which profit one by experience rather than by 
mere abstract reflection. Accepting a position in 
the Oneida Central Bank at Rome, New York, 
he began that business career which has eventu- 
ated in most laudable success, and in which he 
has attained a name honored among men. In 
1855 he removed to Chicago, and for some three 
years was in the employ of a firm which con- 
ducted a lumber, and planing-mill business at 
the corner of Canal and Adams streets. He had 
a natural liking and adaptability for the banking 
business, and, realizing that along this line laid 
the greatest measure of success for him, he made 
a change of occupation as soon as opportunity 
presented itself, and in 1858 he became a book- 
keeper for the IMerchants' Loan and Trust Com- 
pany, of Chicago, at a salary of $500 per annum, 
retaining this position until 1863, when he be- 
came assistant cashier of the institution. During 
this time Mr. Gage made a careful study of the 
banking business, familiarizing himself with the 
most approved methods and with the minutest 
details. He thus soon gained recognition 
in local financial and commercial circles as 
a man of progressive yet conservative ideas and 

of unusual executive ability. A practical con- 
cession of this ability and fitness was that which 
came a few months later, when he was made 
cashier of the First National Bank of Chicago, 
which had been organized May i, 1863, with a 
capital of $ioOjOOO. The capital stock was in- 
creased within a short time to $1,000,000, the ex- 
ecutive corps of the institution being as follows: 
President, Mr. E. Aiken; vice-president, Mr. 
Samuel W. Allerton ; cashier, Mr. E. E. Braisten ; 
the directorate comprising Messrs. E. Aiken, S. 
W. Allerton, S. G. D. Howard, B. P. Hutchin- 
son, Samuel M. Nickerson, Tracy J. Brown, John 
B. Sherman, Byron Rice and E. G. Hale. Upon 
the death of Mr. Aiken, in 1867, Mr. Samuel M. 
Nickerson was elected president, and in August 
of the following year Mr. Gage was made cashier. 
At that time the bank was located at the south- 
west corner of Lake and Clark streets, but was 
afterward removed to the southwest corner of 
State and Washington streets. During the ever 
memorable fire of October 9, 1871, the safes and 
vaults of the bank escaped almost intact from the 
fiery ordeal, not one security or valuable being 
lost. After occupying temporary quarters for a 
time, January i, 1872, the bank was again es- 
tablished for business in its rebuilt structure on 
the same site. The capital remained $1,000,000 
until the expiration of the charter in 1882, when 
the reserve or surplus fund over and above divi- 
dends was found to be over $1,800,000. In May 
of that year a new organization was effected un- 
der the same corporate title and with a cash cap- 
ital of $3,000,000, the officers being as follows: 
President, Samuel M. Nickerson; vice-president, 
Lyman J. Gage; cashier, H. R. Symonds; assist- 
ant cashier, H. M. Kingman. At this time the 
business was removed to its present magnificent 
building at the northwest corner of Dearborn and 
Monroe streets. During the time since the re- 
organization Mr. Gage has been the general man- 
ager and chief executive officer of the institution, 
and has come to be recognized as one of the most 
discriminating financiers and one of the most dis- 



cerning, broad-minded and substantial bankers of 
the time. He is now president of the institution, 
with which he has so long been identified. 

At the annual convention of the American 
Bankers' Association, held at Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, in 1883, jNIr. Gage was elected president of 
the organization, and was honored with a re-elec- 
tion the following year at the meeting held in 
Saratoga, New York. He was one of the prime 
movers in the economical conference of 1888-9, 
looking to the welfare and interest of wage- 

From the time that the project was incepted for 
securing the World's Columbian Exposition to 
Chicago Mr. Gage was indefatigable in his efforts 

toward insuring the success of the gigantic enter- 
prise, being foremost among its promoters. From 
his conmianding position and by reason of his 
peculiar fitness, he was consistently chosen as pres- 
ident of the local board of directors, bringing to 
the office, as he did, the maximum discernment 
resulting from a rich and varied experience in 
financial and business affairs. Though he re- 
signed the presidency after having seen the under- 
taking established upon a secure foundation, he 
did not abate his interest in the same, but continued 
as one of the most active members of the board 
of directors until the magnificent spectacle of the 
"White City" had reached its culminating glory 
and passed into the realm of past achievements. 


THE name of Anton C. Hesing is familiar 
throughout America. His life and char- 
acter are known to the American people through 
his connection with journalism and as editor of 
the Staats-Zeitung, and he was one of the ac- 
knowledged leaders of the German citizens of this 
country. Probably no man of his nationality did 
more to mold public opinion among his coun- 
trymen, and all honor is due him, for his influ- 
ence was ever on the side of right and order, ad- 
vancing the true principles of American libertv' 
and justice. When the final summons came his 
life labors were ended, but his memory will be a 
power long and stmngly felt. 

Mr. Hesing was born in the village of Vechta, 
in the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg, the richest 
agricultural section of Germany, January 6, 1823. 
His father was a brewer and distiller, and to the 
son were given the common-school privileges 
of the region. His motlier died when he was nine 
years of age, and when a youth of fifteen he was 
left an orphan by the death of his father and thus 
thrown upon his own resources. He was obliged 
to lay aside his schoolbooks and earn a living, 
for his guardians seemed determined to get the 
most possible out of the boy at the least expense. 
He was apprenticed to a baker and brewer, but 
the work was verj' unpleasant, his employer ar- 

rogant and abusive, and he felt that he could no 
longer endure such treatment. This made him 
resolve that he would seek a home in the New 
World. His temi of apprenticeship was expected 
to cover some years, but he at length obtained 
the consent of his guardians to carr\- out his 
plans, — a consent which was made to benefit them 
as well as him. Thus penniless he began his ca- 
reer in the world. 

In 1839, then sixteen years of age, he found 
himself in Baltimore, Maryland, with a cash cap- 
ital of five dollars. Cincinnati was then considered 
the promising metropolis of the West, and he 
made his way to that city. His mcney was then not 
only exhausted but he was also five dollars in debt. 
Yet he possessed what is better than capital — a 
resolute spirit, an honest purpose and a laudable 
ambition. He secured a clerkship in a retail 
grocery store, and within two years had saved 
money enough to engage again in business for 
himself. He opened a small grocery on Court 
street, which he carried on until 1848, when he 
changed his occupation. The year previous he 
had returned on a visit to his native land, where 
he became acquainted with Miss Louisa Lam- 
ping, and, winning the hand and the heart of the 
voung lady, brought her as a bride to his new 
home. He then sold his store and erected a liotel 



at the corner of Race and Court streets, which lie 
managed until 1854, when his partner committed 
suicide, and he then sold out. 

In the meantime a city had sprung up at the 
southwest extremity of Lake Michigan, a city 
rapidly growing in population and importance, 
and Mr. Hesing, foreseeing its future greatness, 
resolved to make it his home. Believing that its 
advancement and growth would be rapid and 
that there would be a large demand for building 
materials in consequence, he purchased a patent 
brick dry-clay machine and opened a brickyard 
at JefTerson, only a few miles from the center of 
the city. This proved an unprofitable experiment, 
for the clay was not of good quality and he had 
only one hundred and fifty dollars as the result 
of the season's labor! He felt, however, that the 
industn^ would be profitable if suitable material 
could be secured, and, forming a partnership 
with Charles S. Dole, began business at High- 
land Park, afterward called Port Clinton, near 
the lake shore, where good clay could be ob- 
tained. This time the venture proved more suc- 
cessful, and the old Adams House, the Milwau- 
kee railroad roundhouse, and many private resi- 
dences, as well as miles of sewer, were made from 
the Hesing-Dole brick; but again disaster over- 
took Mr. Hesing. The financial panic of 1857 
came on, houses all over the country were forced 
into bankruptcy, building in the West was almost 
etirely suspended ; and as there was little demand 
for their products the firm was forced to suspend 
business, and Mr. Hesing, paying off all debts, 
was reduced to penury. 

No prophetic bells rang out for him, "Turn, 
turn again, Wliitington." Disheartening failure 
had come to him, such as would have over- 
thrown a less resolute or determined man, but 
"hope springs eternal in the human breast," and 
again he embarked in business, which was this 
time crowned with a well-merited success. The 
beginning was small. He rented a little store on 
Kinzie street, where he engaged in the commis- 
sion business, but gave that up in less than a 
year to accept the office of collector of water toll, 
with a salary of forty-five dollars per month. He 
was afterward appointed deputy sherifT of Cook 
county under John Gray, and was elected sherifif 
in i860 upon the same ticket with Abraham 

He was the first German to hold an important 
elective ofificc in the State and during his term of 
service he did much for his adopted country in 
recruiting soldiers for the L^nion. Among the 
direct results of his labor was the organization of 
the Twenty-fourth and Eighty-second Infantry 
regiments and Shambeck's dragoons. He had 
before taken an active part in ptiblic atYairs, aside 
from business interests, for while living in Ohio 
he joined the Whig party during the Harrison 
campaign and was an earnest and indefatigable 
supporter of its principles and candidates, al- 
though not then a voter. In recognition of his 
services he was made a member of the Hamilton 
county committee of the Whig party. At the be- 
ginning of the trying and troublous times of the 
Civil war he was again before the people as a 
leader and an advocate of reform. He studied 
closely the questions of the da}-, the attitude of 
the parties, the views of political leaders, and 
wise judgment and careful deliberation made his 
opinions of great weight. He warmly advo- 
cated the president's policy and put great confi- 
dence in Mr. Lincoln as a pilot that could guide 
the ship of State to safe anchor and quiet harbor. 
When the work of reconstruction commenced 
he was found on the radical side of the question, 
and in 1866, during the Congressional campaign, 
labored earnestly in the interests of his party, his 
work being an important factor in bringing about 
the victorious result. He would never hold office 
himself, however, after he entered the field of 

At the time of the breaking out of the Rebellion 
the Staats-Zeitung was becoming a paper of 
much importance among the German-speaking 
people. In 1862 Mr. Hesing purchased an in- 
terest in the paper and from that time on devoted 
himself with tireless energy to journalism. In 
1867 he became sole proprietor and made this the 
leading German paper in the countr\-. He spared 
neither time, labor nor expense in improving the 
paper. Having a clear and powerful and patri- 
otic purpose, and being careful withal to reflect 
as well as guide the public sentiment of his coun- 
trymen, all who knew him came to respect his 
opinions and heed his suggestions. 

One of his most important acts in connection 
with political measures was during the local up- 
rising in the fall of 1873, when an issuance of an 



order by the mayor elected on the "fire-proof 
ticket," which looked toward the enforcement of 
the Sunday liquor ordinance, had injured the 
feelings of the Germans especially. A meeting 
at Thielman's theater, May 14, 1873, was addressed 
by a number of prominent men, who advised or- 
ganization regardless of politics to uphold the 
constitutional rights of the citizens. Mr. Hesing 
was present and responding to repeated calls, 
made a stirring address and paved the way for a 
people's party. Meetings were continued into 
October, Mr. Hesing largely formulating the 
resolutions and platform, and when H. D. Colvin 
was named for mayor and a full city ticket put 
in the field it swept evenithing before it, with a 
majority of about 10,000. Having at length dis- 
posed of a portion of his stock in the Staats- 
Zeitung, he afterward turned the management 
of the paper over to his son Washington, 
his only child and the present postmaster of 

On the 6th of January, 1893, he celebrated his 
seventieth birthday, and hundreds of friends hon- 
ored him on that day, expressing their high re- 
gard by word and floral ofiferings. The force 
of the Staats-Zeitung sent to him most beautiful 
floral decorations, and the Schiller theater di- 
rectors and employes presented him with a souve- 
nir volume containing views of the many build- 
ings which were erected largely through his aid: 
but the feature of the occasion which pleased Mr. 
Hesing more than all others was the delegation 
from the Home for the Aged at Altenheim, of 
which institution he was the principal promoter, 
although he always preferred to give the credit 
to the ladies of the city. After the death of his 
wife in 1886 he cared little for public life and de- 
voted more time to charitable and benevolent 

wnrk. pruinuting many wurtliy institutions: vet 
he never gave ostcntatiouslN.and many more were 
the gifts of which only the recipients knew than 
those of which the world knew. 

His last days were not attended with weakening 
illness. Although he reached the age of seventy- 
two years his mental vigor was unimpaired and 
he seemed to possess the physical vigor of a man 
some years his junior. On the morning of Sat- 
urday, March 30. 1895, he read with indignation 
of the act of the council in passing another boodle 
franchise ordinance and determined to write an 
appeal for publication in the Staats-Zeitung over 
his own signature. This he did, and it was his 
last act. The manuscript which he completed 
late in the evening embodies the views which 
were his through life, and breathes a spirit of de- 
votion to American institutions and the divine 
right of liberty that is seldom equaled. In the 
ranks of Chicago's eminent journalists a place 
was left vacant that cannot be easily filled. One 
of the contemporary papers, speaking of the last 
article which came from his pen, said: "Like the 
glory that spreads upon cloud and sky after the 
sun has dropped behind the western line, so 
comes the words of Anton C. Hesing, penned a 
few hours before his life drifted into the shadow. 
Strong in his own integrity, he appeals to his 
friends and countrymen to rise to the measure of 
true citizenship and refuse to subvert the sacred 
right of the ballot to improper ends. Writing at his 
desk late in the night, this indomitable man of 
seventy-two finishes what he has to say, signs 
his name and retires to the couch from which he 
never rises again. His words will fall deep into 
many hearts, not alone of his own nationality, 
but also of his countrymen, for we are all his 




JOHN W. SHOWALTER was born in ISIason 
county, Kentucky, February 8, 1844, the son 
of B. Showalter, for many years a resident of 
Scott county, Kentucky. As a schoolboy his 
early instructor was M. Durant, now of Centralia, 
Illinois, then a well-known educator in Kentucky. 
He was afterward sent to the school of Messrs. 
Rand and Richeson, at Maysville, Kentucky. 
Later he attended the Ohio University at Athens, 
that State, for one year. Still later he went to 
Yale, where he graduated in the class of 1867. 
In July, 1869, Mr. Showalter came to Chicago 
and became a law student in the office of Moore 
& Caulfield, a well-known Chicago law firm. In 
1870 he was admitted to the bar of Illinois upon 
the certificate of Charles H. Reid, at that time 
State's attorney of Cook county. Mr. Showalter 

was permitted to continue in the office of Moore 
& Caulfield till the great fire of 1871, when he 
returned to Kentucky. In 1872, on the invita- 
tion of Judge ^Nloore, he returned to Chicago and 
became and remained an employe of the firm till 
it was dissolved some years later by the election 
of Judge Moore to the State bench. 

About 1879 Mr. Showalter became a member 
of the law firm of Abbott, Oliver & Showalter, 
and so continued in the practice of the law till 
the death of Mr. Abbott in 1891, when the firm 
became Oliver & Showalter. This latter partner- 
ship was eventually dissolved in March, 1895, 
when President Cleveland appointed Mr. Sho- 
walter circuit judge of the United States vfor the 
Seventh Judicial Circuit, which office he holds at 
the time of this notice. 



HON. ALFRED M. CRAIG, of the supreme 
court of the State of Illinois, was bom Jan- 
uary 15, 1832, in Edgar count}% this State, and 
is a son of David and Mintie (Ramey) Craig, who 
came from Philadelphia, where the American 
branch of the family originated with the grand- 
father of our subject, who came hither from Ire- 
land. The father was a millwright in only mod- 
erate circumstances, but he gave his son good 
educational privileges. He attended the common 
schools and afterward entered Knox College, 
at which he was graduated in June, 1853. 

Immediately thereafter Mr. Craig began the 
study of law in Lewistown, Illinois, under the 
guidance of Hezekiah H. Weed and William C. 
Goudy, the late general counsel of the Chicago & 
Northwestern Railroad. In 1855 he was adinit- 
ted to the bar and at once began practice in Knox- 
ville, then the county seat of Knox county. Suc- 
cess attended him from the start and clients be- 
came numerous. His cautious, deliberate meth- 
ods gained for him the reputation of a safe coun- 
selor, and he came to be regarded with a confi- 

dence rarely extended to a man so young, — a con- 
fidence which has steadily grown as the years 
have passed. On going to Knoxville he became 
a member of the law firm of Manning, Douglas 
& Craig, which at once acquired the greater part 
of the legal business of that place and 
the adjoining counties, and the partnership 
continued until Mr. Manning removed to Peoria, 
when the firm name of Douglas & Craig 
was assumed. In 1864 Mr. Craig was elected 
tn tile office of county judge, but contin- 
ued his general practice in the firm until 1S68, 
when the connection was dissolved. Later our 
subject formed a partnership with C. K. Harvey, 
a brother of his wife, under the name of Craig & 
Harvey, and they worked together until the for- 
mer was elected to the supreme court in 1873. 

He was regarded as the ablest jury lawyet and 
most successful advocate in the State, and his 
wonderful strength in that line was largely due 
to the fact that he was personally acquainted with 
every family in Knox county. He was of that 
class of lawyers who always meet their clients 




and witnesses on terms of exact equality, and 
thereby become familiar with the class of people 
from which jurors are usually drawn. He knew 
their feelings and could correctly estimate how 
any proposition would strike them. When a young 
man before inferior courts, whose knowledge of 
law is usually not very extensive, he could over- 
rule all objections and prove anything he wished, 
and therefore his clients were pretty sure of their 
case if it was pleaded by i\Ir. Craig. In 1869 he was 
retained in behalf of Knoxville in the great county- 
seat fight, and though he did not win his case 
he made a magnificent contest, which is still 
spoken of throughout Knox county. He was 
always employed as counsel on every important 
criminal case that came , before the courts of 
Knox county; was employed to prosecute in th.e 
noted Osborn case, and it was largely through 
his able arguments that the culprit was con- 
victed and hung, — the only man ever hung in 
tlie county. 

In 1873 the late Justice Charles B. Lawrence 
was a candidate for re-election on the Repub- 
lican ticket for justice of the supreme court. The 
district was Republican by eight thousand ma- 
jority. Mr. Craig, nominally a Democrat, at 
the request of the people decided to be- 
come an independent candidate for that 
office, made a most brilliant canvass and 
was elected by a large majority, by what was 
known as the "Granger" element. Subsequently 
the laws enacted by the "Granger" legislature 
of Illinois came up to be passed upon by the su- 
preme court. Justice Craig threw his influence 
in behalf of the people and the court sustained 
what was known as the "Granger" laws. These 
cases were taken before the supreme court of the 
United States and the views of Justice Craig and 
his associates were sustained. In 1882 he was 
again a candidate for the office, which he yet 
fills, and defeated the regular Republican nomi- 
nee, John Davis McCulloch. In 1891 he defeated 
Hem\' W. Wells, of the Republican ticket, for 
the third term of nine years, in a district where 
a Republican nomination was considered equal 
to an election, provided the opposing candidate 
is not the Democratic member of the supreme 
bench, Justice Alfred M. Craig. What higher 
testimonial can be given of his superior ability 

and the confidence which is reposed in him? He 
is now the oldest in years of continuous service 
in the supreme court of Illinois, and is the chief 

At the time Mr. Craig became a member of 
that court many questions of importance to the 
prosperity of the State and the people were being 
adjudicated. These were in a large part attrib- 
utable to the remarkable development of the rail- 
road interests in the Northwest. Chicago, also, 
with its complicated and diversified interests, its 
extraordinary and sudden growth and its many 
speculative schemes, made the supreme court of 
Illinois one of the most important of the high 
tribunals of the United States, and no other State 
in the Union presented a field more fruitful in legal 
contention than the State of Illinois. During the 
twenty-two years he has held this office the legis- 
lation has been greater, more complicated and 
more important than in the fifty-five years which 
intervened from the admission of the State to the 
year 1873. The legal controversies have changed 
from the simple questions of law that were the 
subjects of judicial discussion and determination 
in the early part of the history of the State to 
questions more abstruse and difficult, depend- 
ing upon more enlarged, involved and complex 
conditions of fact. A supreme court of a State 
is much more diversified in its jurisdiction than 
the supreme court of the United States, for the 
reason that it is the court of final jurisdiction 
for almost every wrong which can be committed 
and for every right which can be protected. Sub- 
ject to the limited jurisdiction of the supreme 
court of the United States, it is the court of final 
resort which settles, by authority of law, the 
many contentions and disputes incident to men as 
they form society. His services in the supreme 
court cover a period which may be called forma- 
tive, as many new questions arose from which 
important litigation originated, as the park sys- 
tems of Chicago, the railroad and warehouse 
commission, the modified special-assessment 
methods and the many questions of corporation 
law growing out of and dependent upon the adop- 
tion of a new constitution. The decisions of Mr. 
Craig take high rank and are regarded as mod- 
els of brevity, conciseness and simplicity. He 
is regarded as the ablest judge on the bench on 



real-estate law, and on business questions he is 
the superior of any of his associates in this branch 
of jurisprudence, owing to the fact that during 
all of his life he has closely identified himself with 
his business interests. 

Frequent attempts have been made to induce 
the judge to become a candidate for honors of 
a political nature, but he has steadily and per- 
sistently refused to do so. He has, however, 
been brought prominently before the people as 
one entitled to the highest political honors that 
his party could bestow. In 1892 he refused to 
permit his name to be used in connection with 
the governorship of Illinois, and in the National 
Democratic convention of that year his name re- 
ceived consideration in connection with the pres- 
idency. His name was presented to and seri- 
ously considered by President Cleveland as the 
successor of Chief Justice Waite of the United 
States supreme court. 

As a business man Justice Craig is considered 
one of the most successful in the State of Illinois. 
He possesses large landed interests both in city 
proi>erty and country. He is president of the 

I'.ank of Galesburg, president of the Bank of 
Altona, and' a director of the First National 
P>ank of Knoxville. 

Conspicuous among the many good traits of 
Justice Craig's character is his fearless devotion 
to whatever he thinks comes within the pale of 
public or private duty. He has the moral courage 
that fits him for any emergency, and although 
he has always been a Democrat he is without 
partisan prejudice, and in his candidacy has had 
the enthusiastic support of many of the leaders 
of the opposition. His judicial term, extending 
over more than a quarter of a century of almost 
uninterrupted service, is an honor to the State, 
and his character as a man is well worthy of the 
admiration of the whole people. 

He was married August 4, 1857, to Miss Eliz- 
abeth Harvey, daughter of one of Knoxville's 
oldest and most esteemed lawyers, Curtis K. 
Harvey. They are the parents of three children. 
Dr. A. J., Charles C, an attorney, and George 
H., who is engaged in the banking business in 


IN the history of American government the 
name of Leroy Delano Thoman stands prom- 
inently forward on the question of civil service 

The Buckeye State, which has produced so 
many eminent men, was the birthplace of Mr. 
Thoman. He was born July 31, 1851, in Salem, 
Columbiana county, and is of German lineage. 
His paternal ancestors located in Pennsylvania in 
1680, and ten years later his maternal ancestry 
became residents of Virginia. His father, Jacob 
.S. Thoman, was born in Ohio, descending from 
a family noted for both physical and mental 
power and devoted to Christianity and all meas- 
ures calculated to benefit the race. He was a 
man of good education, a thorough student, and 
his deep researches in various lines of study made 
him extremely well informed. He wedded Mary 
Ann Soncdccker, a native of Ohio and a daughter 

of the Rev. Henry Sonedecker, a pioneer preacher 
of the German Reformed Church, who organized 
the first society of that denomination in Wayne 
county, Ohio. His fine mind, superior talents 
and Christian character were inherited by his 
daughter, and thus, amid the surroundings of a 
refined and Christian home, Mr. Thoman spent 
his boyhood. His elementary education, ac- 
quired in the common schools, was supplemented 
by an academic course, but his inherited love of 
knowledge and the guidance of his parents in 
matters of reading probably did as much for him 
as school training. His father died in 1878, and 
from that time until her death, dn June, 1892, his 
mother, who was born in Wooster, Ohio, in 1824, 
made her home with her son, Leroy. 

At the age of sixteen he turned his attention to 
the profession of teaching, which he successfully 
followed until his admission to the bar. He was 


Ttu lin/un/ PiMlsAiiiy t Eiigrni-iiiii li litii-iiije 



principal of the public schools of Piper City, Illi- 
nois, for three years, and during that time devoted 
his leisure hours to the study of law, which, with 
one years study with Hon. Joseph W. Adair, of 
Columbia City, Indiana, prepared him for ad- 
mission to the bar, August 13, 1872. Immedi- 
ately thereafter he was appointed deputy prose- 
cuting attorney for the Ninth Judicial District of 
Indiana. In January, 1873, he resigned, return- 
ing to his native State. During the two succeed- 
ing years he engaged in the general practice of 
law in Youngstown, and in 1875 ^'^''^^ elected judge 
of the probate court of Mahoning county, and 
was re-elected in 1878, serving in all for six years. 
On his retirement in Februan,-, 1882, he resumed 
private law practice and was tiie attorney of the 
Pittsburg & Lake Erie Railroad Company for 
the State of Ohio. 

It was during the years that had just passed 
that the Judge rose to prominence in political 
circles. Pie was active in the affairs of the Dem- 
ocratic party in Ohio, serving as a member of the 
State executive committee for several years. In 
1880 he was chairman of the Ohio State Demo- 
cratic convention, and the same year was nomi- 
nated by his party for Congress, but was 
defeated by Hon. William AIcKinley. The suc- 
ceeding year he received a strong support for 
the office of governor before the Democratic State 
convention, but declined to become a candidate. 

In the meantime he began his labors as the 
champion of the civil service reform. In 1880 
he purchased an interest in the \'indicator, the 
leading Democratic paper in northeastern Ohio, 
and tlirough its colunms were set forth the bene- 
fits that might be derived from the adoption of the 
measures which he championed. He was a mem- 
ber of the committee on resolutions in the .State 
convention in 1882, and it was through his efYorts 
that a civil-service-reform plank was placed in 
the party platform. Throughout the country 
students of the political situation were realizing 
the injurious efTects resulting from what is popu- 
larly known as the "spoils system." From the 
time of the Civil war measures were advanced as 
a cure for this evil, whereby merit alone should 
be the test and qualification of an ofifice-seeker, 
and not what he had done to secure the success 
of his party. Rut little, however, had resulted 
from these proposed measures, and he who held 

the power of appointment, however honest his 
intentions might be, could not withstand the im- 
portunities of political managers on behalf of 
their favorite candidates. At last Senator Pendle- 
ton, of Ohio, introduced a bill providing for stated 
examination of applicants for positions in the 
civil service, which in January, 1883, became 
a law. According to a provision contained there- 
in, a commission of three was appointed from 
representatives of bodi parties whose duty it was 
to prepare rules for the regulation of the civil 
service, provide for the examination of applicants 
for positions and prescribe a system of procedure 
in conducting" such examinations. President 
Arthur appointed Judge Thoman as the Demo- 
cratic member of the first United States civil ser- 
vice commission under the Pendleton law, and to 
the efiforts of the Judge as much as to any other 
one man is due the credit for putting into success- 
ful operation the new system and securing the 
benefits therefrom. "To the victors belong the 
spoils" was an old maxim fitted perhaps to the 
time when it originated, but not in keeping with 
this progressive age. A multitude will gather 
around a leader. In this case Judge Thoman was 
one of the leaders. A high compliment was paid to 
Judge Thoman l)y a leading citizen of Chicago, 
saying; "I was in Congress when President 
Arthur appointe<l Judge Thoman as the Demo- 
cratic member of the first United States civil 
service conmiission, and I know that to his good 
practical sense and judgment the successful in- 
auguration of that new feature of our govern- 
mental system was made possible. He had the 
confidence of President Arthur and the members 
of his cal>inet, and enjoyed the respect of the pub- 
lic ofiicials. He is a broad-gauged man, of posi- 
tive character." He ser\'ed on the connnission 
for about three vcars, resigning in Xovcmber. 

Since 1888 Judge Ihoman has been a resident 
of Chicago and engaged in the practice of law. 
Pioth as an advocate and counselor he is among 
the ablest representatives of the bar of the West. 
He is a fine speaker, forcible in argument and 
wiiming as a rhetorician. 

W hen it was decided to hold in this country a 
centennial celebration of the discover^' of Amer- 
ica, Judge Thoman was an active factor to secure 
for Chicago the site of the World's Columbian 



Exposition. He was a member of the executive 
committee, and it was largely through his in- 
fluence that the Ohio Congressional vote was 
secured for this city. He was elected president 
of the "States Columbian Association," and in 
this important office exerted an influence in be- 
half of the World's Fair site that was valuable in 
securing the desired result. 

Judge Thoman has always taken a great inter- 
est in educational affairs and has acted as one of 
the judges of the literary and oratorical contests 
at Washington and Jefiferson College. He de- 
livered the annual address to the graduates at 
Oberlin in 1888. He has been a lecturer on 
medical jurisprudence at Bennett College and on 
private international law at the Northwestern 
University. He has spoken on many public oc- 
casions and his speeches and writings always 
show an earnestness and care in preparation that 
denote sincerity. 

Judge Thoman is an esteemed member of vari- 
ous social organizations. He was president of 

the Ohio Society of Chicago for four years, is a 
member of the Union League, the Athletic, the 
Evanston and the Country Clubs, and is a Mason 
of high degree, being a Knight Templar and Scot- 
tish-rite Mason of the thirtj'-second degree, and 
also a Noble of the ]Mystic Shrine. 

In early manhood, Judge Thoman wedded Miss 
iMary E. Cartwright, of Youngstown, Ohio, but 
after a happy married life of less than a year she 
passed away. His home was then shared by his 
mother and sister until February, 1892, when he 
added to the household by his marriage to Miss 
Florence B., the accomplished daughter of Hon. 
James M. Smith, one of the judges of the circuit 
court of the First District of Ohio. This union 
has been blessed with a daughter. The Judge 
and his wife are adherents of the Presbyterian 
Church. They have a beautiful home in Evans- 
tion which indicates the refined and cultured 
taste of the inmates, and its hospitable doors 
are ever open for the reception of their many 



CHIEF JUSTICE FULLER was born in the 
city of Augusta, Maine, on the nth of Feb- 
ruary, 1833. On both sides he comes of the best 
New England stock, his American ancestors hav- 
ing been among the pilgrims who came over on 
the Mayflower. For nearly three centuries some 
member of his family in each generation rose to 
eminence as a lawyer, statesman or divine. A 
succession of distinguished preachers were his 
ancestors on the paternal side. Thomas Weld, a 
Fellow of Cambridge University, came to this 
country in 1632, and was the first minister of the 
first church in Roxbury, now a part of Boston, 
Massachusetts. He was a contemporary of Eliot, 
the Indian apostle. A great-grandson of his, 
Habijah Weld, was settled for half a century at 
Attleborough, iMassachusetts, and was much be- 
loved by Cotton Mather. He is described in 
Dwight's Travels in New England as an orator 
of great virtue and power, a very Boanerges in 

the pulpit. His daughter, Hannah, became the 
wife of Rev. Caleb Fuller, son of Young Fuller, 
who was born at Barnstable in 1708. Another 
daughter, Elizabeth, married John Shaw, of Barn- 
stable, from whom the late Chief Justice Shaw, 
of the supreme court of Massachusetts, descended; 
so that Chief Justice Fuller and the late Chief 
Justice of Massachusetts are both descendants of 
the celebrated Puritan preacher. 

The Rev. Caleb Fuller graduated at Yale in 
1758, and settled as minister for some time in 
Hanover, New Hampshire, where he died, in 
181 5, at a good old age. His son, Henry Weld 
Fuller, grandfather of the Chief Justice, was born 
in 1784 and was a classmate and intimate friend 
of Daniel Webster at Dartmouth College. He 
was a sound lawyer, and for many years and at 
the time of his death was judge of probate in 
Kennebec county, Maine. He resided at Au- 
gusta, and was noted for his public spirit and his 




keen interest in the progress and prosperity of 
his adopted State. He married Estlier Gould, a 
sister of the poetess, Hannah Flagg Gould, and 
died on the 29th of January, 1841. The father 
of the Chief Justice's paternal grandmother, Ben- 
jamin Gould, was a soldier in the Revolutionary 
war, was wounded at Lexington and struck twice 
at Bunker Hill. Her brother, Benjamin A. Gould, 
was master of the Boston Latin school, and an- 
other sister was the mother of the late Judge 
Rapallo, of the New York court of appeals. Fred- 
erick Augustus Fuller, son of Henry Weld Ful- 
ler and Esther Gould, and father of the chief 
justice, was born in Augusta, on the 5th of Oc- 
tober, 1806, studied law at Harvard law school 
and with his father, and was for a long time 
chairman of the board of commissioners of 
Penobscot county. He married Catherine j\I. 
Weston, daughter of Hon. Nathan Weston, who 
was chief justice of the common pleas of Mas- 
sachusetts, and, after JIaine was admitted as a 
State, was a member of the supreme court of 
that State, being associate justice from 1820 to 
1834, and chief justice from 1834 to 1841. Chief 
Justice Weston's mother was Elizabeth Bancroft, 
an aunt of the historian, George Bancroft, who 
had been previously married to Nathaniel Chee- 
ver, and two of whose grandchildren were the well 
known abolitionist divines, Rev. Dr. George B. 
Cheever and Rev. Henry T. Cheever. The mater- 
nal grandmother of the Chief Justice was Paulina 
Bass Cony, daughter of the Hon. Daniel Cony, 
of Augusta. She was a relative of Bishop Bass of 
Massachusetts and a descendant of John Bass, 
who married the daughter of Priscilla and John 
Alden. Her maternal grandfather was Rev. Philip 
Curtis, of Jamaica Plain. Judge Cony was a 
Revolutionary soldier, was present at the sur- 
render of Burgoyne, and was a leading man in the 
Kennebec valley during a long life. He had four 
daughters, — Mrs. Ruel Williams, Mrs. Nathan 
Weston, Mrs. Samuel Cony and Mrs. John H. 
Ingraham, — familiar names to the people of 
Maine. The Chief Justice is connected through 
the Welds with Chief Justice Shaw, through the 
Curtises with Benjamin R. Curtis, and through 
the Conys with Rufus Choate. His father and his 
father's two brothers, and his mother's four broth- 
ers, were all members of the bar. His father, 

grandfather and great-grandfather had all been 
distinguished citizens of the town in which he was 
born. The opinions of Chief Justice Weston, es- 
pecially upon commercial questions, are quoted 
even now as leading cases upon the topics dis- 

At the age of sixteen ^,Ir. Fuller entered Bow- 
doin College, where he mastered the regular 
course, graduating in the class of 1853. On 
leaving college he began the study of law in the 
office of his uncle, George Melville Weston, at 
Bangor, toward the close of his preparatory course 
attending lectures at the Harvard law school. 
Having been called to the bar of his native State, 
he commenced the practice of his profession at 
Augusta in 1856, in partnership with his uncle, 
Hon. Benjamin G. Fuller, with whom he also at 
the same time edited The Age, then one of the 
leading Democratic newspapers in the State. 
While acting in this capacity he reported the pro- 
ceedings of the State legislature for the same 
paper, and thus made the acquaintance of James 
G. Blaine, who was then on the editorial staff of 
the Republican newspaper in Augusta. While 
yet on the threshold of his career, Mr. Fuller so 
favorably impressed his fellow citizens by his 
ability that in 1856 the)' elected him a member of 
the common council of Augusta, of which he 
became the president, performing also the duties 
of city solicitor. Although only twent}--three 
years of age, he had already developed remark- 
able qualities as a lawyer, and an enviable position 
at the bar of his native State was assured him. 

The wonderful reports of the prosperity of the 
new West, however, and especially of the growth 
of Chicago, had attracted his attention, and he 
made up his mind to follow the track — by this 
time pretty well trodden — of Chicago's early 
pioneers. He resigned his offices in Augusta, 
and before the year 1856 had closed he had settled 
in Chicago. Here his abilities were speedily 
recognized. He soon won for himself an honor- 
able position at the bar and built up a lucrative 
practice which continued to grow until he stood 
in the foremost ranks of the profession. Within 
two years after his arrival in Chicago we find him 
arguing a case before the supreme court of this 
State, — Beach vs. Derby, — reported in the 19th 
volume of the Illinois Reports. From that time 



on until his elevation to the highest judicial office 
in this country he was engaged as counsel in 
nearly all the most important litigations that 
stand out as landmarks of the history of jurispru- 
dence in this State. His cases appear in more 
than one hundred volumes of the Illinois Reports. 
Several of them were of a character which at- 
tracted attention not only in this but also in other 

The most celebrated of them, perhaps, was the 
famous Cheney case, which resulted in the organi- 
zation of a new episcopal church in the United 
States and Canada, with a branch in England. 
The Rev. Charles Edward Cheney, rectorof Christ 
Church in Chicago, was charged before the bishop 
of the Protestant Episcopal diocese of Illinois, 
Dr. Whitehouse, with omitting the word "regen- 
erate" from the baptismal service in violation of 
the rubric; and the bishop appointed an ecclesias- 
tical court to hear evidence and report their find- 
ings to him. This court, which consisted entirely 
of clergymen, met in the lecture room of the 
cathedral of SS. Peter and Paul, and was presided 
over by Rev. Dr. Chase principal of an Episcopal 
training college in central Illinois. The prosecu- 
tion was conducted by IMr. S. Corning Judd, 
chancellor of the diocese, and the accused clerg>-- 
man was defended by Mr. Fuller, who also is a 
member of the Protestant Episcopal communion. 
Mr. Cheney did not deny that the doctrine of 
absolute baptismal regeneration was repugnant 
to him, nor that he was accustomed to omit the 
word expressing it when reading the baptismal 
service. In common with a number of other 
clerg>-men who afterward seceded with him from 
the Protestant Episcopal Church, he claimed a 
larger spiritual liberty than was conceded to him 
by the strict ritualists who instigated the prosecu- 
tion, and maintained that he could still remain a 
loyal minister of the church, though eliminating 
from the service book what he held to be error. 
The writings of the church fathers were appealed 
to in support of this position, while the canon 
law was cited to uphold the theory that a clergy- 
man can do nothing but follow the rubric, ex- 
cept with the permission of his bishop, to whom 
he owes absolute canonical obedience. 

Mr. Fuller met the case presented point by 
point, and astonished the doctors of divinity by 

his knowledge both of canon law and patristic 
literature. When it became evident that the decis- 
ion of the court would be against his client he 
sued out a writ of injunction, which was served 
upon the members of the court in open session 
by the sheriff of Cook county in person. But 
Air. Fuller was defeated in the supreme court, 
when that court decided that the court of equity 
could not enjoin the ecclesiastical proceedings. 
Mr. Cheney was subsequently deposed for canon- 
ical disobedience, and formed a new church, with 
the aid of Rev. Dr. Cummins, assistant bishop of 
Kentucky, who conferred upon Jilr. Cheney epis- 
copal orders, as Mr. Cheney, though discarding 
absolute baptismal regeneration, still clung to the 
dogma of apostolical succession. The new 
church became known as the Reformed Episco- 
pal Church, and ministers from the ^Methodist 
Presbyterian and other denominations joined its 
r.inks. The vestry and congregation of Christ 
Church followed Air. Cheney in his secession, 
and another suit arose between them and 
the bishop with regard to the title to the 
church property. The cases were in liti- 
gation for a long time, and at all stages 
Air. Fuller vigorously contested them, evincing a 
profound knowledge of ecclesiastical law rarely 
possessed by any lawyer except among those En- 
glish lawyers who are specially devoted to that 
line of practice. His argument in the first case 
before the Illinois supreme court was acknowl- 
edged to be a masterpiece of forensic skill and 
eloquence. The result of the second case was 
favorable to his clients, who still occupy Christ 
church under the ministrations of Bishop Cheney. 
This now historical case added greatly to Mr. 
Fullers fame as an advocate; but he had long 
before been recognized as a thorough and pains- 
taking lawyer, and noted for his unswerving 
loyalty to the interests of his clients. 

His practice continued to grow until it was 
limited only by his ability and willingness to un- 
dertake new cases. A marked characteristic of 
all his appearances in court was the thorough- 
ness with which his cases were prepared. Al- 
though possessing quick perceptive faculties and 
working with facility and ease, he studied every 
case closely and carefully, not grudging the most 
prodigious labor, so that he might be master of 



every detail; and he always went into court fully 
armed for the contest. As a fluent, earnest and 
convincing advocate he had but few equals. Al- 
ways dignified and courteous, he commanded 
alike the respect of the court and the esteem of 
his associates at the bar. His practice embraced 
all branches of the law except criminal and ad- 
miralty. As an expounder of commercial law 
and the law of real property, he had no superior 
at the Chicago bar. In the later years of his 
forensic career he practiced more on the chancery 
than the law side of the court, but in both he shone 
as an eloquent and successful pleader. Latterly 
his practice was very extensive in the federal 
courts; and it is a curious coincidence that he 
was of counsel in the first case heard before the 
late Chief Justice Waite when he went upon the 
bench, — Tappan vs. The Merchants' National 
Bank. That was in 1874; and since that time, 
as well as for some years before, scarcely a term of 
that court passed in which he had not one or more 
cases on the docket. 

Among the more important of his later cases in 
the federal courts may be mentioned the Lake 
Front case, which involved a long protracted 
struggle between the city of Chicago and the 
Illinois Central Railroad Company for the con- 
trol of the lake front, along which the railroad's 
right of way extended. The litigation over this 
matter dragged its slow length along for many 
years, assuming in its course many new 
phases, which it would be tedious to de- 
scribe in detail even were it possible within 
any reasonable limits to recount a history 
with which most of the older generation 
of Chicago citizens are familiar. In the whole of 
that litigation Mr. Fuller successfully represented 
the interests of the city of Chicago, while the most 
eminent counsel available at the Chicago bar were 
arrayed against him; but he fought them single- 
handed with wonderful pertinacity, and with ap- 
parently inexhaustible resources of argument, 
until at the final hearing before Justice Harlan 
and Judge Dlodgett, a year before Mr. Fuller's 
elevation to the federal bench, a result was arrived 
at which was essentially a triumph for the city, the 
credit of which was freely acknowledged to be due 
to the learning, research, and skill with which Mr. 
Fuller had conducted the litigation on the city's 
behalf. It was one of tlie most memorable legal 

battles that have ever been fought in the courts 
of the United .States, — memorable alike for the 
magnitude of the issues involved, the eminence of 
the counsel engaged, and the length of time 
through which it lasted ; and Mr. Fuller came out 
of it with honor and with a vastly enhanced pro- 
fessional reputation. 

A Democrat all his life, Mr. Fuller gave a loyal 
and earnest support to the cause of the Union 
during the war, believing the principles of the 
Jeflfersonian party to be not inconsistent witli the 
purest patriotism. Ardently desiring the triumph 
of the Union arms and the suppression of tlie 
rebellion, he yet saw no reason to change the 
political opinions which he had cherished from his 
earliest years, and has always been, through all 
vicissitudes of party fortune, a consistent and 
zealous member of the Democratic party. A 
thorough student of economic science, as well as 
of the principles of the law, he quickly discerned 
the fallacy of an attempt to increase the general 
prosperity by an inflation of the currency, and 
gave his firm support to the policy of resumption 
of specie payments and a return to what was 
popularly known as "hard money." 

He was a devoted personal friend of Stephen A. 
Douglas, and among the ablest adherents of that 
statesman. He welcomed Senator Douglas to 
Chicago in i860, in an address characterized both 
by elegance of diction and vigor of thought, and, 
in the following year, he delivered a commemora- 
tive oration which was widely praised for its style 
and matter. In 1861 he was a member of the 
convention called for the purpose of revising 
the constitution of the State of Illinois, and in that 
body his legal knowledge and abilities enabled 
him to render important service. In 1862 he was 
elected to the State legislature and served one 
term. He was chosen as a delegate to the Demo- 
craticnatit)nalconventionsof 1S64, 1872, 1876 and 
1880, and in 1876 was selected to nominate Mr. 
Hendricks for the vice presidency, which he did 
in a brilliant speech. In recent years, however, he 
has withdrawn himself from all active participa- 
tion in politics, though he still retains a warm in- 
terest in the success of his party and the principles 
which it represents, is a close obser^•er of public 
events and as keen a stuiient as ever of the public 
questions of the day. 

A thorough student from his college days, Mr. 



Fuller has all his life been a man of scholarly 
habits, — not merely a /uiliio libronun, though he 
is that,^ — but one who constantly exemplifies 
Bacon's maxim as to the right results of reading. 
His classical erudition tinctures his style on all oc- 
casions, in legal arguments, in public addresses, 
and even in lighter and less carefully prepared 
postprandial utterances, and oftentimes overflows 
with quotation. In the same way his wide ac- 
quaintance with the best modern literature is 
manifest not merely in the grace and polish of 
his diction, but also in the wealth of allusion and 
felicitous quotation with which it is embroidered. 
And above all, one rare element of strength which 
pervades his more serious discourse, is his famil- 
iarity with the bible, the very phraseology of 
which, grand in its mere simplicity, crops out 
frequently in IMr. Fullers speeches as though by 
an act of unconscious assimilation. By the mem- 
bers of his own profession he is held in the highest 
respect for the thoroughness of his legal learn- 
ing. He displays as complete a familiarity with 
fundamental principles as with precedents. A 
profound jurist as well as an accomplished 
scholar, he is moreover a singularly effective 
orator, a charm of his diction being enhanced by 
a graceful delivery and a dignified bearing which 
at once make a favorable impression upon an 

On the 1st of ]\Iay, 1888, Mr. Fuller was ap- 
pointed by President Cleveland to the high ofiice 
of chief justice of the United States, made vacant 
by the death of Hon. ]\Iorrison R. Waite. His 
appointment was most favorably received by the 
legal profession throughout the countr}-. Even 
his strongest political opponents were among the 
first to recognize his eminent fitness for the posi- 
tion. Called in the vigor of his manhood from 
the active practice of the bar, it was universally 
felt that Mr. Fuller, as a lawyer of wide experience 
and commanding position in his profession, and 
a citizen of the very highest personal character, 
would undoubtedly prove a worthy successor to 
Jay, Ellsworth, Marshall, Taney, Chase and 
Waite. His old college, Bowdoin, was among 
the foremost to greet the new chief justice with 
the highest honor in its gift, the degree of LL. D.. 
which was conferred upon him on commencement 
day in July, 1888. Wx. Fuller was present in at- 

tendance on a meeting of his class, that of 1853, 
and at the commencement dinner, in response to 
the call of the president, he made a response 
which was characterized by all the felicities of 
diction which have already been enumerated. 
"Praise from those who have been crowned with 
praise," he said, "is necessarily gratifying; and it 
is delightful on returning from long absence to re- 
ceive the cordial welcome of the friends of one's 
youth and early manhood, and of the many with 
whom kinship has been created by the tender 
touch of the fair and gracious mother in letters of 
us all. I cannot escape if I would, and I would 
not if I could, the touch of vanquished hands and 
the sound of stilled voices." Speaking of his old 
teachers, he went on to say: "Though in the care- 
less gayety of youth I count myself as not having 
fully apprehended it, I have since appreciated, and 
profoundly appreciate, the value of the works 
which follow them, now that they rest from their 
labors. It was not learning merely, it was not 
mental discipline merely, that they sought to im- 
part, but, in addition to and above these, they 
labored to ground the student in that faith in the 
eternal verities which would enable him, when 
the rain descended and the winds blew and the 
floods came, to withstand the storm as he only 
finally can do whose feet are planted on that rock. 
Wherever the sons of Bowdoin have acquired dis- 
tinction — and what region of the earth is not full 
of their labors? — I think it will be found that their 
success is largely attributable to the integrity of 
character developed by the spirit of the teaching 
of their alma iiiati'r. 

His fellow citizens of Chicago were not slow to 
acknowledge the honor conferred upon this com- 
munity by the selection of one of its members for 
the highest judicial ofifice in the land. His breth- 
ren of the Chicago bench and bar entertained him 
at a magnificent banquet, presided over by the 
venerable Thomas Drummond, Judge of the 
United States Circuit Court for the Northern Dis- 
trict of Illinois, himself a graduate of Bowdoin 
College. In proposing the health of the new 
chief justice. Judge Drummond referred to the 
attempted opposition to his confirmation by the 
senate. Characterizing Mr. Fuller as "one who 
has gone in and out among us for more than 
thirty years with an untarnished name and with a 



moral character which even malice could not 
sully," he said that the citizens of Chicago could 
commend ]\Ir. Fuller "as one who, from the 
eminence he has occupied as a lawyer, from his 
learning, from his ability, and his integrity, will 
adorn the high office to which he has been ap- 
pointed.'' The earnest and feeling words with 
which Chief Justice Fuller responded will long 
echo in the memories of those who were present 
on that occasion, and a brief extract from them 
may fitly close this sketch: 

"It has come to pass," Mr. Fuller said, "that 
as the star of empire, moving westward, hangs 
fixed and resplendent above the glorious valley 
of the Mississippi, a member of this bar and 
citizen of Chicago has been designated to the 
headship of the mightiest tribunal upon earth. 
Of that tribunal, or the grave and weighty re- 
sponsibilities of that office, it does not become me 
now to speak, nor could I if it were otherwise ap- 
propriate; for I am oppressed with the sadness 
inevitable where one, after long years of battle, 
puts his armor oft and retires from the ranks of 
his comrades. Whatever the vicissitudes of these 
thirty-t^vo years, they have never been marred 
bv personal estrangement from my brethren, aaid 
they have been happy years. Personally unam- 
bitious, I have not thought myself selfish in in- 

dulging my preference for the sweet habit of life 
rather than the struggle involved in prominent 
position. I have always been deeply impressed 
with the truth of the words of one of the wisest 
of mankind, that 'men in great place are thrice 
servants,— servants of the sovereign or State, 
servants of fame, and servants of business; so as 
they have no freedom, neither in their persons 
nor in their actions, nor in their times.' But I 
also know, of course, that the perfonnance of dut\- 
is the true end of life : and I find consolation in 
the thought that, though in the effort to prove 
worthy of the confidence of a great and common 
countrv, I must tread the wine-press alone, I shall 
be sustained by the sympathy, the friendship, and 
the good will of those with whom I have dwelt so 
long, and my afifection for whom no office how- 
ever exalted, no eminence however great, can im- 
pede or diminish." 

Mr. Fuller has been twice married: In 1858 to 
Calista O. Reynolds, and in 1866 to Mary Ellen 
Coolbaugh. He is the father of eight daughters 
and one son — two of the daughters being the 
issue of the first marriage. 

The biography of Chief Justice Fuller as it ap- 
pears above was prepared for and published in 
volume II of the Encyclopedia of Biography of 
Illinois. I i ■■ 


IN the last half century especially, it is seldom 
that one wins prominence in several lines. It 
is the tendency of the age to devote one's entire 
energies to a special line, continually working up- 
ward and concentrating his efforts toward ac- 
complishing a desired end; yet in the case of John 
Gorin Rogers it is demonstrated that an exalted 
position may be reached in more than one line 
of action. He was an eminent jurist, an able 
judge and a leader in political circles. His long 
connection with the public life of Chicago and a 
reputation that extended beyond the confines of 
Illinois well entitle him to representation in this 

Judge Rogers was born in Glasgow, Kentucky, 

December 28, 1S18, descending from an old Vir- 
ginian family founded in America by English an- 
cestors more than two hundred years ago. The 
judge acquired his elementary education in the 
schools of his native county and in 1841 was 
graduated at the Transylvania University, at Lex- 
ington, Kentucky, with the degree of Bachelor of 
Laws. He was then admitted to the bar and at 
once opened an office in his native city, where he 
soon won prominence, for his abilities were such 
that they commanded recognition. Desiring a 
wider field of labor, in the year 1857 he came to 
Chicago, where within a short time he was ac- 
corded a foremost position among the ablest 
lawyers of the cit\'. Wliilc still in Kcntuckx- he 



twice served as presidential elector, first in 1848 
and again in 1852. In 1871 he was elected 
associate judge, and after eight years' service in 
that office became chief justice of the circuit court, 
in 1879. It is said if a man follows that pursuit 
for which nature intended him he cannot but win 
success; and nature evidently intended Mr. 
Rogers for a judge if success is any criterion. He 
was a fluent speaker, an able writer, clear and 
forcible, and the charge which he gave to a jury, 
while summing up the evidence in a concise and 
logical way, was always suited to his auditors. If 
the jurors were of the more cultured class, his lan- 
guage was chosen accordingly; if the men were 
illiterate his words were of a simple nature, yet 
brought in all the points of the case in their various 
bearings. Judge Rogers' knowledge of real-estate 
law has been seldom equaled, he being consid- 
ered authority on all such matters. He was an 
eloquent pleader, a keen debater and his remark- 
able memor)' furnished him with a wealth of cita- 
tion and precedent. 

In 1844, before leaving his native State, the 
Judge was united in marriage with J\Iiss Arabella 
E. Crenshaw, the eldest daughter of B. Mills 
Crenshaw, late chief justice of Kentucky. A lady 
of gentle and refined manner, she shared in the 
high esteem in which her husband was held. She 
took great delight in her home and family, which 
numbered two sons and two daughters; and as 
the Judge was a man of domestic tastes a happy 
circle gathered round the fireside. 

In early life Judge Rogers was a supporter of 
the Whig party, and in i860 joined the Democ- 
racv, with which he afterward continued in con- 

nection. He was by no means a politician, yet 
was a man of pronounced views on various ques- 
tions and never feared to give expression to his 
sentiments. He was a member of the national 
convention which nominated Millard Fillmore for 
the presidency. 

He first became a member of the Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows in 1849, joining Glasgow 
Lodge, No. 65. Upon his removal to Chicago he 
became a member of Excelsior Lodge, No. 22, and 
after several times representing it in the grand 
lodge he was, in 1863, elected grand master of 
Illinois, and in 1869 was chosen grand represent- 
ative to the grand lodge of the United States. 
In 1 87 1 he was selected as one of the Chicago Re- 
lief Conunittee of the Odd Fellows' society, and 
being made its treasurer received and disbursed 
more than $100,000. That committee received 
the highest commendations, not only from the 
fraternity, the almoner of whose bounty it was, 
but also from the public, cognizant of its acts; and 
its admirable conduct of the delicate work 
assigned it shed new luster upon the name of the 
beneficent order. The Judge was modest and 
unassuming in disposition, courteous and suave 
in manner, self-poised and dignified in demeanor, 
thoughtful of the feelings and respectful toward tb.e 
opinons of others, and aided his fellow men with a 
generous devotion that won him the highest re- 
gard of all with whom he was brought in contact. 

His death occurred in Chicago, January 10, 
1887, and the community mourned the loss of one 
of its most valued and highly respected citizens, 
the bar one of its most able members and his 
associates a most loval friend. 


IN past ages the history of a country was the 
record of wars and conquests; to-day it is the 
record of commercial activity, and those whose 
names are foremost in its annals are the leaders 
in business circles. The conquests now made 
are those of mind over matter, not of man over 
man, and the victor is he who can successfully 
establish, control and operate extensive commer- 

cial interests. Robert J. Bennett is one of the 
strong and influential men whose lives have be- 
come an essential part of the history of Chicago 
and of the West. Tireless energy, keen percep- 
tion, honesty of purpose, genius for devising and 
executing the right thing at the right time, joined 
to ever}'-day common sense, guided by great will 
power, are the chief characteristics of the man. 



Connected witli one of the leading' wholesale 
grocers' houses of Chicago, the place that he occu- 
pies in business circles is in the front rank. 

Mr. Bennett was born in Pulaski, Oswego 
county, New York, on the 9th of February, 1839, 
and descended from Illinois' pioneers. The Ben- 
netts are of Irish ancestr>', the family having been 
founded in America by those of that name who 
left the Emerald Isle and took up their residence 
in this country during early Colonial days. His 
father, Reuben J. Bennett, was one of the pioneer 
settlers of Oswego county. New York, and mar- 
ried Alta Haskins, who was of the seventh gener- 
ation from i\Iiles Standish, governor of the Mas- 
sachusetts Colony. 

When Robert was a child of five years, in 1844, 
the parents left their old home in the Empire 
State and started westsvard, their destination be- 
ing Lake county, Illinois. From the Govern- 
ment the father purchased a tract of land near 
Diamond Lake, and continued the cultivation 
and improvement of the same up to the time of 
his death, which occurred in 1883. His wife sur- 
vived him ten years and passed away in 1893, at 
the age of eighty-five. 

Upon the old homestead farm Robert J. Ben- 
nett spent his boyhood and youth, the outdoor 
life giving him the necessary physical training, 
while the schools of the neighborhood afforded 
him tile means of mental development. He was 
an apt student and soon fitted himself for the pro- 
fession of teaching, which he followed to a limited 
extent during his earlier years, having charge of 
several district schools. A new life opened to 
him in 1863, when he came to Chicago. He de- 
sired a broader field of labor and usefulness and 
sought it in the rapidly growing city by the lake. 
He was at that time a young man of good gen- 
eral information, ambitious and enterprising, 
and at once secured the position of cashier and 
general bookkeeper for William M. Hoyt — a 
wholesale dealer in fruits and fancy groceries. 
He held that position for two years, and in 1865 
joined A. M. Fuller in the purchase of Mr. Hoyt's 
interest in tlie store and business. Mr. Hoyt then 
embarked in the wholesale grocer}- trade. This 
undertaking was jirospcrous. In the great fire 
of 1871 Bennett & Fuller lost their all and 
much more. Their creditors voluntarily signed 

an agreement to take fifty cents on the dollar, 
but these young men paid in full. Concerning 
this settlement Mr. Bennett wrote: "I worked 
fifteen to sixteen hours per day and had but one 
suit of clothes at a time until all of that great 
debt was paid one hundred cents on the dollar 
with interest from the day it was due. The time 
of final release was a proud day in my life." 

On the 1st of August, 1874, a connection was 
formed between the old house, of which Mr. Hoyt 
was leading partner, and the finn of Bennett & 
Fuller. On the consolidation of the two houses 
Mr. Bennett assumed financial direction of the 
new company's affairs, a position which has 
claimed his constant attention since. His share 
in shaping the policy of the house has had a 
marked influence in winning its phenomenal suc- 
cess. About this time the plan of selling goods 
through the medium of traveling salesmen was 
discontinued and that of winning customers 
through the medium of printed price lists adopted. 
The incorporation of the firm was recorded in 
1882, under the title of the William M. Hoyt 
Company, the capital stock being placed at $500,- 
000, of which sixty per cent was paid at that date. 
The officers were William ^l. Hoyt, president; 
A. M. Fuller, vice-president; and R. J. Bennett, 
secretary and treasurer. The officers named, 
with A. C. Buttolph and Graeme Stewart, who 
were admitted in the company, formed the board 
of directors, and have served in their respective 
positions for the last twelve years. To-day the 
capital is entirely paid up and a suqilus fund of 
over $100,000 is recorded. 

Many are the business houses, retail and whole- 
sale, located in Chicago, but none have a higher 
reputation as substantial and reliable concerns than 
that of the William M. Hoyt Company, which is 
primarily due to the untiring industry of the mem- 
bers of the firm and to the reputation they have 
won for honorable dealings throughout the en- 
tire territor>- tributary to Chicago. From the 
time when Mr. Bennett entered the employ of Mr. 
Hovt as bookkeeper, the relations existing be- 
tween them have been of the most pleasant char- 
acter. It is seldom that one sees a firm where 
the members work together with such perfect 
harmony, the labors of one seeming to perfectly 
supplement and round out those of the other. 



The intere&ts of Mr. Bennett and Mr. Hoyt are as 
one, and two more honored business men cannot 
be found in the city of Chicago to-day than these 

Tlie site of their large house is that on which 
stood Fort Deai-born, and upon a white marble 
tablet, which is inserted in the front of the build- 
ing, is a bas-relief of the old "block house," below 
which is the inscription: "This building occupies 
the site of Fort Dearborn, which extended a little 
across Michigan avenue and somewhat into the 
river as it now is. The fort was built in 1803 and 
1804, forming our outmost defense. By order of 
General Hull it was evacuated August 15, 1812, 
after its stores and provisions had been distributed 
among the Indians. Yen.' soon after, the Indians 
attacked and massacred about fifty of the troops 
and a number of citizens, including women and 
children, and next day burned the fort. In 1816 
it was rebuilt; but after the Black Hawk war it 
went into gradual disuse, and in I\Iay, 1837, was 
abandoned by the army, but was occupied by var- 
ious Government offices until 1857, when it was 
torn down excepting a single building which 
stood upon the site until the great fire of October 
9, 1871. At the suggestion of the Chicago His- 
torical Society this tablet was erected, Novem- 
ber, 1880, by W. ^I. Hoyt." This inscription was 
written by Mr. Bennett at the request of the Chi- 
cago Historical Society, and the plan of the tablet 
was drawn by him. It seems appropriate that 
one of the oldest and most reliable houses in Chi- 
cago should stand upon this historic ground, 
around which clusters the romance of the city. 

The attention of Mr. Bennett has by no means 
been limited to one line of enterprise, for he is a 
man of broad capabilities. He has been a director 
in the Atlas National Bank and the owner of con- 
siderable real estate in Ravenswood, which he has 
greatly improved, thereby adding to the beauty 
and prosperity of one of Chicago's most delight- 
ful suburbs. He to-day enjoys the reward of his 
painstaking and conscientious work. By his 
energy, perseverance and fine business ability he 
has been cnabied to secure an ample fortune. Sys- 
tematic and methodical, his sagacity, keen dis- 
crimination and sound judgment have made him 
one of the prosperous wholesale merchants of the 
citv. It is not alone in the business world that 

Mr. Bennett is well known. The metropolis of 
the West, which for a third of a centun.- has been 
his home, is indebted to him for the efforts he has 
put forth in her behalf. Social, educational and 
moral interests have been promoted by him, and 
anything that tends to uplift and benefit humanity 
secures his hearty co-operation. He is especially 
liberal in his donations to the Congregational 
Church, and was the principal contributor toward 
that church at Ravenswood, of which he and his 
wife are active members. He is a leader in the 
work of the Sunday-school, has been prominent in 
the advancement of the Young INIen's Christian 
Association, and built and equipped the gym- 
nasium of the Ravenswood branch, at a cost of 
$15,000, which he gave to the society free of 
charge for five years. The cause of education 
finds in him a warm friend, and his deep and sin- 
cere interest in the welfare of his fellowmen 
prompts his support of various charities and en- 
terprises that are calculated to prove of general 
benefit. His political support is given to the 
Republican party, and he is one of the best in- 
formed men in the countrj' on the subject of 
American politics. He ranks among the most 
honored counselors of the party, and his opin- 
ions and advice are continually sought on ques- 
tions of the greatest importance to the city. He 
has often been solicited to become a candidate 
for ofifice, but has always declined all honors of 
a political character. 

Fond of travel, Mr. Bennett finds his chief 
source of recreation and rest in this way. He 
has made many visits to different parts of this 
coimtn-,fonuingnew friendships and associations. 
In June, 1895, he returned after a six-months 
absence in the Old World, during which time he 
visited the Holy Land and Eg}pt, which were 
of great interest to him, not only on account of 
the difference in the life of the inhabitants of to- 
day, but also because of memories and associa- 
tions in connection witli the scenes of Bible 
history^ He has also traveled through continental 
Europe, has seen the ancient ruins of northern 
Africa, visited tlie old Byzantine empire and class- 
ic Greece, contrasting the present with the past 
civilization, has seen the Orient's extensive em- 
pire, China, has spent some time in the enterpris- 
ing and progressive empire of Japan, and has 


traveled in the land of Montezuma. In manner, 
Mr. Bennett is pleasant and genial, in disposition 
is kindly, and the high regard in which he is uni- 
versally held is well deser\'ed. 

The domestic relations of Mr. Bennett have 
ever been of the most pleasant, and he finds in 
his home his greatest enjoyment. He was hap- 

pily married, in 1862, to Miss Electa M. Hov-t, 
sister of \\'illiam M. Hoyt, and to them were bom 
three children: Arthur G., connected with tlie 
wholesale house; Maude E., wife of Morri- 
son H. Vail, of Chicago, an architect; and Will- 
iam Hoyt Bennett, now an employee of the 



THE gentleman whose name honors this page 
was born in the village of Petersburg, Som- 
.^rset county, Pennsylvania, December 22, 1831, 
the fourth in order of birth of the eight children of 
James and Maria (Hugus) Connelly, the former 
a contractor and heavy dealer in stock, who as- 
sisted in building the great National road. 

Our subject's maternal ancestors on both sides 
were Huguenots, who fled from France at the 
time of the massacre. Some of their descendants, 
Hugus and Ankeny by name, fought with 
Washington. His paternal grandfather, Bernard 
Connelly, came to this country from the 
north of Ireland near the close of the last century 
and located in Philadelphia, where he met with 
financial success. In after years he located in 
Somerset county, where he purchased a large 
tract of land and engaged extensively in the rais- 
ing of live stock. He reared three sons and four 
daughters. One of the points he loved to dwell 
upon in his old age, was that he had given his 
children the best education the country afTorded, 
in addition deeding each a farm. 

The early boyhood days of our subject, until 
the death of his father, were passed in his native 
village. Then his mother moved to the town of 
Somerset with her family, thus enabling her chil- 
dren to enjoy the superior educational advan- 
tages afiforded there. After leaving the Somer- 
set Academy he learned the trade of printing in 
the office of the Somerset Visitor, whose editor 
was General A. H. CofFroth, who has since be- 
come one of Pennsylvania's distinguished sons. 
When twenty years of age he became half owner 
and editor of the Beaver Star, a connection that 
continued for two years and a half, at the expi- 

ration of which period he disposed of his interest 
therein, and, forming a partnership with Eman- 
uel J. Pershing, brother of Judge Cyrus L. Per- 
shing, of Pennsylvania, moved to Rock Island, 
in February, 1855, and purchased the Rock 
Islander, which was soon afterward changed to 
a daily. 

In 1857 Messrs. Pershing & Connelly purchased 
the Argus and consolidated the two papers. Mr. 
Connelly's connection with the consolidated pa- 
per continued until 1859. 

In 1858 he began reading law, under the in- 
struction of Judge J. W. Drury, and was admit- 
ted to the bar in i860. He at once entered upon 
the practice of his profession, continuing suc- 
cessfully in his new vocation until September 12, 
1862, when he entered the army. From the Chi- 
cago Inter Ocean of September 27, 1887, the fol- 
lowing outline of INIajor Connelly's military ca- 
reer is taken: 

Henry Clay Connelly is a member of General 
John Buford Post, Xo. 243, Rock Island, of which 
he was a charter member and its first commander. 
He was commissioned second lieutenant of Com- 
pany L, Fourteenth Illinois Cavaln-, Tanuarv 7, 

In the spring the regiment went to the front, 
its first headquarters being Glasgow, Kentucky. 
While here the regiment was active in scouting, 
and the Confederate forces at Celina and near 
Turkey Neck bend on the Cumberland river were 
attacked and routed. The next work was the 
pursuit of General Morgan for twenty-eight days 
and nights, the battle of Buffington Island, in 
Ohio, and the capture of Morgan. Lieutenant 
Connelly was present at the capture. In August, 



under General Burnside, the Union forces went 
into east Tennessee. With the advance guard 
Lieutenant Connelly entered Knoxville Septem- 
ber I, General Burnside taking formal posses- 
sion on the 3d. He heard the last toot of the last 
locomotive of General Buckner commanding the 
Confederates sounded in Knoxville. He was at 
the taking of Cumberland Gap, at Bristol, and 
at the numerous encounters in that locality, at 
the defense of Knoxville and its incidents, at 
Bean Station, at Dandridge, Fair Garden, Walk- 
er's Ford, Strawberry Plains, and at the fight with 
Thomas' Cherokee Indian Legion in North Car- 
olina. During the east Tennessee campaign he 
was placed in charge of a battery of artillery. On 
the Indian raid, after following a mountainous 
old Indian trail, the 2d of February the Chero- 
kees were surprised in their camp, attacked and 
the legion cut to pieces, many of them being 
killed and captured. Lieutenant Connelly had 
with him part of his battery. Herculean efforts 
were required to take the guns and caissons over 
the great mountains and through the deep ra- 
vines, but the work was successfully accomplished. 
General Grant, in a special dispatch, highly com- 
plimented the Fourteenth for this work. 

He received his commission as captain after 
this expedition and did duty at brigade head- 
cjuarters as Assistant Adjutant General, and also 
as inspector. He participated in the Atlanta cam- 
paign. On the Macon raid his regiment, being 
in General Stoneman's command, shared the mis- 
fortune of this officer, and after it had cut its way 
out in a splendid charge. Being dismounted by 
reason of loss of horses on the Macon raid, the 
regiment did duty as infantry at the siege of At- 
lanta and was one of the first which entered the 
city after its fall. Being remounted and re- 
equipped about the ist of November, 1864, it 
took a position on the right of the Union army 
on the Tennessee river to watch General Hood's 
advance. From the river to Columbia Major Con- 
nelly day and night was with the rear guard, being 
repeatedly surrounded. With splendid courage 
his command charged the Confederate lines with 
success. Near Iilount Pleasant, and also at Duck 
river, after dark, finding himself cut off and sur- 
rounded, he placed himself at the head of his 
command and carried his colunm through the 

Confederate lines with success. During the ad- 
vance of General Hood's great and aggressive 
army, including the battle at Franklin and the 
advance of the Union army at Nashville, his offi- 
cers and the men of his command speak in en- 
thusiastic terms of Major Connelly's leadership 
and his great qualities as a soldier. From sec- 
ond lieutenant he was promoted captain over his 
first lieutenant, and by a vote of the officers of 
liis regiment, who also voiced the sentiment 
of the rank and file, he was elected major 
over six captains who held commissions older 
than his! 

The Inter Ocean's article is brief, and does not 
give in detail the events leading to Captain Con- 
nelly's promotion, which are related in the next 
two paragraphs. Colonel F. M. Davidson, of the 
Fourteenth, wrote two letters to Governor 
Oglesby recommending the subject of our sketch 
for the position of major. These letters were 
written at Edgefield, Tennessee, the first bear- 
ing date February 7, 1865, in which Colonel Da- 
vidson says: 

"In recommending Captain Connelly for this 
position (Major) it afTords me much pleasure to 
bear witness to the gallant and successful man- 
ner in which he has conducted himself as a 
soldier whenever and wherever he has been called 
upon to face the enemy. His bearing on the 
Morgan raid to the day he (Morgan) was cap- 
tured; his skill through the entire campaign in 
east Tennessee under General Burnside, and par- 
ticularly on the 14th day of December, 1863, at 
the battle of Bean Station, fighting Longstreet's 
corps, in which he handled a battery with the 
coolest daring and most splendid success; his en- 
ergy on the North Carolina expedition in the 
month of February, 1864, commanded by my- 
self; his bravery and dash during the recent cam- 
paign in Tennessee under General Thomas, and 
particularly on the night of the 23d of November, 
1864, when, being surrounded by General Forrest, 
after otlier officers failed in charging the enemy's 
lines, he placed himself at tlie head of the column,' 
rallied the men and charged out without the loss 
of a man; and also on the 15th of December (at 
Nashville), when he rallied his regiment after 
being broken under a fearful cannonade from the 
enemy's batteries. In short his whole career as 


a soldier proves him to be worthy of prompt pro- 

Governor Oglesby hesitated to commission a 
junior captain over so many seniors, and Colonel 
Davidson, being advised of this hesitation, on 
March 28, 1865, wrote again as follows: * * * 
"I can only repeat what I said of Captain Con- 
nelly in my communication to Governor Oglesby 
dated February 7, 1865. Aside from his being 
an officer of the first order (particular mention 
of some of his acts of bravery being therein set 
forth), his high tone as a gentleman and his 
acknowledged talent as a man loudly call for 
ofificial recognition of his services to his country-. 
He has capacity for any position as field ofificer. 
Anything you may be able to do for him will be 
esteemed as a personal favor." 

Upon his return from the war Major Connelly 
resumed his practice. In 1866 he was elected 
police magistrate for a term of four years, and 
was city attorney of Rock Island during the years 
1869-70-71. January, 1894, his son, Bernard D., 
who is a graduate of the Iowa State University, 
and had been for five years associated with tlie law 
firm of Douthitt, Jones & IMason, of Topeka, 
Kansas, became associatetl with him under the 
firm title of Connelly & Connelly. Their practice 
covers the various branches of the law, and the 
finn ranks as one of the leading law firms of Rock 

Bailey Davenport in his lifetime was president 
and owner of the Rock Island & Moline Street 
railway. Major Connelly succeeded to the presi- 
dency of the company after Mr. Davenport's 

In August, 1869, the steamer Dubuque, plying 
on the Mississippi river between St. Louis and 
St. Paul, on an up-river trip, carried a large num- 
ber of harvest hands. The employes on the boat 
were negroes. Some difficulty arose between a 
white man and a negro which resulted in a riot 
on the boat, when near Hampton, Rock Island 
county. About a dozen negroes lost their lives 
by being clubbed, and then thrown or driven 
into the river, in which they were drowned. 
Michael Lynch led the assault on the defenceless 
blacks. He and a dozen others were indicted 
for murder, all of them except Lynch taking a 
change of venue to Henry county. Lynch was 

captured in Arkansas and brought back a pris- 
oner to Rock Island, tried, convicted and sent 
to State's prison for ten years. A most intense 
hatred existed against Lynch among the people. 
Major Connelly ably defended him and procured 
a comparatively light verdict for hmi. The 
mass of the people thought he should have been 

Major Connelly was one of the original stock- 
holders of both the Rock Island Buggy Com- 
pany and the Rock Island Savings Bank. He 
has always taken great interest in all matters per- 
taining to the advancement of the prosperity of 
Rock Island, and in 1861 labored many weeks 
with senators and members of the house at Wash- 
ington to secure the passage of the bill by Con- 
gress locating the great national arsenal at Rock 
Island. More recently he has been one of those 
who obtained the passage of a special bill through 
both branches of Congress authorizing the con- 
struction of an electric railroad across the Mis- 
sissippi bet\veen Rock Island and Davenport, 

Major Connelly is a strong believer in and sup- 
porter of the doctrines of the Democratic party. 
In the Buchanan campaign of 1856, and the 
Douglas-Lincoln campaign of 1858, he was an 
active worker. The late Judge Jere S. Black, who 
was a personal friend of Mr. Connelly, and at 
that time a member of Buchanan's cabinet, gave 
him to understand that he could have the post- 
office at Rock Island. This appointment he re- 
spectfully declined. He was a firm friend of Sen- 
ator Douglas, and considered it inconsistent for 
him to accept office from Mr. Buchanan while 
he used the power of his administration in the 
State, — though unsuccessfully, — to defeat Sena- 
tor Douglas. President Johnson appointed him 
to the postmastership of Rock Island, but a Re- 
publican senate failed to confirm the nomination. 
At the Democratic Congressional convention 
which met at Monmoutli in 1882, the late Hon. 
P. L. Cable placed Major Connelly in nomijiation 
in a strong speech. This was done in opposition 
to the latter's wishes. The Democratic State con- 
vention which met in Peoria in 1884 honored him 
by making him temporary chaimian of the conven- 
tion. His severe campaign work in the army 
developed heart disease, and the excessive heat, 



combined with the work he had done in the Con- 
gressional convention before taking his place in 
the State convention, produced an attack which 
prostrated him, and he was obliged to retire from 
the chair. 

He has been an indefatigable worker for the 
success of the Hennepin canal, and for nearly 
twenty years, as member and president of the 
Rock Island school board, and as member, sec- 
retary and president of the public library of the 
same city, has given his personal attention to 
their success. 

On the I2th day of May, 1857, Mr. Connelly 
was united in marriage to Miss Adelaide Mc- 
Call, a native of New York, whose grandfather 
fought in the war of 1812 antl other ancestors in 

the Revolutionary war. Of their children, Clark 
H. has for ten years past been with the First Na- 
tional Bank of Sioux City, Iowa; Alvin H. is a 
manufacturer of and wholesale dealer in hard- 
wood lumber in Kansas City; Mabel is the wife of 
Dr. C. W. j\IcGavren, of Missouri Valley, Iowa; 
Bernard D. is associated with his father, and Miss 
Lucia is at home. 

Major Connelly has been a frequent contrib- 
utor to the National Tribune, of articles relating 
to personal experiences during the war, and has 
written several instructive and interesting papers 
for various law journals. 

His success in life may be ascribed to posi- 
tive, determined pursuit of business, and to the 
fact that he is a man of honesty and integrity. 


JOHN P. ALTGELD, the present governor of 
Illinois, was born in Prussia, in 1848, and 
came to this country with his parents when a 
boy, his father settling on a farm near Mansfield, 
Ohio. At an early age he showed studious traits, 
applying himself to his books whenever he could 
steal a few moments from work on his father's 
fann. He attended the district school when the 
farm work was not pressing, but at the age of 
sixteen enlisted in Company C, One Hundred and 
Sixty-third Ohio Infantry, and went to the front, 
where he participated in the closing campaign of 
the Civil war. 

Returning home he spent the next few years in 
alternately teaching school, study and working as 
a farm hand. Then he went to St. Louis, where 
he read law in a desultory way, and afterward in 
a law office at Savannah, Missouri. His industry 
and faculty for getting to the heart of a subject 
soon brought him clients and prosperity. In 
1S74 he was elected prosecuting attorney of 
Andrew county, but in October of the succeeding 
year he resigned this office and removed to Chi- 
cago. Then he took little interest in politics for 
several years, but in i884he accepted a nomination 
for Congress in an overwhelming Republican 
district, and was defeated, but by a much reduced 

Republican majority. In 1886, without his solici- 
tation, he was nominated for superior judge of 
Cook county, which at that time gave a Republi- 
can majority of about 12,000. He hesitated some 
time before accepting, but finally did so, and so 
thorough a canvass did he malce, and so perfect 
was his organization, that notwithstanding defec- 
tions from the Democratic party and quarrels 
within its ranks, he was elected by a large major- 
ity, the laboring men being especially active in his 
interests. He was on the bench nearly five years, 
being chief justice of the superior court for one 
year. A multiplicitv of private interests compelled 
him to resign this position in August, 1891. He 
has become very wealthy, principally by the buy- 
ing and selling of real estate in Chicago and in- 
vestments in street railways. He designed and 
built a number of the finest business blocks in 

He was nominated for Governor of Illinois on 
the first ballot in the Democratic convention of 
1892, and made two efficient canvasses of the 
State, a preliminary one in which he visited everj- 
county to ascertain its political condition, and give 
instructions for organization, and another to ad- 
dress the people on the issues of the day. He was 
triumphantly elected, to the surprise of even his 


W^yL^if /^ny{j::^i,i^ 


own party. For over thirty years Illinois had 
been considered safe for 25,000 to 50,000 Repub- 
lican plurality. While Michigan, Iowa, Kansas, 
Wisconsin, Ohio and other Republican States had 
at times wandered from the path of Republican- 
ism, it was believed that nothing could affect Illi- 
nois. So the Democrats entered the campaign 
without hope; but Mr. Altgeld was sanguine of an 
election, and those nearest him predicted it with 
confidence. The energy, ability and talent for 
organization which he possessed in a great meas- 
ure decided the contest. His promise to the con- 

vention that his "would be a strictly business 
administration" is being fulfilled. He is a busi- 
nes."; man and he applies business principles to the 
discharge of his official duties, and he demands 
(lualifications other than party service from the 
men he appoints to office. He has filled 
the more important places with men of fit- 
ness and ability, and the press generally 
has indorsed his policy. Some years ago he 
published a book on the penal machiner>- of 
the State, and since then he has puljlishcd "Live 


ONE of the ablest and best known business 
men of Illinois is Martin Kingman, of Peo- 
ria, who was born in Deer Creek, Tazewell 
county, this State, April i, 1844, the youngest 
of the four sons of Abel and Mary Ann (Bing- 
ham) Kingman, who were natives respectively 
of Massachusetts and Virginia. 

The Kingman family is of English origin, those 
of the name in America having descended from 
Henry and Joanna Kingman, who landed at 
Weymouth, Massachusetts, in May, 1622, at 
which point the former operated a ferry across 
Weymouth bay, — a fact which is commemorated 
in the family coat of arms adopted at the reunion 
four years since, at which time funds were sub- 
scribed to erect a monument to the founders of 
the family in America. 

The children of Henry Kingman located in 
North Bridgewater, ^Massachusetts, a short dis- 
tance from Weymouth, where the grandfather of 
the subject of this sketch was born. 

Abel Kingman, the father of Martin, was 
born at Pelham, ^Massachusetts, and in 1834 
removed to Illinois, where he engaged in fann- 
ing, in Tazewell county. It was here that 
he formed the acquaintance of Mary Ann 
Bingham, to whom he was married in 1835. 
She was of English and French descent, and 
removed from Norfolk, \'irginia, her birthplace, 
with her parents. The other sons of this worthy 
coujilc arc all living, Charles residing in Cali- 

fornia, Cyrus at Delavan, and Henr}' in Kansas. 
When Martin was but four years of age his father 
was accidentall}' drowned while crossing the 
^lackinaw river, and his mother was left with 
four children and the fami, upon which our sub- 
ject passed his early boyhood. He attended the 
local district school until his fifteenth year, when 
he entered the academy at Tremont, supplement- 
ing the instruction there received by a two-years 
course at the Washington Academy, attending 
school in the summers and teaching winters. 

While he was engaged in teaching the Civil war 
broke out, and his elder brother Cyrus joined the 
Union army. Martin was imbued with the spirit 
of patriotism, and upon the president's call for 
300,000 troops in 1862, he. though but a youth of 
eighteen, enlisted as a private in the Eighty-sixth 
Illinois ^'olunteers. Upon the organization of 
his company— G — he was elected second lieu- 
tenant, being the youngest officer in the regiment, 
brigade or division. Lieutenant Kingnian par- 
ticipated with his regiment, which was a part of 
the Third Brigade, Second Division of the 
Fourteenth Army Corps, Army of the Cum1)er- 
land, in all battles from Perryville to the capture 
of Atlanta, also in Sherman's memorable march 
to the sea. From Savannah he marched through 
the Carolinas and \'irginia to Washington and 
took ]inrt in the grand review of the army prior to 
its disbandmcnt. During tlie last year and a half 
of his service he was on detached serN-ice. as acting 



assistant quartermaster on the staff of Colonel 
Dan McCook — youngest of the famous fighting 
McCooks — and had charge of the ambulance 
train and anny stores of the Third Brigade, 
Second Division, Fourteenth Army Corps, dur- 
ing the Atlanta campaign and until Washington 
was reached. After his return home he was ap- 
pointed by his regiment a member of a com- 
mittee to arrange for a regimental reunion at 
Peoria, August 27, 1865, and came to that city 
for that purpose. 

While in Peoria he began work as salesman in 
a flouring mill, an employment in which he con- 
tinued during the fall and winter of 1865, until 
the spring of 1866, at which time, having saved a 
snug simi of money from his amiy pay, he formed 
a partnership with a 'Mr. Clauson, under the title 
Clauson & Kingman, to carry on the grocery- 
business. This connection continued for three 
months, at the expiration of \Vhich period he dis- 
posed of his interest at a handsome profit, and 
engaged as a traveling salesman for a wholesale 
l)oot and shoe house of Peoria. 

In Januar}', 1867, he relinciuished this position 
and established the present agricultural imple- 
ment business of Kingman & Company. For 
three years the firm was Kingman & Dunham, 
when Mr. Dunham, owing to ill health, disposed of 
his interest to j\lr. Hotchkiss, and for three years 
the concern was known as Kingman, Hotchkiss 
& Company. In 1873 it became Kingman & 
Company and was incorporated under that title 
in 1882. Of this corp (ration, which has a capital 
stock of $600,000 and a surplus of $400,000, Mr. 
Kingman is president, — not merely in name, but 
also in reality, for his is the heart to resolve and 
the brain to direct all of its vast amount of Inisi- 
ness. Branch houses are operated at St. Louis, 
Kansas City, Omaha and Des iNIoines, with trans- 
fer houses at Detroit, j\Iilwaukee, Sioux City and 
Tcrre Haute. Employment is given to two hun- 
dred and fifty people, — a vast number when one 
takes into consideration the fact that it is not a 
manufacturing concern. Forty traveling sales- 
men represent the house "on the road," and its 
goods find a market throughout the central West- 
ern .States. It is a leader in its line. 

Mr. Kingman is also president of the Weir 
Plow Company, of Monmouth (of which his son 

Louis S. is manager), with a capital of half a mil- 
lion dollars and employing two hundred and fifty 
hands. He was the organizer and is the presi- 
dent of the Peoria Cordage Company, which has a 
capital of $200,000 and a surplus of $50,000, and 
employs about the same number of hands as does 
the plow company ; and he is also a director and 
one of the largest stockholders of the Marseilles 
(Illinois) Manufacturing Company, manufacturers 
of cornshellers and windmills. Almost the entire 
product of these three great establishments is sold 
bv Kingman & Company, and some idea of the 
n:agnitude of the company may be gathered from 
the fact that its sales for the year 1892 aggregated 
five millions of dollars. 

But j\lr. Kingman has not confined tlie field of 
his usefulness to manufacturing alone. As a 
financier he is equally prominent, being presi- 
dent of the Peoria Saving, Loan & Trust Com- 
pany, capitalized for $200,000, and a director and 
the largest stockholder of the Central National 
Bank of Peoria (of which he was formerly presi- 
dent), whose capital and surplus approximate a 
quarter of a million. He was one of the organ- 
izers and original stockholders of the Peoria Gen- 
eral Electric Light Company, of which he is treas- 
urer. He also fills the presidency of the National 
Hotel Company of Peoria, as well as being one of 
its organizers and heaviest stockholders. Other 
enterprises of importance might be added to this 
list, but enough have been enumerated to show 
the versatility and scope of his genius. 

Mr. Kingman is a member of the Congrega- 
ticmal Church, of which for twenty years he has 
been a trustee, and was one of the largest in- 
dividual contributors toward the erection of its 
handsome edifice in Peoria. He is also a member 
of the Illinois Home jNIissionary Society; was the 
first president, and assisted in the organization, 
of the Young Men's Christian Association of 
Peoria, and gave largely to assist it in erecting its 
magnificent office building on Jefferson avenue. 

In political faith he is a strong Republican, and 
was for si.x years a member of the State Board of 
Canal Commissioners, having been appointed as 
such by Governor Cullom. He served on the 
board of supervisors of Peoria county, and was a 
member of the building committee of that body at 
the time the present courthouse was built. He 



is also a member of tlie Grand Army of the Re- 
public, and of the Illinois Commandry of the 
Military Order of the Loyal Legion. 

Mr. Kingman was married May 21, 1867, to 
Miss Emeline T. Shelley, a native of Illinois. Of 
their five children there are living: Louis Shelley, 
previously mentioned; Walter Bingham, at the 
head of the bicycle department of Kingman & 
Company; and a daughter, ]\label Dunham. The 
Kingman residence, on Perry street, is one of 

the charming homes of Peoria, Ijoth in point of 
elegance and hospitality. 

Personally Mr. Kingman is the most genial of 
men, and though his time is fully occupied by the 
details of his vast business interests he always 
finds time and opportunity to devote to those of 
his friends whose calls are purely of a so- 
cial character. He is a thorough exempli- 
fication of the typical American business man 
and gentleman. 


THERE are many men in Chicago — leaders in 
professional and commercial circles — who 
have acquired a national reputation as business 
men and are known to business men throughout 
the country, but in the homes of this land, as well 
as in the establishments devoted to commerce, the 
name of B. F. Jacobs is familiar. Amidst life's 
busy cares he has found time to devote to hmnan- 
ity, and, recognizing the brotherhood of mankind, 
he has labored for the advancement of the human 
race and especially has devoted himself to the 
work of educating and preparing children for a 
higher moral life. Realizing the truth and wis- 
dom which Solomon expressed in the well-known 
words, "Train up a child in the way he should 
go, and when he is old he will not depart from 
it," Mr. Jacobs has devoted much of the best 
years of his manhood to Sunday-school work. 

He was born in Paterson, New Jersey, Septem- 
ber 18, 1834, and is a son of Charles P. and Eliza 
(Pelton) Jacobs. He is distinctively American, 
as were his ancestors for several generations back. 
His father's family lived in Rhode Island and 
came originally from England to this country. 
His mother was of French extract, a descendant 
of the Huguenots. The public schools afforded 
Mr. Jacobs his educational privileges, and Tie re- 
ceived his early buisness training in his father's 
store; but the ambitious young man desired a 
broader field of usefulness and sought it in the 
thriving city of Chicago, where he arrived in 
April, 1854-. Here he secured a clerkship and 
continued in the employ of others until 1861. when 

he became a partner in a grocery, fruit and pro- 
vision store on South Water street. To the work 
in hand he ever devotes his earnest and thought- 
ful attention, and in business hours he is purely 
a business man, putting forth every legitimate 
eft'ort to crown his undertakings with success, yet 
the accumulation of wealth has never been with 
him the important aim of his life. In 1868 he 
was joined in business by his brothers, and they 
continued operations on South Water street until 
the great fire of 1871, when they lost nearly all 
their property. 

In the meantime, however, Mr. Jacobs began 
extending his operations to other fields of labor, 
and had already made some investments in real 

In 1870 he ceased the personal management 
of the business on Water street in order to devote 
his entire time to real-estate dealing. After the 
fire of 1S71 he engaged more extensively than ever 
in this pursuit and began building one of the sub- 
urbs of the city, but was overtaken by the financial 
panic of 1873. With others his business suffered, 
but he managed to meet every obligation, and 
from that time forward prosperity has attended 
his efforts. Considering his life from the finan- 
cial standpoint alone, it will be regarded as one of 
tlie greatest success, and demonstrates the truth 
of the old saying that "God helps him who helps 
himself." He is to-day numbered among the 
most successful and prominent real-estate dealers 
of Chicago, and the plans and methods which he 
has followcil in his business transactions com- 



mend themselves to the judgment of all. He is a 
man of strong force of character, of great energy 
and perseverance, and his honorable, straight- 
forward dealings have brought to him a merited 
prosperity. Mr. Jacobs has largely promoted the 
material welfare of Chicago by his real-estate 
dealings and has succeeded in establishing and 
improving some of the best suburban property of 
the city. 

If seen only in the hours of business, Mr. 
Jacobs might be said to be a typical business man 
of Chicago, possessing the characteristic enter- 
prise and indomitable perseverance of the city; 
yet instinctively in dealing with him one recog- 
nizes that they have met a man who is above the 
petty intrigues that characterize many in the fields 
of commerce, a man who would scorn to over- 
reach or take advantage of another. His Chris- 
tianity is a part of his life. 

Coming to Chicago in his twentieth year, he 
united with the First Baptist Church and entered 
the Sunday-school as a pupil, but was soon made 
a teacher. In 1856 he was elected superintendent 
of the first mission Sunday-school established by 
his denomination and the third mission school. 
Subsequently he became the superintendent of the 
home school, which made for itself a notable repu- 
tation throughout the country. At the same time 
he taught a class of adults numbering five hun- 
dred pupils. His thorough knowledge of the 
Bible, his deep undertaking of all knotty prob- 
lems and his entertaining and instructive manner 
of imparting his knowledge to others made his 
class very popular among intelligent people who 
were interested Bible students. After the fire of 
1874 had destroyed the First Church, i\Ir. Jacobs 
organized a down-town mission, from which was 
developed the Newsboys' Mission, now called the 
Waifs' Mission. In 1881 he united with others 
in the organization of the Immanuel Baptist 
Church, and from the beginning has been super- 
intendent of its Sunday-school, his career as a 
Sunday-school superintendent covering a period 
of thirty-nine years. 

A spirit of helpfulness to young men has also 
characterized the life of Mr. Jacobs, and in 1858 
he was one of the organizers of the Young Men's 
Christian Association, of which he served as presi- 
dent in 1863 and 1864. He is also one of the life 

trustees. To help his fellowmen seems to be his 
motto. When the Civil war broke out in 1861 he 
was made one of the army committee and for four 
years was secretary of the northwestern branch of 
the United States Christian Commission. In 
this capacity he was often on the battlefield from 
the time of the engagement at Fort Donelson 
in 1862 until after the battle of Nashville in De- 
cember, 1864. He also traveled over the North- 
west, holding meetings and raising money and 
supplies for the troops. When the war was over 
he again became deeply interested in Sunday- 
school work and joined Mr. Moody and others 
in the work of Sunday-school organization. In 
1868 he was made president of the State Sunday- 
school convention, five years later was made chair- 
man of the State executive committee, and at 
each general election has been chosen to the lat- 
ter position, so that he has now served in that 
capacity for more than twenty years. Along the 
line of Sunday-school work perhaps the great 
credit is due him for his efforts in introducing 
what is now known as the international Sunday- 
school lessons. In 1867 he began to urge the 
plan of all Sunday-schools using uniform lessons. 
This was at length done, and the children to-day 
all over the length and breadth of the land are 
studying the same truths. Nothing has been of 
greater benefit in doing away with doctrinal 
prejudice and bringing together as a harmonious 
whole the Christian people who are working to- 
gether for the salvation of the world. 

The National Sunday-school Convention which 
met at Indianapolis, Indiana, in 1872, adopted the 
plan proposed by Mr. Jacobs and a committee 
was chosen to adopt the first course of lessons 
for seven years; in 1878 a second committee 
was named, at Atlanta, Georgia; in 1884 a third 
was named, at Louisville, Kentucky; and a fourth 
in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, in 1890, the term of 
service of the last to continue from 1894 until 
1899. The founder of this movement has always 
been a member of the committee. In 1881 he 
was elected chairman of the executive committee 
of the International Sunday-school Convention, 
and was re-elected in 1884, 1887, 1890 and 1893 for 
terms of three years each. He planned the 
World's Sunday-school Convention held in En- 
gland in 1889, and secured the attendance of four 




hundred and twenty-eight delegates from Amer- 
ica, a steamship being chartered to convey them 
across the Atlantic. Another labor in connec- 
tion with Sunday-sghool work which he has in 
charge is a teachers' meeting held in Farwell Hall 
each Saturday noon, which has an attendance of 
over five hundred active Sunday-school workers. 
His own denomination has claimed his services 
as president of the Chicago Baptist Social Union 
in 1887 and 1888, and as chairman of the Illi- 
nois Baptist Sunday-school Commission, having 
served in the latter capacity for several years. 

While perfectly true to his own church and un- 
tiringly devoted to its upbuilding, Mr. Jacobs 
is broad and liberal in his views and charitable 
toward the opinions of all others. He endeav- 
ors to make his life the embodiment of the true 
Christian spirit, which seeketh not evil and which 
bears one another's burdens. Although he claims 
not to be an orator nor has he made public 
speaking a part of his work, he is yet often before 
the public to advance the interests of the Sunday- 
school and the church, and is always entertaining 
and instructive. One cannot hear Mr. Jacobs 
without carrying away with him truths that will 
bear an influence on his life. He always satisfies 
the intellect while moving the hearts of men, and 
can hold spell-bound a great convention in the 
same way that he would perhajps half a dozen 
hearers. Webster has said that '"True eloquence 
does not consist in words alone. It is action, 
noble, sublime, Godlike action"; and such it is 
with Mr. Jacobs. 

We cannot better close this record of the life of 
this honored man than by quoting from Miss 
Frances E. Willard, who said of him: "Ours is a 
day in which each great movement has for its 
central figure some personality that incarcerates 
its method and idea. Organization being the 
watchword, there must be organizers; and it is 
safe to say that each of the guilds now so numer- 
ous is a success according to the vigor and de- 
votion of its chief. Men will not rally around 
vacancy but they will around the leader. He 
nuist be born, he cannot be made. He must have 
a hand of iron in a glove of velvet. He must be- 
lieve in and work for their best interests without 
haste and without rest. He must fling himself 
into the movement with it to sink or swim, and he 
must be loyal to the unfolding purpose of God 
as he understands it even unto death. A man 
who was to develop after this fashion until he be- 
came the central figure of the world's Sunday- 
school movement now lives in the electric cit}'. 
otherwise Chicago, and his name is Benjamin F. 

On the 1 6th of April, 1854, was celebrated the 
marriage of ?ilr. Jacobs and Miss Frances M. 
Eddy, daughter of Dr. John M. Eddy, of Xaper- 
ville, Illinois, formerly a leading physician of 
Rochester, New York. Her mother was the 
daughter of Judge Benjamin Wiley, formerly of 
Rome, New York. Mrs. Jacobs is a lady of cul- 
ture, refinement and high education, and shares 
with her husband in his work for the interests of 


No adequate memorial of Stephen H. \'elie 
can be written until many of the useful en- 
terprises with which he was connected have com- 
pleted their full measure of good in the world, 
and until his personal influence and example shall 
have ceased their fruitage in the lives of those 
who were about him when he was yet an actor 
in the busy places of the world ; yet there is much 
concerning him that can with profit be set down 
here as an illustration of what can be done if 

a man with a clear brain and willing hands but 
sets himself seriously to the real labors and re- 
sponsibilities of life. 

Stephen Henry \'elie was born April 21, 1830. 
at Hyde Park, Dutchess coiuity. New York. His 
parents were Henry and Susan \'elie, the former 
a farmer by occupation, and the subject of this 
sketch lived at home until he was fifteen years of 
age, passing those years after the fashion, so 
conmion at that time, of attending school during 



the winter months and working on the farm in 
the sunnner. 

In 1845 he removed to New York city, where 
he made his home with his grandfather, Stephen 
Herrick, who was a commission merchant. For 
two years he was employed in Mr. Hemck's office, 
and then accompanied that gentleman to New 
Orleans, where he remained for a short time. 
He then returned to New York and for a little 
while resided at Poughkeepsie, leaving there and 
going to St. Louis, where he was employed in 
the wholesale grocery house of Edward T- Ciay 
& Company. Mr. Gay's residence was in Lou- 
isiana, and he was later elected to Congress from 
that State. For two years Mr. Velie made his 
home with Mr. Gray and managed a large plant- 
ation for him. 

In 1853 he came to Rock Island and entered 
the employ of C. C. Webber & Company as head 
of the ofifice force. For two years he resided at 
Princeton, Illinois, where he was engaged in the 
grocery business, and in 1863 became a partner 
with Hon. John Deere, of Moline, in the manu- 
facture of plows. In 1868, when the concern 
was incorporated, he was elected its secretary, 
and was successively re-elected every year there- 
after until his death, which resulted from heart 
failure, superinduced by an attack of the grip, 
February 14, 1895. 

In addition to his interest with Deere & Com- 
pany, he also held stock in the Moline Water 
Power Company, the People's Power Company, 
the Sylvan Steel Company, the stone quarries ol 
Le Claire, Iowa, the Moline Central Railway 
Company, of which he was president, and the 
First National Bank of Moline, being a member 
of the directory of that institution. He was also 
a member of the Masonic and Odd Fellows fra- 

Mr. Velie was formerly a Whig, but when 
slavery became an issue he transferred his al- 
legiance to Republicanism, and ever afterward 
was loyal to that party. He was in no sense, 
however, a politician, and was content to let oth- 
ers seek the offices. 

Mr. Velie was united in marriage, on the loth 
day of May, i860, to Miss Emma Deere, daugh- 
ter of the late Hon. John Deere, and they have 
had five children, four of whom are living: Charles 

D., Stephen H., Jr., Willard L. and Grace, now 
Mrs. Stuart Harper, of Rock Island. To his 
children Mr. Velie was not only a devoted parent 
but a comrade in a literal sense as well, sharing 
all their games and sports with as much zest as 
he would have shown had he been their brother 
rather than their father. He was a man of do- 
mestic habits and loved his home and family 
with a loyal devotion. His tastes were also liter- 
ary, and from close reading and deep thought 
he had a vast fund upon which to draw when in 
social intercourse. The versatility of his studies 
was remarkable. Notwithstanding the multi- 
plicity of his business cares he was kind, unaf- 
fected and approachable. He considered that 
every comer, no matter what his station in life, 
had a claim upon his courteous attention, and it 
is something to say of him that among the sad- 
dest hearts his death has made are those whom 
he has left as partners and employes. 

His benevolence was unostentatious and gen- 
uine, and there is nothing in the story of his life 
to show that he ever for a moment sought to 
compass a given end for the purpose of e.xalting 
himself. He championed measures and aided 
men, and accepted as his reward that thrill of 
delight which always accompanies victories 
achieved. Endowed by nature with a sound judg- 
ment and an accurate, discriminating mind, he 
feared not that laborious attention to the details 
of business so necessary to achieve success, and 
this essential quality was "ever guided by a sense 
of moral right which would tolerate the employ- 
ment only of those means that would bear the 
most rigid examination by a fairness of inten- 
tion that neither sought nor required disguise. 
It is but just and merited praise to say of Mr. 
Velie, that as a business man he ranked with the 
ablest; as a citizen he was honorable, prompt 
and true to every engagement; as a man he held 
the honor and esteem of all classes of people, of 
all creeds and political proclivities; as a husband 
and father he was a model worthy of all imita- 
tion ; unassuming in his maimer, sincere in his 
friendships, steadfast and unswerving in his loy- 
alty to the right. His memory will be a sacred 
inheritance to his children; it will be cherished 
by a multitude of friends. Throughout his career 
of continued and far-reaching usefulness, his du- 






ties were performed with the greatest care, and 
during a long life his personal honor and integrity 
were without blemish. 

Mr. Velie was a firm believer in the inexorable 

law of compensation, and one favorite quotation, 
frequently used, was, "As a man soweth, so shall 
he also reap." Upon these lines were his actions 
based through life. 



THE Cobb family is one of the early and 
prominent Colonial families of America. 
The ancestry was originally English, and while 
there appears no absolutely authentic record of 
their first advent in America, yet it is known that 
there were two brothers, Morgan and Nathan 
Cobb, who came to this country early in the 
seventeenth century, and from them are de- 
scended many, if not all, of the name in this coun- 
try. The Rev. Sylvester Cobb, historian and 
novelist, is a descendant of Nathan in the seventh 
generation, which fact tends to confirm approxi- 
mately the time of the arrival of the two brothers 
in this country. On this subject William Cobb, 
of \\'arwick, Massachusetts, wrote to William 
Newell Cobb, Alay 17, 1844, as follows: "I have 
no one to consult on this subject except my 
mother, who resides in our family, and is now 
ninety-four years of age, but retains her mental 
faculties to a good degree. The most that I can 
learn is that two brothers by the name of Cobb 
emigrated from England to America, but at what 
time I cannot ascertain. One was named Mor- 
gan, the other Nathan. Our family is descended 
from Morgan Cobb. It has been said that we 
are tinctured with Scotch blood." 

Emor>' Cobb traces his ancestry back to Mor- 
gan Cobb in the following manner: His father, 
William Cobb, was a son of Elisha and a grand- 
son of William, whose father bore the name of 
Morgan, and was a grandson of Morgan, the 
original emigrant. In the Revolution this family, 
which had become quite numerous, was well rep- 
resented, and its members were active and prom- 
inent Whigs. 

Emory Cobb was born in Dryden, Tompkins 
county, New York, August 20, 183 1, and is a 
son of William and Achsah (Bradley) Cobb, the 
former a fanner, who also operated several mills 

on Fall creek in Tompkins county. New York. 
Here our subject spent his boyhood days until 
his twelfth year, when his father died and he went 
to live with his paternal grandfather, Lemi Brad- 
ley. He had the usual common-school advan- 
tages, and when sixteen years of age (1847) "^^"^nt 
to Ithaca, New York, to learn telegraphy. The 
following year he secured a position as operator 
at Fredonia, New York, on the Erie & Michigan 
telegraph line, which had just been constructed by 
Hon. Ezra Cornell and Colonel J. J. Speed be- 
tween Buffalo and Milwaukee. His services 
gave such satisfaction that in 185 1 he was made 
bookkeeper of the company at Cleveland, Ohio, 
and in March of the following year became mana- 
ger of their office in Chicago. It was while he 
was occupying this position that the first telegraph 
pool ever formed in this countrj- went into effect. 
There were at that time three telegraph companies 
doing business from Chicago to the East — the 
Erie & ]\Iichigan, the Ohio, Indiana & Illinois, 
and the Southern Michigan. In 1853 it occurred 
to the managers of these lines that they could unite 
their offices in Chicago and divide their earnings, 
tlius avoiding the evil results of direct competi- 
tion and save much unnecessary expense. Tliis 
was done under Mr. Cobb's supervision, and the 
experience proved so satisfactory that it was fol- 
lowed, in 1856, by the merging of the companies 
into the Western Union Telegraph Company, Mr. 
Cobb being retained in charge of the Chicago 
office, and his territory and powers enlarged by 
his appointment as superintendent of the western 
division. He held this important position until 
1865, when his arduous duties began to under- 
mine his health and he was given a year's leave 
of absence, which he spent in foreign travel 
through Europe, Asia and Africa. 

On his return in 1866, Mr. Cobb was solicited 



to resume his former position, but fear of again 
breaking down under tlie growing cares and re- 
sponsibilities incident to the office led him to de- 
cline; afterward he served, however, as a member 
of the board of directors. During his connection 
with the company as western superintendent, he 
originated and introduced an innovation, which 
has since become one of the important features of 
the commercial system throughout the world, and 
the importance of which can hardly be overesti- 
mated, namely, the transmission of money by 
telegraph. When he proposed the measure the 
managers of the Western Union were doubtful 
of its feasibility and refused to adopt it, but gener- 
ously allowed Mr. Cobb to try the experiment on 
his own account, which he did. He established 
agencies throughout the Eastern cities and for 
ten years, from 1857 until 1867, conducted the 
business as a personal venture, in the meantime so 
thoroughly establishing its practicability that in 
the last named year it was incorporated as a part 
of the system of the Western Union Telegraph 
Company, and has since been one of the leading 
features of its service. 

As early as 1861, Mr. Colib had made invest- 
ments in real estate in Kankakee, Illinois, and 
when he retired from active connection with the 
telegraph business he determined to seek recre- 
ation and rest amid rural pursuits in Kankakee 
county; but to a man by nature so active, recre- 
ation and rest meant merely a change of base of 
operations. He soon became prominent as a 
breeder of shorthorn cattle ; and when the Ameri- 
can Shorthorn Breeders' Association was formed 
in 1881 he was chosen as its first president, which 
position he has held most of the time since. This 
is perhaps the most important association of its 
kind in America, and conducts the official register 
for breeders of the various grades of shorthorn 
cattle in the United States and Canada. He was 
for many years a member of the State board of 
agriculture, serving as vice-president until 1882, 
when he declined re-election on account of a con- 
templated trip abroad with his family. He re- 
mained abroad about two years, visiting in that 
time most of the important points of interest in 
the Old World. He was one of the original trus- 
tees of the Illinois Industrial University at Cham- 
paign, Illinois, now the University of Illinois, 

and was president of the board from 1873 until 

The beautiful and prosperous little city of 
Kankakee owes to Mr. Cobb more perhaps than 
to any other man the credit for its development 
in late years. He invested liberally in all kinds 
of enterprises to help build up the town. There 
is scarcely an important manufacturing venture 
undertaken in the city since he identified himself 
with Kankakee that he has not taken stock in and 
encouraged. In 1884 he erected the Arcade, 
the most modern, complete and unique office 
building in the city. He was instrumental in 
erecting the hotel River View. It was mainly 
through his instrumentality that the Illinois East- 
ern Hospital for the Insane was located in Kan- 
kakee, and he donated thirty acres of land toward 
its original site. He is largely interested in the 
Kankakee Electric Railway Company, was its 
original promoter, and its existence is due almost 
entirely to his efforts and financial support. The 
First National Bank of Kankakee owes its exist- 
ence to him ; he was its president from its organi- 
zation until 1893, and is now the largest stock- 
holder. He has also been at various times ex- 
tensively interested in business enterprises in other 
parts of the country, and in short stands as a type 
of our best class of self-made, energetic, liberal 
and progresisve men of this pushing age. Mr. 
Cobb's investments have not been made from 
purely selfish motives. He had years ago amassed 
a competency; but, imbued with the spirit of 
progress and humanitarianism, he has used the 
means he had acquired for the benefit and up- 
building of the home of his choice, and like other 
men whose interests were extensive and diversi- 
fied, he suffered considerably in the financial panic 
which swept the country in 1893. With shrinkage 
of values the suspension of manufactories and the 
uncertainty and lack of confidence in business 
circles cost Mr. Cobb, as it did our most public- 
spirited and enterprising men throughout the 
country, many thousands of dollars; but we find 
him to-day undaunted and undismayed, calfnly 
and persistently pushing forward his various en- 
terprises. He, like others of his class, will still be at 
the "head of affairs." Such men were not in- 
tended as failures. They may meet with reverses, 
they may suffer serious losses, but as inevitably as 



the disturbed needle reverts t(j the pole so inevita- 
bly do men of his type retrain t'.ie ascendencv bv 
virtue of superior ability. 

Mr. Cobb was niarrietl February 9, 1858, to 
Isabella, daughter of Aaron Plaven, one of the 
pioneer merchants of Chicago. They have three 
children: Charles Haven, born Februarv 7, 
i860; William Walter, born November 14, 1862; 
Duwane Phillips, born November 14, 1867. 

Air. Cobb is a genial, courteous gentleman, a 
good judge of men and measures, prompt, deci- 
sive, unselfish, broad-minded in his views, and lib- 

eral and cliaritable toward others. He is ( n; of :h? 
most active members of the Episcopal churcli, 
and has been a member of the vestry of St. Paul's 
Church of Kankakee since the parish was organ- 
ized in 1863, aiid a warden since 1865. While Ik- 
Is unusually liberal in support of all church work 
within the pale of his own religious creed, he is 
too fair-minded to confine his sympathies or chari- 
ties within the boundary lines of tenet or creed, 
and any deserving call for aid outside his church 
meets with equally ready response. 


/^ EORGE H. McILVAINE was l^orn at East 
VT Liberty village, now the east end of the 
city of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, August 10, 
1834. tlis parents were Rev. William B. and 
Elizabeth (Breading) Mcllvaine, both of Scotch- 
Irish descent, and both of whose grandfathers 
were commissioned officers in the same brigade 
at ^'alley Forge. William B. Mcllvaine's family 
resided in Lancaster county, and his wife's people 
in Allegheny county, for years. The last named 
gentleman died at Peoria, in 1892, at the ad- 
vanced age of eighty-six years, having been for 
over sixty of them a clergyman of the Presby- 
terian Church, and for forty pastor of the East 
End Church of Pittsburg. 

The subject of this sketch spent his boyhood 
in East Liberty, where he attended the East Lib- 
erty Academy. Later he pursued his studies at 
Washington (Pennsylvania) College, — the same 
institution at which the lamented James G. Blaine 
was educated, and of which it is said that it has 
sent out into the world more great men, in pro- 
portion to the number of its alumni, than any in- 
stitution of learning in the country. 

Upon graduating at Washington College in 
1853, young Alcllvaine found that his health 
would not permit of his studying a profession, 
which had hitherto been his ambition, and he 
was constrained to seek other fields of labor. 
He therefore turned his face resolutelv westward 

and set out for Illinois, where he engaged in 
farming, in Whiteside county, for a year. 

In the spring. of 1855 he came to Peoria, and 
being possessed of some means purchased the 
interest of Hervey Liglitner in the wholesale and 
retail hardware and iron house of Walker & 
Lightner, ]Mr. Isaac Walker, the senior member 
of tiie firm, being his uncle. The new firm of 
Walker & Mcllvaine was a successful one, and 
Mr. Alcllvaine's connection therewith continued 
until 1872, at which time he disposed of his in- 
terest to the Walkers. Mr. Walker continued 
the business until his death, which occurred about 
thirteen years ago, and it has since been con- 
ducted by his children under the corporate title 
'if The Isaac Walker Hardware Company. 

Mr. Mcllvaine was now free from business 
cares and anxiety, but his health was not good, 
and he therefore availed himself of the oppor- 
tunity otTered for rest and recreation. He spent 
the subsequent six months in Europe, jiassing a 
large portion of the time in Switzerland, and 
landed in New York on his return to America 
the very day in 1872 that Jay Cooke & Company 
failed, precipitating the nation into what is known 
as the "panic of ^2" 

Being interested as a stockholder and director 
in the Second National Bank of Peoria, he was 
naturally solicitous as to the welfare of that in- 
stitution, and his stav in the Elast was brief, he 


feeling that lie niinlit be of assistance at home. 
Nor did he come too soon. Peoria was in the 
throes of the wildest excitement and every finan- 
cial institution was tlie object of concern. The 
cashier of the Second National lost his head in 
the turmoil and resigned his office, and Mr. Mc- 
Ilvaine was chosen manager of the bank. As his 
health had been greatly benefited by his foreign 
trip, he accepted and at once entered upon the 
duties of his position, and carried the bank safely 
through the crisis. He continued as manager 
until the expiration of the bank's charter in 1883, 
at which time he wound up its alifairs, and did 
it so well that he was able to pay the stockhold- 
ers seventy-six and one-half per cent, premium 
on their holdings. 

After the close of his successful career with 
the Second National, he became one of the prime 
movers in the organization of the Peoria Na- 
tional Bank, which was capitalized at $150,000, 
and shortly aftenvard increased to $200,000. Of 
this institution Mr. Mcllvaine, who is one of the 
largest stockholders, was chosen cashier, an of- 
fice which he ably filled till 1888, when failing 
health compelled its relinquishment. His serv- 
ices, however, were too valuable to be dispensed 
with, and he was elected vice-president, and con- 
tinued as such for four years, at the expiration 
of which period he succeeded the late C. P. King 
as president, which position he now fills in a 
manner that reflects credit not only on himself 
but also upon the bank as well. The surplus of 
the Peoria National is $55,000, and it is one of 
the soundest monetary institutions in Illinois. 

A sound Republican in politics, Mr. Mcllvaine 
has never allowed his name to be used in con- 
nection with a political office, though repeat- 
edly urged to do so. He has for the past twen- 
ty-five years been a member of the board of edu- 
cation, having been re-elected every two years 
during that entire period, and Peoria's excel- 
lent school system, than which there is no better 
in the State, may be ascribed to his efiforts more 
than to those of any other one man. He also 

organized the Peoria Clearing House and Bank- 
ers' Association, of which he is the president, and 
for many years was a director of the Peoria 
Chamber of Connnerce and chainnan of one of 
that body's most important committees, — that 
on arbitration. 

For many years he has been president of the 
Mercantile Library Board, and here as elsewhere 
his sterling sense and great executive ability 
have been of the greatest value. 

With the religious training instilled into his 
youthful mind by pious and loving parents, it 
was but natural that he should be a firm believer 
in the doctrine taught by the Presbyterian 
Church, an elder of which be has been for the 
past third of a century, and giving freely both 
of time and money to its advancement. He is 
and has been for twenty-five years the superin- 
tendent of its Grace mission Sunday-school, a 
position in which his marked individuality has en- 
abled him to do much good for the cause of 
Christianity. During the war he was a member 
of the Christian and Sanitary- Commission in- 
stituted by the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion, and one of its most earnest members. 

Mr. Mcllvaine has traveled a great deal, hav- 
ing been all over the United States and passed 
several summers at both Atlantic and Pacific sea- 
side resorts, and winters in Florida. 

On the 1 8th day of August, 1857, Mr. Mcll- 
vaine was united in marriage to Miss Priscilla J. 
?iIcClure, a member of an old and prominent 
family of Franklin county, Pennsylvania, and 
sister of Colonel J- D- McClure. Of this union 
have been born seven children, five of whom are 
living, namely: Elizabeth, the wife of Albert 
Johnson, who has been connected with the Peo- 
ria National Bank and its predecessors since boy- 
hood; William B., of the well-known law firm ot 
Wilson, Moore & Mcllvaine, of Chicago ; Emma, 
who resides at home with her parents; Priscilla, 
now Mrs. Glenn S. Allen, of Kalamazoo, Alichi- 
gan; and George H., Jr., who is pursuing his 
studies in the Peoria high school. 




IT is said that the poet is born, not made; but 
the successful lawyer has to» be both born 
and made, — made by close application, earnest 
effort, by perseverance and resolute purpose. 
The abilities with which nature has endowed him 
must be strengthened and developed 'by use',; 
and only by merit can the lawyer gain a pre- 
eminent position. The study of biography yields 
in point of interest and profit to no other study, 
for it is here that we learn how success ha= been 
achieved, the plans that have been followed and 
methods that have been pursued. In the life 
record of ]\Ir. Hill are contained many valuable 
lessons, showing what can be accomplished by 
the young men of this free country, though they 
have no capital with which to start out on life's 

A native of Maine, Mr. Hill was born in Union, 
Lincoln county, on the 4th of July, 1834, and is 
a son of Isaac and Eliza M. (Hall) Hill. On 
both the paternal and maternal sides he descends 
from honored New England families that were 
founded on American soil during early Colo- 
nial days, settling with the Puritans in Massa- 
chusetts. The elementary education of the Judge 
was obtained in the common schools of his native 
town, and, entering Warren Academy, he pre- 
pared for college, for it was his desire to fit him- 
self for his life work by a thorough education. 
In 1854 he became a student of Bowdoin Col- 
lege, at which he was graduated in 1858, at the 
head of his class, on the completion of the regu- 
lar four years' course. Even before this time he 
had determined to enter the legal profession, 
and when his literary education was completed 
he entered the office of A. P. Gould, a prominent 
attorney of Thomaston, Maine, under Vhose di- 
rection he prosecuted his studies until admitted 
to the bar in i860. Immediately he opened an 
office in that city, fonning a partnership with J. 
P. Cilley, under the firm name of Cilley & Hill, 
the connection existing until 1862, when Mr. Hill 
withdrew in orilcr to give his services to his 

Immediately after the firing upon Fort Sumter, 

Mr. Hill aided in raising and equipping a battery 
of light artillery, in which he himself enlisted. 
This battery, fully equipped and armed at pri- 
vate expense, was offered to the Government for 
service in May, 1861, but was declined because 
General Scott thought the Government already 
had "more artillery than it knew what to do with." 
After the battle of Bull Run, Mr. Hill prevailed 
upon Governor Washburn to organize a regi- 
ment of cavalry and took an active part in rais- 
ing it, although business duties obliged him to 
decline a commission in it. This regiment was 
the celebrated First Maine cavalry, afterward 
commanded by his law partner, General Cilley, 
which participated in more battles than any other 
regiment in the Army of the Potomac. In the 
early summer of 1862 he aided in raising the 
Eighth Maine Infantr\', and after the State quota 
was full he prevailed upon Governor Washburn 
to raise an additional regiment, the Twentieth 
Maine Infantry, in which he accepted the com- 
mand of a company. Colonel Bacheldor, the 
historian of Gett^'sburg, credits this regiment 
with turning the tide of battle in that decisive 
fight. In 1863 Mr. Hill's health rendered fur- 
ther service in the field impossible, and he was 
honorably discharged. His health was so greatly 
impaired that his physician forbade his return 
to the North for several years. His loyalty as 
a citizen and his devotion to the country's inter- 
ests have ever been among his marked charac- 
teristics, and the community is fortunate that 
numbers him among its citizens. 

Upon leaving the army Judge Hill located 
in Alexandria, \'irginia, where he resumed the 
practice of law, also opening an office in Wash- 
ington, District of Columbia, dividing his time 
between the two points. In tlie former city he 
was associated with George Tucker, under the 
style of Hill & Tucker. While thus engaged, in 
1S67, he was made register in bankruptcy for the 
Eighth Judicial District of \'irginia, a position 
which he resigned in 1869 upon his appointment 
as judge of the same district to fill an unexpired 
term. In 1874 he left his \'irginia home and re- 


moved to \\'ashington, where entering into part- 
nership with E. A. Ellsworth, under the firm 
name of Hill & Ellsworth, he began a success- 
ful business, which continued for many years. 
The firm connection existed until 1878, and 
Judge Hill was then alone in business in the 
Capital City until 1881. 

It has largely become a custom at the present 
day to devote one's attention not alone to one line 
of business, but to one single branch of the busi- 
ness; and while Mr. Hill is an able lawyer under 
any consideration and in any place, he has given 
his special attention to patent Htigation. By 
degrees it superseded his general practice, and 
he became known as one of the most prominent 
patent lawyers in the city of Washington. Patent 
law is peculiar and demands peculiar talents and 
experience. The successful patent lawyer must 
be, naturally if not practically, enough of a me- 
chanic and scientist to discern the merits of any 
invention or discovery. To this qualification he 
must add a thorough knowledge of the law, an 
ingenuity that will compass any purpose, and 
an experience wide and varied enough to give 
him the most absolute confidence in his manage- 
ment of the case even when success seems farthest 
away. He must be a man of infinite resources, 
and such a man is Judge Hill, his success indi- 
cating that he possesses all requirements. He is 
regarded as authority on all matters pertaining 
to patent law, and to-day he stands among the 
foremost of those who are devoting their talents 
and energies to this specialty. 

In May, 1881, Judge Hill came to Chicago to 
make the Queen City of the West his home, and 
to-day he is in the front rank among the many 
able members of the bar of Cook county, where 
some of the finest minds of the land are found. 
He formed a partnership with T. S. E. Dixon, 
which continued for nine years, and since has 
been alone in business, enjoying a most extended 
clientage, which comes from all parts of the coun- 
try. In February, 1864, was celebrated the mar- 
riage of Mr. Hill and Miss Adelaide R. Cole, of 
Roxbury, Massachusetts. Their family numbers 
three children, and the Judge finds his chief 
source of pleasure in his home. In his political 
views he has always been a stalwart Republican, 
unwavering in his allegiance to the party whose 
principles he believes are best calculated to pro- 
mote the country's best interests. In earlier 
3'ears, before his legal duties were so pressing, 
he devoted considerable attention to political af- 
fairs, and in 1868 was a delegate to the national 
convention which nominated General Grant for 
the presidency. He was also chairman of the 
Republican State central committee of Virginia 
for two years. Upright, reliable and honorable, 
his strict adherence to principle commands the 
respect of all. The place he has won in the legal 
profession is accorded him in recognition of his 
skill and ability, and the place which he occu- 
pies in the social world is a trbute to that 
genuine worth and true nobleness of char- 
acter which are universally recognized and 



ILLINOIS has always been distinguished for 
the high rank of her bench and bar. Perhaps 
none of the newer States can justly boast of abler 
jurists or attorneys. Many of them have be€n 
men of national fame, and among those whose 
lives have been passed on a quieter plane there 
is scarcely a town or city in the State but can 
boast of one or more lawyers capable of cross- 
ing swords in forensic combat with any of the 
distinguished legal lights of the United States. 

While the growth and development of the State 
in the last half century has been most marvelous, 
viewed from any standpoint, yet of no one class 
of her citizenship has she greater reason for, just 
pride than her judges and attorneys. 

In Judge Evans we find united many of the 
rare qualities which go to make up the success- 
ful lawyer and jurist. He possesses perhaps few 
of those brilliant, dazzling, meteoric qualities 
which have sometimes flashed along the legal 



horizon, riveting the gaze and blinding the vision 
for the moment, then disappearing, leaving little 
or no trace behind, but rather has those solid 
and more substantial qualities which shine with 
a constant luster, shedding light in the dark 
places with steadiness and continuit}'. Judge 
Evans can scarcely be termed an orator, but he 
has in an eminent degree that rare ability of say- 
ing in a convincing way the right thing at the 
right time. His mind is analytical, logical and 
inductive. With a thorough and comprehensive 
knowledge of the fundamental principles of law, 
he combines a familiarity with statutory law and 
a sober, clear judgment, which makes him not 
only a formidable adversary in legal combat but 
has given him the distinction, while on the bench, 
of having fewer of his decisions revised or re- 
versed than any other JLidge in the State of 

Judge Evans is a native of the Keystone State, 
but the family is of Welsh origin. His paternal 
grandfather was a native of north Wales, while 
his grandmother was from south Wales. They 
came to America when children and settled with 
their parents in Pennsylvania. The maternal 
grandfather of the Judge was named Llovd, and 
was a man of prominence in his day. It was 
through his influence that a new county was 
formed in Pennsylvania, which he named Cam- 
bria, in honor of the land of his birth, Cambria 
having been the ancient name of Wales. He 
laid out and founded a town, the county seat of 
the new county, which he named for his son, 
calling it Ebensburg. He was a prominent min- 
ister of the gospel and a man of much note. 

Judge Evans is the son of David and Anna 
(Lloyd) Evans, and was bom at Ebensburg, 
Pennsylvania, A])ril 17, 1829. His father was a 
stone-mason and contractor, and aided in the con- 
struction of the famous Portage road across the 
mountains in Pennsylvania. This was in the early 
days of railroading and the Portage road was 
considered a wonderful engineering achievement. 
With the money earned in the construction of 
this road, JMr. Evans purchased a farm and re- 
tired to niral pursuits. 

Jurlge Evans may in the strictest sense of the 
word be termed self-educated. He was never in 
a schoolroom until he was ten years of age, and 

then spent only about two winter months of 
each year in pursuing his studies there. He was, 
however, of a studious disposition, and by course 
of self-instruction became qualified to teach and 
taught one or two terms, after which he went to 
Hiram, Ohio, attending the institute at that 
place. During the summer months he worked 
in the han est fields for the money to defray his 
expenses during a school term. After leaving 
Hiram he went to southern Ohio, where he 
taught for five or six years, and during the time 
attended the Normal Institute at Lebanon, Ohio, 
for one term. In the meantime, also, while en- 
gaged in teaching, he had taken up the study of 
law, and in i860 entered upon a course of study 
in the law department of the University of Mich- 
igan, at Ann Arbor, at which institution he grad- 
uated in 1863. After leaving Ann Arbor he en- 
listed in the army, but soon contracted typhoid 
fever and had to return home. 

In November, 1864, Judge Evans came to 
Danville, Illinois, and in partnership ^\■ith John 
.•\. Kumler opened a law office. Clients not be- 
ing as plentiful at the start as he had hoped for, 
he resorted to his former profession of teaching, 
and for a year conducted a prosperous school 
in this place. In company with Judge Clapp 
he then purchased the Chronicle and consoli- 
dated it with the \^ermilion County Plaindealer, 
making the Danville Plaindealer, and became 
its editor. A year later, Judge Evans, dispos- 
ing of his interest, again returned to the prac- 
tice of law, this time in company with M. D. 
Hawes. Four years later Mr. Hawes abandoned 
the profession for that of the ministry and fudge 
Evans was alone for two years, when he asso- 
ciated with him Charles M. Swallow, the part- 
nership continuing four years. Judge Evans 
was then alone until 1881. when he was elected 
on the Republican ticket to the office of county 
judge: and this brings us to consider perhaps 
the most important work he has done. 

When Judge Evans came to the bench ho found 
the affairs of the court in a deplorable condi- 
tion, owing partly to the long-contiiuied illness 
of his predecessor. Judge Ilanford. and pardy 
to the loose and wholly inefficient methods which 
had prevailed in the conduct of the office. When 
he entered upon his duties he found the office of 



the county judgeship of but httle more importance 
llian that of any ordinary justice of the peace. 
He found the affairs of the office a tangled skein, 
difficult indeed to unravel and straighten out. 
He found cases on the docket ten, fifteen and even 
twentv years behind. Nothing had been attempted 
beyond probate adjustment, and even in this mat- 
ter grave abuses and neglect of duty were evi- 
dent, not the least of which was the practice of 
allowing guardians, executors and administra- 
tors to settle at such times as they might elect, 
with their wards out of court, and such settle- 
ments had been accepted by the court in direct 
violation of law, which requires such settlements 
to be made under oath, in court, with an item- 
ized account of all transactions pertaining to the 
estates or other property in trust. Judge Evans 
insisted upon changing all this. It is probable 
that the history of the entire State would fail to 
show such a complete and radical reformation 
and transformation in so short a time as was 
wrought by him during his first term in this of- 
fice. He radically revised the methods in vogue 
in probate matters, and, as rapidly as possible 
under the circumstances, took up, straightened 
out and disposed of the old cases which had so 
long been lingering on the docket; required all 
guardians, administrators, executors, assignees 
and conservators to account for their trusts in the 
manner prescribed by law; developed the common 
law term from practically nothing to three terms 
per year of several weeks each, or in short he made 
the county court of almost equal importance to 
the circuit court. He appointed over two hundred 
executors and administrators and about one hun- 
dred and fifty guardians and conservators, all of 
whom he required to account regularly in court 
as the law required. He gave his undivided at- 
tention to the duties of the position to which he 
had been chosen, and gave careful consideration 
to each case as it came up; and as a result of this 
care and as evidence of his knowledge of law and 
scund legal judgment he achieved the proud dis- 
tinction of having but one finding revised and but 
a single one reversed by the higher courts during 
his term of service. 

Upon the expiration of his first term, Judge 
Evans was again elected to the same position, and 
for four years more presided over the court, the 

standing of which he had done so nuich to estab- 
lish and elevate. 

It must not be supposed that the methods 
adopted by Judge Evans met with the unqualified 
approval of all people in the community, although 
no one could speak aught against him personally, 
for in honor, integrity, ability and all that goes to 
constitute the ideal judge he was above reproach; 
yet there were many malcontents. There were 
those who had been thriving off the use of es- 
tates in trust who found their occupation gone; 
the machine politicians were not in love with him, 
for he was not the kind of man they could ap- 
proach, much less handle, for the furtherance of 
their schemes; and when it came time to nominate 
a candidate for the third term Judge Evans busied 
himself with the dutiesof his office instead of wire- 
pulling for the nomination, with the result that 
he awoke one morning and found another Rich- 
mond in the field. Then it was that the better 
element of the other political party — the Demo- 
cratic — formed plans, and without consulting him 
and entirely without his knowledge, and of course 
without his consent, either direct or indirect, 
placed his name on their ticket as their candidate 
for county judge. They justified their action in 
this matter partially by citing the fact that during 
his first candidacy for the office they had placed 
no candidate of their own in the field against him 
but had instead placed his name on their ticket, 
thus making him virtually the candidate of both 
political parties; and now, when the machine ele- 
ment in his own party had succeeded in getting 
him put aside, the Democrats placed his name on 
their ticket purely from consideration of the able 
and impartial manner in which he had for eight 
years conducted the affairs of this important po- 
sition. This action of his friends — undoubtedly 
kindly meant — placed Judge Evans in an awk- 
ward position. He could not without wounding 
the feelings of his neighbors and friends peremp- 
torily spurn this indorsement, and in fact and 
truth he had no opportunity of "declining the 
honor," as he was never consulted in he matter; 
so he simply let matters take their couise. His ene- 
mies worked persistently and desperately, while 
he made no move and gave no utterance in his 
own behalf. The result was that he was defeated 
at the polls by a small majority. This may have 

! . J 




been poor "politics,'' and undoubtedly was from 
a practical standpoint, but Judge Evans was 
never a practical "politician" in the sense that 
term is used in the present day. He has none 
of that "all-things-to-all-men" sort of qualifica- 
tion which is the principal stock in trade of the 
average latter-day politician. He is modest, dig- 
nified and reser\'ed, and scorned the practice 
of going into the field and actively soliciting votes 
for himself. The result was that his opponents 
called him an aristocrat without sympathy with 
the common people, and said he was a party 
turncoat because his name appeared on the Dem- 
ocratic ticket. By these and other like methods 
enough votes were secured to retire him from 
the office he had done so much to dignify and 
honor. He accepted his defeat gracefully, and 
at once took up again the practice of his profes- 
sion. In 1892 he became half owner of the 
Wabash ^Milling Company, and in 1894 the 
entire plant was destroyed by fire, and, it 
being only partially insured, a large loss was 

In 1867 Judge Evans was married to Mrs. 
Edwilda A. Sconce, nee Cromwell. Of three 
children born to them only one sur\'ives — Waldo 
Carl, now seventeen years of age. 

Judge Evans has been a member of the board 
of education and chairman of the Republican 
central committee. He was a delegate to the 
Republican national convention in 1876, which 
nominated Hayes for the presidency, and has 

repeatedly been a delegate to State conven- 
tions. As a citizen no man in Danville stands 

liigher: his hospitality is unbounded, and he 
and ]\Irs. Evans have given many of the most 
successful and enjoyable entertainments ever held 
in that city. As a lawyer he ranks among the 
best inthe State. Above pettifogging orchicanery, 
he conducts his cases earnestly, honestly and skill- 
fully. He is an impressive and logical reasoner, 
well grounded in the principles of law, quick to 
grasp the points in the case and adroit 
in presenting them. Of his qualifications 
as a jurist we have already spoken at 
length. As a writer he is graphic, con- 
cise and remarkably forcible. Had he contin- 
ued in the newspaper field he would have un- 
doubtedly ranked as one of the ablest editors in 
the State. He is a man of broad views, and his 
religion is that of works, not faith alone. He 
believes that the universe is governed by general, 
not by partial, laws, and that the infraction of 
those laws brings its penalty regardless of faith 
or belief. His mind is of that logical type which 
cannot accept on trust any dogma or creed 
against which his common sense rebels. In 
this, as in other matters, he is liberal and char- 
itable, according to all the perfect right of free- 
dom and reserving the same right for himself. 
He has proved himself in all the relations of life 
an earnest, honest, upriglit man, and a citizen 
of v.hum anv conununity might justly be 


THE history of a State as well as that of a 
nation is chiefly the chronicle of the lives 
and deeds of those who have conferred honor 
and dignity upon society. The world judges the 
character of a community by that of its repre- 
sentative citzens, and yields its tributes of admi- 
ration and respect for the genius, learning or 
virtues of those whose works and actions con- 
stitute the record of a State's prosperity and 
pride; and it is in their character, as exempli- 
fied in iiriibity and benevolence, kindly virtues 

and integrity in the afTairs of life, arc ever af- 
fording worthy examples for emulation and valu- 
able lessons of incentive. 

To a student of biography there is nothing 
more interesting than to examine the life his- 
tory of a self-made man and to detect the ele- 
ments of character which have enabled him to 
pass on the highway of life many of the com- 
panions of his youth who at the outset of their 
careers were more advantageously e<iuippetl or 
endowed. The subject of this review has through 



his own exertions attained an honorable position 
and marked prestige among the representative 
men of the West, and with signal consistency 
it mav be said that he is the architect of his own 
fortunes and one whose success amply justifies 
the application of the somewhat hackneyed but 
most expressive title, "a self-made man." 

Frederick A. Shenvood was born on a farm 
near Rhinebeck, Dutchess county, New York, 
in 1837, the day of his nativity being that which 
marks the anniversan,- of our national independ- 
ence, — July 4. His parents, Walter C. and Eliz- 
abeth (Bloomer) Sherwood, had united their des- 
tinies while still in youthful years, and they were 
content to begin their married life in a modest 
wav, sustained and encouraged by mutual af- 
fection and solicitudp. The father finally be- 
came dissatisfied with the tardy and insufficient 
financial returns derived from agricultural oper- 
ations in the old Empire State, and, like many 
another, he was afifected by the memorable gold 
excitement in California, in 1849, and hoping 
to improve his opportunities for acquiring money, 
he joined the adventurous throng which that year 
plodded its weary and perilous way over mountain 
and plain to the land where the sunset gates are 
open wide. His was the lot of many another 
of the brave men, for he succumbed to the rav- 
ages of disease, and in the fall of the following 
year was consigned to his last testing place in 
the land where he had hoped to win a compe- 
tency for himself and his little family. 

Frederick attended the district school in the 
V. inters and assisted in the work of the farm dur- 
ing the summer seasons until he had attained 
the age of fourteen years, the discipline being 
of the sort that developed in him that sturdy 
independence which has been characteristic of 
his entire life, while incidentally were gained the 
elements of that robust constitution and physical 
vitality which have made him a man of goodly 
parts— the possessor of not only the sound mind, 
but also the eminent prerequisite, the sound body. 
When he was fourteen years old his uncle, John 
D.Sherwood, took a kindly interest in the boy and 
granted him the privilege of attending for two 
years the excellent academy in the village of 
Fiihkill, near that historic old Dutch Reformed 
church which was utilized by the American forces 

as a prison during the war of 1812. The young 
man remained on the fann until Januar\-, 1857, 
when he became imbued with the desire to go out 
in life on his own responsibility- and to take ad- 
vantage of the opportunities which were so 
glowingly described as awaiting the youth who 
would follow Horace Greeley's advice to go West 
and grow up with the country. He was im- 
mature and inexperienced in the ways of the 
world, but he boldly sallied forth in quest of 
fame and fortune. With one hundred dollars 
in his pocket he left the old home in the East 
and in due time arrived in Centralia, Illinois. 
Here he was not successful in obtaining employ- 
ment, and he proceeded to Ottawa, where, in 
^lay, 1857, his funds became exhausted, and, 
disheartened and discouraged at the frovvTis 
which fortune had bestowed upon him in place 
of the radiant smiles which he had confidently 
expected, he finally sent to his mother for a re- 
mittance of twenty dollars to enable him to re- 
turn to his home in New York. That the old 
adage, "it is always darkest just before the 
dawn," has some foundation in fact was shown 
to him ere sufficient time had elapsed for him 
to secure tangible returns from his somewhat 
pathetic appeal to his mother. He succeeded 
in finding a situation which afforded a salary 
of twelve dollars a month with board and lodg- 
ijig. This position he gladly accepted and he 
was readv to render the most faithful and effective 
service which it was in his power to accord. 
After receiving the twenty dollars from his mother 
he immediately returned the money to her, as she 
was then in very moderate circumstances. 

At the end of the first year he had, of the one 
hundred and forty-four dollars received as wages, 
saved the sum of one hundred dollars, showing 
that he had been signally frugal and indus- 
trious, and also that he thus early had apprecia- 
tion of the practical necessity of saving his money 
if he hoped to advance in life. It is interesting 
to revert to the fact that this nucleus of his pres- 
ent large fortune was secured in the locality 
where he has since risen to a position as one of 
the most substantial capitalists and honored citi- 
zens, — one who has undoubtedly done more to 
advance the material interests of the city of Ot- 
tawa than has anv other one individual. The 



second year his waofes were doubled, and at 
its expiration he had accumulated sufficient 
funds to enable him to beg^in business opera- 
tions on his own responsibility. Such determi- 
nation and indomitable perseverance as were his 
needed only the opening wedge of opportunity 
to accomplish results. With definite ends in 
view, Mr. Sherwood allowed no incidental cir- 
cumstances to swerve him from his purpose, 
and he showed a thorough appreciation of the 
value of time by utilizing his spare moments in 
the study of law, instead of wasting his leisure 
as the average young' man would do at his age. 
In i860 he was admitted to the bar by the su- 
preme court at Ottawa, and although he did not 
enter upon the active practice of his profession 
he found his knowledge of law of inestimable 
service to him in his business of loaning money 
upon real estate securities, an enterprise in which 
he engaged at this time as the agent for capital- 
ists in the Elast. For several years he invested 
largely in the wild lands of Illinois, Iowa, Kansas 
and Nebraska, his purchases in 1880 and 1881 
amounting to over ten thousand acres, on which 
he realized large profits. Although he has made 
Ottawa his home and business headquarters, 
he has found it more profitable to invest money 
in lands farther west. Three-fourths of the 
money which he has used or loaned to be used 
in the building of over thirty business blocks, 
houses and churches in Ottawa, has been se- 
cured through investments outside that city. 
He has thus and in other ways lent aid and in- 
fluence toward the advancement and substan- 
tial upbuilding of Ottawa, and, as before sug- 
gested, has done more than any other one man 
to make the city what it is to-day, one of the 
most attractive and prosperous in the State of 

On the 17th of September, 1879, at New Lon- 
don, Connecticut, Mr. Sherwood was united in 
marriage to Miss Phcebe A. Anthony, who traces 
her lineage back to prominent old Revolution- 
ary families. Her ancestors were among the 
Platts who established the town of Plattsburg, 
New York, and she has descended in line from 
Lieutenant Zachariah Piatt, who went into camp 
at New York city, on May 11, 1776, holding 
a commission signed by John Hancock, then 

president of the Continental Congress. This 
ancestral association with the great war for in- 
dependence entitles Mrs. Sherwood to member- 
ship in that noble organization, the Daughters 
of the Revolution, and in the same she now holds 
conspicuous preferment as regent for Ottawa. 
She is a woman of gentle refinement, gracious 
presence and high cultivation, taking a great in- 
terest in literature and society and presiding 
with dignity over her ma^iificent home. Our 
subject and his wife are the parents of two sons: 
Frederick A. Sherwood, Jr., born September 11, 
1 88 1, and now a student in the Ottawa high 
school; and Everitt A. Sherwood, who is also 
attending the public schools of the city. 

Notwithstanding his wealth and high posi- 
tion Mr. Sherwood is of the thoroughly demo- 
cratic type which is the crowning honor of our 
republic. This is shown in the fact that he has 
not seen fit to isolate his children in private 
schools, but has gladly given them the privi- 
lege of winning their own way in competitive 
struggle with those of their own age in the ex- 
cellent public schools. 

Mr. Shenvood's financial interests in the city of 
Ottawa are of most extensive order. He main- 
tains here a private banking institution, which 
in its resources and scope of operations is one 
of the most important private banks in the State 
outside of Chicago. The establishment has the 
duplicate function of a savings bank and a bank 
of deposit, and is proviiled with finely appointed 
counting-rooms and offices, with the only safety- 
deposit vaults in Ottawa. Mr. Sherwood is the 
owner of the fine opera-house which adonis and 
furnishes exceptional privileges to the city, and 
he stands as the largest tax-payer in the city. 
In his social relations he is identified with the 
Iroquois Club, of Chicago, the Ottawa Hoat 
Club and the Knights of Pvthias, and on the 
2i.\ day of Jul)-, 1893, he was appointed a di- 
rector of the Reddick Lihrar>' of his city for three 
years. In August, 1895, 'le gave the city of Ot- 
tawa, for the use of the peo)ile thereof, a <lrink- 
ing fountain, ornamented witli a statue of Hebe. 
It is eleven feet high and is supplied with ar- 
tesian water. It adorns Washington Park in 
said city. From May, iS8<), until May, i8t>i, 
he served as nia\<>r nf ()tta\\a. having been 



elected on tlie Democratic ticket: and it is con- 
ceded that he gave Ottawa the only economical 
administration it has had since becoming a city. 

He is a most genial man, easily approachable 
by all who may have occasion to seek an audi- 
ence with him, and is very hospitable and gen- 
erous, being sympathetic in nature and animated 
by a broad humanitarian spirit. Some of his char- 
acteristic tenets are that all children should be 
taught to think consecutively jtnd to cultivate 
memory, which has so important an influence in 
the practical afifairs of life. He holds that any 
young man who, beginning at the age of twenty- 
one, will save one-half his earnings, will have 
gained a comfortable competency by the time 
he is thirty-five. This he maintains is the true 
secret of financial success. Absolute truthful- 
ness and honesty, in thought, word and deed, 
he considers as not only cardinal virtues but as 
necessary adjuncts if one would realize the max- 
inumi success of which he is capable. He urges 
also the value of i:)crseverance, and believes also 

He who wishes strong enough. 

He who works hard enough. 

He who waits long enough, 

Will get what he wishes, works and waits for. 
Ho believes that individual happiness and the 
only genuine measure of contentment and pleas- 
ure in life is gained as a reflex from kind actions 
to others. He says that he is a member of the 
"church universal," with the sky as its vaulted 
roof, the earth its floor and foundation, with the 
feathered songsters as its choir, the flowers of 
the field its incense, and nature's forces as sur- 
rounding influences, bringing to us sublime 
thoughts and reverent feelings akin to heaven. 
He believes that intrinsic goodness of heart 
which prompts love and kindness to one's fellow- 
men brings the fullest recompense of happiness 
in this life and insures as great a certainty of hap- 
piness hereafter as we can reasonably hope for. 

Our subject has recently completed one of the 
finest residences in the State, and this magnifi- 
cent stone castle, on the bluff overlooking the 
Illinois river and the city, on the edge of his 
l^ark of ninety acres, with its two miles of finely 
improved roadways, and its picturescjue eleva- 
tion, is an object of interest and admiration to 

visitors for miles around and to all who may 
pass through or sojourn in the city. It will cer- 
tainly be appropriate to incorporate in this con- 
nection a brief description of this beautiful home, 
which was erected at a cost of more than one 
hundred thousand dollars and its completion 
having been effected after three years' constant 
labor. ]\Ir. Sherwood personally superintended 
the erection of the building, so that many de- 
tails of the structure, both from an exterior and 
interior point of view, are of distinctively original 
design. As the owner terms it, the architecture 
is something of a "Colonial" type, the idea hav- 
ing been to blend the massive and the ancient 
with modern and unique styles. The house is 
two stories and a half in height and built of buff 
Bedford oolitic limestone, with copings, caps 
and trimmings of Portage red sandstone. Of 
the two towers the taller is ninety-two feet in 
height. The extreme length of the house is 
ninety-six feet, extreme width eighty-five feet. 
Tlic two big chimneys are of Bedford stone with 
terra-cotta trimmings. 

Entering the house from the west one passes 
under a large portico, resting upon sandstone 
pillars. Suspended from its roofs are large elec- 
tric lights, constructed after a special design by 
]\Ir. Sherwood. Going up the steps, one sees 
above the door the motto "Teneo amoTe et 
tcneor," wrought in French stained glass. En- 
tering the large hall, thirty feet in ividth, and ex- 
tending entirely through the house, it is seen 
that the interior is cheerful though massive. 
The woodwork is of light, oil-finished oak, finely 
car\ed. Flanking the walls are ten French plate 
mirrors, each about three to ten feet in dimen- 
sions. Rich Swiss tapestries, in Nile green and 
dark amber, drape the doorways to the various 
apartments that open off the hall, in an angle, 
just beyond the grand staircase, is the fireplace 
in Bedford stone, there being carved above the 
mantle in old English letters: "Welcome the 
coming, and speed the parting guest." 

On the first floor, finished in sycamore, cherry 
and birch are the reception, living, library and 
office rooms, and across the hall the dining room, 
tliirty-eight by twenty-two feet, finished in oak, 
with oak floor bordered with walnut. The dining 
hall as well as the lower and upper halls have 



panelled ceilings of oak. The fireplaces are 
of fine Italian mar1)lc and the draperies of 
Swiss manufacture. Opening to the north of 
the dining hall are the butler's and servants' 

From the center of the large hall one can look 
up through an opening surrounded by an ornate 
oaken balustrade, in the second floor, to a hipped 
oaken skylight overhead, filled with stained 
glass in pale blue and pink tints. On this sec- 
ond floor are eleven sleeping rooms, done in 
oak, cherr}', California redwood and Georgia 
pine. The third floor has a number of plain 
rooms finished in pine. 

Both gas and electricity are provided for light- 
ing the house. There are two hundred and sev- 
enty-five incandescent lamps and gas lights that 
can be put in use. They depend from diamond- 
shaped brasses of unique design and are shaded 
by variously made globes of light blue and pink. 
In the basement, wherein are also the children's 
play-room and a billiard hall, are four furnaces 
that do the heating. Indirect radiators con- 
structed under registers in the great hall above 
greatly assist ventilation in summer by permit- 
ting cold air to pass in. 

In conclusion it will be germane to revert to 
certain points touching the genealogy of our 
subject. The Sherwoods trace their ancestry 
back to England, presumably to the bandits who 
made Sherwood forest so famous; certainly to 
the time of John Calvin, as the Sherwood and 
Calvin families intermarried, and maintained a 

joint family motto, "Teneo aniore at tcneor,'' 
which Mr. Sherwood utilizes with much consist- 
ency and of which he is justly proud. His moth- 
er's ancestors came from France, but of them 
but little is known in the way of authentic his- 
tory. She entered into eternal rest in Xovem- 
ber, 1892, at the home of her daughter in New 
Jersc)-, having attained the venerable age of 
seventy-one years. John D. Sherwood, an uncle 
of P'rederick, wjls a lawyer of considerable prom- 
inence in New York city from 1850 to 1875. He 
traveled extensively in Europe and contributed 
many articles to Harper's Magazine and other pe- 
riodicals. He also wrote a comic history of the 
United States and published other works of 
greater importance. 

The character and position of Frederick A. 
Sherwood illustrates, most happily for the pur- 
pose of this work, the fact that if a young man be 
possessed of the proper attributes of mind and 
heart he can unaided attain to a point of unmis- 
takable precedence and gain for himself a place 
among those men who are the foremost factors 
in shaping the destinies of the nation. His career 
proves that the only true success in life is that 
which is accomplished by personal effort and 
consecutive industr}'. It proves that the road 
to success is open to all young men who have 
the courage to tread its pathway, and the life 
record of such a man should serve as inspira- 
tion to the young of this and future generations, 
a'ld teach by incontrovertible facts that success 
ii ambition's answer. 


MR. STAHL was born at Baltimore, Mar)-- 
land, on the 28th day of February, 1809, 
tl;e seventh son of Jacob and Eva Barbara 
(Knoblc) Stahl, both of Stuttgart, Germany, and 
received his education in that city. At the age of 
twenty he removed to what is now the city of Ga- 
lena, where he ever afterward resided. He scn'ed 
as sergeant in Colonel Stephenson's company in 
the Black Hawk war, and at the decisive battle 
of r.atl A.\e achieved distinction. A few months 

Ijrior to his death he attended a reunion of the 
survivors of that war, of whom there were but 
f ounce n. 

Shortly after his arrival in Galena he fomied 
a partnership with Arthur L. Johnson, a con- 
nection that continued till 1838, when the finn 
was dissolved and the business was continued by 
Mr. Stahl alone. He was actively engaged in 
this enterprise till 1852, when he was succeeded 
hv his brother Xicholas ami Mr. Thomas Fos- 


ter. In 1830 lie became president of the Galena 
branch of the Illinois State Bank, and continued 
in that capacity during the existence of that in- 
stitution. For a few years he retired from active 
business, but in 1857 became president of the 
Galena ^larine Insurance Company, and re- 
mained its chief officer until it was merged into 
the jNIerchants' National Bank in 1865. Of the 
latter named institution he was elected a director, 
and continued as such until his death, a period 
of nearly twenty-seven years. He was also presi- 
dent of the Galena & Southwestern \\'isconsin 
Railroad Company until it became a part of the 
Chicago & Xorthwestern system. 

Politically Mr. Stahl was in early life a Whig. 
later he affiliated with the Democracy, and was 
chosen to fill a number of important offices by 
that party. He was a devoted churchman and one 
of the founders of Grace Episcopal Church, of 
Galena. For forty years prior to his death he 
was senior warden of the parish, and for a long 
period its treasurer and chief supporter. For 
forty-five consecutive years he represented his 
parish as lay delegate to the diocesan conven- 
tion, and was held in the highest esteem and ven- 
eration by both clergy and laity, being often 
chosen among the men to represent the diocese 
in general convention. The diocesan convention 
shortly prior to his death he was unable to at- 
tend, because of ill liealth, and that body paid 
hirn a fitting tribute, expressing appreciation of 
his past valuable services through a set of reso- 
lutions, in which the sentiment of the body was 
incorporated by unanimous vote. His counsel 
was always sought, and was ever on the side of 
peace and moderation. 

In December, 1839, Mr. Stahl was united in 
marriage to Aliss Alice L. McLean, the eldest 
daughter of Samuel McLean, of Alexandria, 
Virginia. In connection with this may be men- 
tioned the fact that during the great Civil war 
the first battle — that of Bull Run — was fought 
upon McLean brother's home plantation, and in 
1865 the terms of Lee's surrender were drawn up 
in the dining-room of his house at Appomattox; 
his table, upon which the signatures were written, 
having been carried ofif by General Sheridan, is 
now in Libby Prison ]\Iuseum, Chicago. 

Mr. and IMrs. Stahl have three children living: 

i\Irs. .\. M. Lawver, of San Francisco; Mrs. W. 
W. Steele, of Ardmore, near Philadelphia; and 
Miss Alice B., who with her aged mother resides 
at the old homestead in Galena. ISIr. Stahl's 
final illness was brief, the result of a cold, and 
he passed away on the 8th day of January, 1892. 

The following, wTitten by Right Reverend 
W. B. IMcLaren, appeared in the "Diocese of 
Chicago" the month subsequent to !\Ir. Stahl's 
death : 

"Mr. Stahl was a man of remarkably fine in- 
tellectual development. His reading was as 
wisely selected as it was widely extended. His 
memory was a retentive one, and enriched his 
conversation from its abundant stores. Although 
many years absorbed in business, he always found 
time to devote to the cultivation of his mind. 
Coupled with this was a winsome modesty which 
prevented him from any parade of his mental 
acquisitions. He was a man of ver\' finely strung 
nature; his sensibilities were quick and his sym- 
pathies tender. He was withal cheerful and 
bright, very companionable and always gov- 
erned by a judicious view of persons and things. 
Mr. Stahl was a home-loving man and had much 
to love there. A devoted wife and family of ac- 
complished daughters endeared him to the fire- 
fide. ]\Iany must be the memories which 
they now enjoy of the happy years passed 
in his congenial presence. In his relations 
to the community he enjoyed the confidence 
which is always awafded to sterling integ- 
rity, and achieved the honor of a spotless name, 
which was more to him than the millions whose 
acquisition has brought to many the stigma of 
dishonor. He was a man who believed all the 
articles of the Christian faith without a doubt, and 
strove to practice them in his life. To him the 
church was a holy mother. He loved her ways, 
her courts, her progress with a filial reverence. 
* -' * It was the writer's privilege to 
spend two days with him a few weeks ago. 
His hearty welcome, his bright . sallies, his 
expressions of attachment can never be for- 
gotten. Feeble as his frame was, he walked 
twice to church on the Sunday, and oh the 
eagerness with which he listened to the blessed 
truth of Christ! At times tears rolled down his 
cheeks as though he were repeating to himself, 

^^o4L^ . (AJ , CyL^^hy^u^l • 

PubUshlM Ca 


for the theme was of Christ, and the joys of 

'Jesus, the very thought of thee 

With sweetness fills my breast; 
But sweeter far thy face to see, 
And in thy presence rest.' 
"At parting a playful compact was proposed 
that we should wait until the dawn of the twen- 
tieth century before we would sing our X'unc 
Dimittis. He accepted it with a smile; but we 
scarcely dreamed that the expedient which was 
designed only to cheer him in the infimiities of 
age would so soon meet death's contradiction. 
At his burial, at w-hich were gatheretl a multitude 

of those who loved and honored him, the ser\'ices 
closed with the solemn chant, 'Now, Lord, lettest 
Thou Thy servant depart in peace.' 

"The dear old parish at Galena has been sadlv 
bereaved within a few years. One after another 
of the noble men and women have gone to their 
rest; and now, Mr. Stahl having joined them in 
Paradise, it can never be the same Galena again. 
But the vigil continues though the sentinels 
change. Others are there to follow in their steps; 
one generation comes as another goes, and all 
the living will be the better and the stronger for 
thinking of them who while here lived as those 
v.ho seek a better countrv." 



THE man who was content to go through the 
war as a "high"' private, doing his duty 
nobly and unflinchingly on the field of battle or 
in the camp, is the man who to-day is serving 
to the best of his ability — and that ability is of a 
superior order — as United States marshal for the 
Northern District of Blinois; the man who has 
ever been found in the foremost ranks of citizens 
who are devoted to their country's best interests 
and to the welfare of their fellow men ; in private 
life, in legislative halls, in official positions always 
laboring for others with an unselfish devotion 
that well entitles him to the respect which is so 
freely given him and to a place among the hon- 
ored and valued residents of the metropolis of the 

John W. Arnold is a New York man by birth, 
but almost his entire life has been spent in the 
State of his adoption. He was bom in Wash- 
ington county of the Empire State on the 14th of 
February, 1842, and is a son of John H. Arnold, 
a native of Vermont, who emigrated westward 
in the early "50s and for many years was a leading 
merchant of Lockport, Illinois, where he is now 
living retired at the age of eighty-eight years, 
enjoying the rest which should always crown a 
well-spent life. In his young manhood he mar- 
ried Miss Lucretia ]\I. \'ail, who also was born 
in Vermont, and died at their home in Luckport 

in October, 1893, at the age of seventy-five years. 

Mr. Arnold of this review is the fourth in a 
family of seven children, five of whom are still 
living. The first thirteen years of his life were 
passed in the East and he then came with his 
parents to northern Illinois, since which time he 
has been prominently identified with the best 
interests of the State. He was educated in Lock- 
port, graduating at the high school in i860, after 
which he engaged in clerking for a time in his 
father's store; but, when the war broke out and 
he felt that his countr}- needed the services of 
all her loyal sons, he put aside the pursuits of civil 
life to follow the stars and stripes. 

In September, 1861. Mr. Arnold enrolled his 
name among the "Ijovs in blue'' of the Fourth 
Illinois Cavalry, as a member of company D, and 
as a private ser\'ed throughout the struggle, 
which preserved the L'nion and struck the 
shackles from three million slaves. A look at 
Mr. Arnold shows that he is fitted for leadership, 
but he cared not for the trappings of the ofiicial. 
doing his duty in the ranks with commendable 
fidelitv. He was with the forces of General Grant 
at the battles of Fort Henry and Fort Donclson. 
Shiloh, Corinth and the battle of Hatcher's Run 
in Tennessee. About this time he was taken ill 
with typhoid fever and asked for a discharge. 
which was granted at Jackson, Tennessee, August 



I, 1862. He immediately returned home, where, 
with good nourishing he soon recovered, and in 
the same month he again entered the service. 
The strong right arm of this loyal son was found 
supporting his country from that time until the 
close of the war. He this time became a member 
of the Chicago Mercantile Battery and with that 
command participated in the battles of Oxford, 
Mississippi, Haines' Blufif, the battle of Arkansas 
Post, and was with the forces of General Grant 
at Magnolia Hills, Champion Hills, Black River 
Bridge and the siege of Vicksburg, which began 
on the 22d of May, 1863, and continued until the 
4th of July, following. With others he volun- 
teered and took two guns up to the rebel breast- 
works. This hazardous position they held for two 
hours when, by the overwhelming numbers on 
the other side, they were repulsed. He then 
helped to drive Joe Johnston out of Jackson, 
Mississippi, and participated in the battle of 
Sabine Cross Roads, Louisiana, April 8, 1864, 
where the battery was captured and thirty-five of 
the men were killed and wounded. Mr. Arnold 
was one of twenty-two who were made prisoners 
of war and sent to Camp Ford, Texas. There 
he was confined for fourteen months. In August, 
1864, in company with three comrades, he suc- 
ceeded in making his escape, only to be re-cap- 
tured three weeks later ; but after fourteen months 
passed in captivity he was exchanged at the 
mouth of Red river. May 27, 1865, and mustered 
out on the i6tli of June, following. He was ever 
found at his post of duty, faithful to the old flag 
and the cause it represented. ■ Amidst the rain- 
ing shot and shell, on the hard picket march or 
in the camp, he always willingly performed the 
task that was allotted to him. The country owes 
a debt of gratitude, that can never be repaid, to 
the brave privates who under any and every con- 
dition followed their leaders. Theirs was the 
hard task, theirs the fatiguing service, 

"Theirs not to Cjuestion why, 

Theirs but to do and die;" 
and if their lives were spared they returned to 
their homes to become as loyal and true citizens 
in the days of peace as they had been in the hours 
of war. 

Upon his return Mr. Arnold engaged in mer- 
chandising in Lockport for many years, and the 

business is still carried on liy his son. The 
former was a prosperous merchant. It is his 
custom to carry forward to successful completion 
whatever he undertakes, and his well-directed 
efiorts and scrupulous honesty and exactness won 
him the confidence and the patronage of the pub- 
lic. He has been quite prominent in political af- 
fairs and has always been a supporter of the 
Democracy. He has held various minor ofifices, 
and in 1888 was appointed postmaster of Lock- 
port, capably serving in that position until after 
the inauguration of President Harrison, when he 
resigned. In November, 1890, he was elected to 
the Illinois State senate from the Fifteenth Dis- 
trict, which is strongly Republican, his predeces- 
sor having been elected by a majority of thirteen 
hundred and fifty. This he succeeded in over- 
coming and won the election by a majority of 
one hundred and seventy-two. This is certainly 
a high compliment to his superior qualifications, 
the confidence reposed in him and his personal 
popularity; but his election meant something 
more than the election of a Democratic senator; 
it meant the election of a LTnited States senator 
from Illinois. Previously his district had always 
elected a candidate of the opposing party. In 
the joint assembly there were now one hundred 
and one Democrats and one hundred Repub- 
licans. Had the district gone as it usually had 
done the Republicans would have had the ma- 
jc.rity vote; but j\Ir. Arnold was the famous "one" 
to make the ever-remembered "loi" that sent 
John M. Palmer to the United States senate, and 
broke the long continued deadlock. In the Sen- 
ate Chamber Mr. Arnold made for himself a 
record as a friend to the laboring man, working 
earnestly and untiringly for the interests of those 
who are forced to earn their own bread by the 
sweat of their brow. He opposed all measures 
that favored capital to the oppression of labor, 
and was instnmiental in securing the passage 
of the anti-truck bill. He was chairman of the 
committee on waterways, drainage, military af- 
fairs and a member of all the important com- 

Mr. Arnold was married December 22, 1869, 
to Miss Abbie Mathewson, of Lockport, Illinois, 
who was born in Chicago, June 14, 1845, a daugh- 
ter of A. J. Mathewson. Their only living child. 



John W., Jr., was bom in Lockport, December 29, 
1870, and is now in business there. They lost 
two children: Julius M^ who died March 4, 1895, 
and Julia M., who died June 13, 1888. They 
were twins, bom August 22, 1874. 

Mr. Arnold is a pleasant, genial and polished 
gentleman of high social qualities, and is ven,- 
popular, having a most extensive circle of friends 
and acquaintances who esteem him highly for 
his genuine worth. Socially he is connected with 
E. L. Gooding Post, No. 401, G. A. R., of which 
he is past commander. 

On the 20th of February, 1894, by President 
Cleveland, Mr. Amold was appointed to the re- 
sponsible position of United States marshal of 
the Northern District of Illinois, and is discharg- 
ing his duties with a promptness and fidelit}' 
which has won him the highest commendation. 
He is fearless in the discharge of his duties and 
his service has been very valuable, especially in 
connection with the suppression of the labor riots 
which centered in Chicago in the summer of 1894. 
He received many commendator}' letters, one of 
v/hich we give, for it shows his fidelity and how 
it was regarded at headquarters. It reads as fol- 
lows : 

August 6, 1894. 
Hon. Richard Olney, 

Attorney General United States, 
\\'ashington, D. C. : 
Dear Sir: — 

Mr. J. W. Arnold, the United States marshal 
for the Northern District of Illinois, has per- 
formed the trying and onerous duties of his office 
during the recent railway strike with such marked 
ability and fidelity that the receivers of this com- 
pany desire to express in a fomial way their ap- 
preciation of his splendid ser^-ice. 

During the two weeks following June 29, 1894, 
he was almost constantly engaged, day and night, 
in the recruiting, officering, equipping with arms, 

distributing and directing an army of special 
deputy United States marshals. The demand for 
them was so large and urgent that it was impos- 
sible to investigate, witi; any thoroughness, the 
antecedents of the men who applied for commis- 
sions; yet Marshal Arnold, by his energy and 
care in selecting his deputies and in placing re- 
liable officers over them, succeeded in furnishing 
promptly a surprisingly effective guard for tlie 
threatened and obstructed railroads in Chicago. 
During much of the time he took charge per- 
sonally of the deputies at the points of gravest 
danger, and by his courage and activity added 
greatly to the strength of the force. 

From first to last, he performed his duty with 
exceptional courage and devotion. He is en- 
titled to the highest praise for his tireless and 
efficient action in checking the lawlessness of the 
mob, and in preserv'ing from destruction the rail- 
road property in the custody of the United States 
court here and in keeping open the lines of the 
inter-State transportation. 

Very respectfully yours, 


Solicitor for Illinois, 
For Atchison, Topeka &' Santa Fe Ry. 
Well poised at all times, Wx. Arnold was cool 
and collected in the midst of the excitement which 
everywhere prevailed, and with a clear mind and 
discriminating judgment he was thus able to 
direct movements to the best advantage. It was 
his effort to save life, not to destroy it, and the 
policy which he followed won the approval of all 
unbiased persons. While possessing the qualities 
of a successful business man and a desirable social 
companion, perhaps Mr. Arnold's most strongly 
marked characteristic is his unswer\-ing fidelity 
to duty. His private interests must always give 
v.av to the public good, and thus he has become 
honored and esteemed by all who have the 
pleasure of his acquaintance or who have met 
him in a business way. 




THE subject of this review is one whose 
history touches the pioneer epoch in the 
annals of the State of IlHnois and whose days 
were an integral part of that indissoluble chain 
which linked the early, formative period with that 
of latter-day progress and prosperity. Not alone 
is there particular interest attaching to his career 
as one of the pioneers of Chicago, but in review- 
ing his genealogical record we find his lineage 
tracing back to the Colonial history of the nation 
and to that period which marked the inception of 
ihe grandest republic the world has ever known. 
Through such sources have we attained the true 
American type, and along this line must our in- 
vestigations proceed if we would learn of the 
steadfast and unyielding elements which consti- 
tute the basis upon which has been reared the 
lofty and magnificent superstructure of an en- 
lightened and favored commonwealth. 

Not many years ago the fiery element obliter- 
ated one of the famous old homesteads at East 
Hartford, Connecticut, — one known locally as 
the "Judson place." This time-honored and 
weather-beaten structure was one of no little his- 
torical interest, since it had been in the possession 
of the Judson family for nearly two hundred years 
and had been the birthplace of many eminently 
worthy citizens, who played well their part in 
the consecutive annals of national development, 
and where two of his nieces were murdered. The 
Judsons were very early settlers of New England, 
and the family had given some distinguished 
names to American history more than a century 
ago. It is with this particular branch of the 
family located at East Hartford that we have par- 
ticularly to do in this connection, since to it be- 
longed the honored Chicago pioneer to whom 
this memoir is dedicated. 

At the beginning of the present centur}^ the 
old homestead mentioned was occupied by 
Deacon John Judson, who was one of the sub- 
stantial agriculturists of that section of the Nut- 
meg State, and who was held in high esteem 
locally, having been prominent as one of the 
pillars of the Congregational Church, of which 

he was a zealous and devoted adherent during 
the major portion of his long and useful life. He 
married a Miss Olcutt, who was also a descendant 
of a prominent pioneer family of Connecticut, and 
they reared a family of children, one of whose 
number was Dr. Edwin Judson, the subject of 
this review, — a man who for nearly a half century- 
was identified with the professional, business and 
social interests of Chicago, and who was one of 
the first dental practitioners to locate in the North- 
west, having been the first resident dentist in the 
city which now stands as the great and phenom- 
enal metropolis of the West. 

Dr. Judson was born in the house under whose 
roof-tree had three or four generations of his 
ancestors found an abiding place, the date of his 
nativity having been February 22, 1809. He 
grew to manhood upon the old ancestral farm- 
stead, contributing his quota to carrying on the 
work of the farm and imbibing copious draughts 
of the spirit of independence, which is ever the 
concomitant of the life thus closely linked to 
nature. The discipline was one which also begot 
a lively appreciation of the nobility of honest toil 
and of the advantages which stretched far be- 
yond such a narrowed mental horizon. Our sub- 
ject was granted such educational advantages as 
the locality afiforded, attending the public schools 
of East Hartford a portion of each year and sup- 
plementing this discipline by a course of study 
in the academy, where he acquired a good Eng- 
lish education. Now the ambition of the youth 
began to strain at its fetters, and he determined 
to prepare himself for a wider field of usefulness 
than that which is rounded up in the monotonous 
routine of the farm. His ambition was one of 
effort, and he bent his energies toward the ac- 
complishment of the desired ends. He went to 
New Haven, Connecticut, where he began and 
completed the study of dentistry under the effect- 
ive preceptorage of one of the old-time practi- 
tioners of that city. Having received in due time 
the requisite license or certificate which entitled 
him to practice, he turned his attention to pro- 
fessional work upon his own responsibility, and 

Oy <^IA- lX^y{yCcL^^-i_ 



wa? engaged in practice for several years in his 
native State, his efforts being attended with 

Prior to this, however, the Doctor had made 
a prospecting trip through several of the Western 
States, and though he was not at that time suffi- 
ciently impressed with this section of the Union to 
locate here, yet he had a prescience of the posi- 
bilities in store and of the ultimate conditions that 
would prevail when the steady march of progress 
and development should have set in this direc- 
tion. After he returned to his home in the East 
he maintained a watchful attitude in regard to the 
advancements made in tlie West; and when there 
came to him a realization that at last the era of 
substantial and permanent development, which 
he had anticipated, had been ushered in, he was 
not slow to identify himself with the new and 
growing section, though he retained a deep 
attachment for his New^ England home and its 
environments and associations. The strength 
and courage of those who thus became pioneers 
of the West and voluntarily resigned their claims 
to the conveniences, comforts and delectable sur- 
roundings of the older sections of the Union, can 
scarcely be realized by the end-of-the-century 
generation who are in the full enjoyment of the 
privileges which these organizers and institutors 
provided by denying the same to themselves in 
the early stages of development. Dr. Judson 
thus became one of the pioneers of the Northw^est, 
and in coming here he was determined to make 
the best of every opportunity offered — to advance 
himself as much as might be by thrift, enterprise 
and honest endeavor and to aid in the work of 
permanent development, the while reaping such 
generous returns as were incidentally in store for 
those who thus valiantly laid the foundations of 
the empire of the West. His second journey to 
the West was therefore not one of investigation 
and observation, but he came hither with a clearly 
defined purpose and with a certain object in view. 
This prime object was to select a location for 
permanent residence and one where he might 
eventually gain a due measure of success in the 
practice of his profession. That he was favored 
by fortune or that his wisdom was far-reaching 
in his selection of the incipent metropolis, Chi- 
cago, as his headquarters and field of operations, 

can not be doubted, and that he was not denied 
the full harvest in its time is to be held as a just 
recompense for his well-directed and assiduous 
efforts. His name is one which the gigantic and 
wonderful city of the lake may well hold in per- 
petual honor, as placed upon the scroll which 
records tiie names of her pioneers of the early 

Dr. Judson arrived in Chicago in November of 
the year 1840, and installed himself in the old 
Tremont House, of which Ira Couch, the famous 
pioneer boniface, was then proprietor. Soon 
after his arrival he entered upon the practice of 
his profession, establishing a temporary office in 
the hotel, where the parlor had been arranged for 
his use until such time as he could secure eligible 
quarters. He soon estaljlished a permanent 
office at number 94 Lake street, and there he con- 
tinued his professional labors for the next nine- 
teen years, gaining marked prestige as a skillful 
practitioner and as a man of unswerving honor 
and integrity. His practice far transcended local 
limitations, patients coming to him from all parts 
of the contiguous country, many of them travel- 
ing with ox teams for a distance of one hundred 
miles for the purpose of securing attention at his 
hands. The demands thus placed upon his at- 
tention led him eventually to a certain itinerancy 
in his professional work, since, in addition to re- 
ceiving at his office these patients from remote 
towns and settlements, he found it finally expe- 
dient to make visitations to these places at regular 
intervals, and thus he became widely known 
throughout a wide radius of territon,- contiguous 
to the city. His experiences in this pioneer prac- 
tice were necessarily attended with many incon- 
veniences and with much hard labor, for he had to 
traverse long stretches of unimproved countn- 
and to accept accommodations of the most primi- 
tive order; but his courage and zeal never flagged, 
and he incidentally gained a wide and valuable 
knowledge of this section of the West and its 
possibilities for growth and development, also 
forming a wide acquaintanceship with the pioneer 
settlers, many of whom subseciuenily attained 
fortune and distinguished position. 

The first home of our subject in Chicago was 
a modest cottage at ill State street, now in the 
verv heart of the great retail district of the city, 



and this property, which he acquired when its 
location was considered suburban, is still in the 
possession of the family, and of course represents 
a very high valuation. During the years of his 
active practice in Chicago he gained signal prec- 
edence and held the same against the active com- 
petition which eventually existed. He was fully 
conversant with both the theory and the practice 
of dentistry and was signally devoted to his pro- 
fession, keeping constantly in touch with the 
advancements made in the line and ever availing 
himself of the most modem and approved ap- 
pliances and accessories for facilitating his work 
and improving its character. The fact has al- 
ready been incidentally noted that at the time 
when Dr. Judson located in Chicago skilled den- 
tists in the West were very few in number. In 
the rural villages where there were medical prac- 
titioners these pioneer physicians were often 
called upon to transcend their normal professional 
functions by extracting teeth for those who suf- 
fered through this source, and in their hands the 
old-time "turnkey"' became often an instrument 
of torture, though effectual in its operations. The 
specific practice of dentistry was almost unknown, 
and it is not strange that when an able dentist 
visited these localities or administered to the 
wants of the people in his office in Chicago, utiliz- 
ing the most improved appliances of the day and 
standing ready to supplcnient the work of nature 
by supplying artificial teeth, that he should have 
been looked upon as a man of wonderful attain- 
ments and almost as a worker of miracles. Our 
subject made, by virtue of his professional ability, 
a profound impression upon the pioneer com- 
munities, and in exemplifying in a practical way 
the science of dentistry he became very prominent 
both as a practitioner and a citizen, and it is not 
to be wondered at that he should be one of the 
pioneers most distinctly remembered by a later 
generation as well as by his contemporaries. As 
the glorious nineteenth century draws to its close 
and the magnificent Garden City lays stretched 
far and wide along the shores of Lake Michigan, 
Dr. Judson is remembered as one of the represent- 
atives of his profession in the inceptive period of 
its existence as a separate and distinct calling in 
the Western States, and in this connection there 
may be gained a distinctive idea of the conditions 

that prevailed in Chicago at the time of his com- 
ing here, when the statement is made, and abso- 
lutely vouched for, that the first piece of polished 
furniture manufactured in the city was the in- 
strument case which found a place in his office 
— this case still being in the possession of his 
widow. When we look at Chicago to-day and 
note her marvelous industrial activities, it almost 
passes belief that only one generation ago the 
facilities and conditions could have been so radi- 
cally different. 

In 1857, after nearly two decades of close ap- 
plication to professional work. Dr. Judson felt 
constrained to retire from active service in the 
line, as his health had become somewhat se- 
riously impaired. With a view to recuperating 
his vital energies he removed, in that year, to the 
town of Geneva, in the picturesque Fox river 
valley, having undoubtedly been attracted thither 
by reason of the marked resemblance which the 
place bore to the New England villages so en- 
deared to him by the hallowed associations of his 
childhood and youth — this typical analogy hav- 
ing been accentuated in modern years, so that at 
the present time Geneva is in appearance and 
character more nearly like a New England town 
than is any other in the State of Illinois. Here 
he purchased a beautiful country seat, in which 
he maintained his abode for ten years; after this 
he returned to Chicago and devoted his entire at- 
tention to the improvement of his city property, 
to the care of his private estate, which had grown 
and had greatly appreciated in valuation, and 
to comfortable proportions. For a score of years 
subsequent to his return to Chicago he retained 
his residence here, and it was terminated only by 
his death, which occurred oai the 3d of March, 
1889. Thus passed to his reward a man of noble 
character, one who had acted well his part in 
life, "wherein all honor lies," and who had gained 
and retained the confidence, respect and esteem of 
his fellow men. His character was beyond re- 
proach, while in his manners he was ever modest 
and unassuming, showing that gentle and refined 
courtesy which was typical of the "old school" 
and which has unfortunately fallen into a measure 
of decadence in these latter days. His acquaint- 
anceship was an extended one and his friendships 
many, and such of the pioneers of Chicago as are 



yet living remember him with a feeling of admira- 
tion and almost reverence. Well may succeeding 
generations pay a tribute of honor to a noble 
name and to the memory of noble deeds. 

The religious affiliations of Dr. Judson were 
always with the Presbyterian Church, and for 
many years he was prominently identified with 
the Second Presbyterian Church of Chicago, hav- 
ing transferred his membership from the First 
Presbyterian in the year 1843. His was a 
kindly and sympathetic nature, and there are 
many who can bear record to his generosity 
and his deep spirit of humanity in the daily walks 
of life. 

In 1832, prior to his coming to the West, Dr. 
Judson was united in marriage to Miss Julia L. 
Wheat, of Glastonburv-, Connecticut, by whom 
he had one daughter, Julia Isabella, now the 
widow of F. W. Tourtelotte, of Chicago. Mrs. 
Judson died some time after their removal to the 
West, and in 1848 was consummated the union 
of our subject to Miss Mary M. Shattuck, a 
representative of the distinguished New England 
pioneer family of that name. Her original Ameri- 
can ancestors came hither on the Mayflower, in 
1620, and some of them settled in Massachusetts, 
while, soon afterward, some of them took up 
their abode at Pepperell, New Hampshire. I\Irs. 
Judson's paternal grandfather, as well also as 
her maternal grandfather, Benjamin Swetland. 
entered the Continental army when mere lads and 
were active participants in the war of the Revolu- 
tion. The records bear evidence that more than 
fifty individuals bearing the name of Shattuck 
bore arms in the war for independence. Benja- 

min Swetland held the highest rank in the musical 
branch of the army, having been fife major, and 
he was in the battle of liurgoync and was present 
at the surrender of Cornwallis, at the battle of 
Yorktown, as well as other battles. He wrote his 
own musical scores and his roster is still extant. 
After the close of the war he became a resident of 
East Windsor, Connecticut, and removed from 
there toWaterville, New York, where he remained 
until his death. The paternal grandfather, 
Ebenezer Shattuck, removed after the war to 
Jerusalem, Yates county, New York, where he 
died in 1840, at the venerable age of seventy-eight 
years. He \vas a man of prominence and in- 
fluence in the community, and was conspicuous 
in the councils and work of the Presbyterian 
Church. John Hancock, well known in histop*- 
and one of the signers of the Declaration of In- 
dependence, was an uncle of Mrs. Judson's grand- 
mother on the mother's side. Ebenezer Shat- 
tuck, father of Mrs. Judson, was a man of high in- 
tellectuality, being a distinguished mathematician 
and having been for many years a teacher and 
prominent in the educational circles of the State 
of New York. Mrs. Judson is a member of that 
noble organization, the Daughters of the Revolu- 
lution. She still retains her residence in Chicago 
and is revered for her nobility of character and 
as one whose memor\' traces the course which 
binds the early pioneer days to the present, with 
its electrical vitality and prosperit\-. She holds 
sacred the memory of the one who was her de- 
voted companion for so many years and whose 
name is deeply engraven upon the scroll of the 
honored pioneers of Chicago. 



a w-ell-known and successful lawyer, having 
served three terms in the Illinois legislature as 
representative from the Sixteenth Senatorial Dis- 
trict, which comprises the counties of Kankakee 
and Iroquois. 

His birth occurred in Lockport, Illinois, on the 
lOth of April, 1852. He is a son of Colonel John 
Williams and Helen (Harvey) Paddock. The 

father was an eminent lawyer and a distinguished 
military- man of eastern Illinois. "SU. Paddock 
came to Kankakee with his parents in 1853. while 
an infant, and has made that city his home since 
that time. At the early age of eleven years he 
was called upon to mourn the loss of his father. 
His primary education was receivoil in the public 
schools, and when twelve years of age he com- 
nuMicetl learning the printer's trade in the office 



of tlie Kankakee Gazette, where he spent one 
\ear. The succeeding six years were passed 
upon a farm during the summer and in attendance 
upon the scliools of the district during the winter 
season. He next took a year's course at the 
Soldiers' College at Fulton, Illinois, after which 
he accepted the position of deputy postmaster at 
Kankakee, where he served faithfully for two 
years. For the two years following this he 
served as deputy county clerk of Kankakee 
county. During the time of his official service he 
had also been directing his attention toward the 
study of law, under the preceptorship of Thomas 
P. Bonfield, and in 1873 he entered the law de- 
partment of Union University, of Albany, New 
York, at which he was graduated in the spring 
of 1S74. In May, 1874, he was admitted to the 
bar at Albany. In September of that year he 
was admitted to the bar at IMount Venion, Illinois, 
and at once entered upon the practice of his pro- 
fession at Kankakee, in partnership with T. P. 
Bonfield, which connection was continued until 
October, 1875, since which time our subject has 
been in practice alone. 

On the i8th of July, 1876, Mr. Paddock was 
united in marriage with Miss Kate Almira Barton, 
of Kankakee. The lady was born in the town of 
Marshall, Oneida count}-. New York, on the 5th 
of February, 1854, and is a daughter of William 
L. and Sarah (Lumbard) Barton, who also were 
natives of Oneida county. They removed to 
Kankakee in 1870, where they still reside. I\Ir. 
and Mrs. Paddock are the parents of seven chil- 
dren: Helen Barton, Shirley Barton, Emma 
Barton, Bessie B., Evelyn B., Catherine B. and 
Priscilla B. 

In politics Mr. Paddock has always been a Re- 
pul)lican since old enough to form political 
opinions, and while but a youth took an active 
interest in politics. In 1876 he was elected State's 
attorney for Kankakee county, and was re-elected 
in 1880. He was city attorney for Kankakee 
from 1878 to 1880. In 1883 he was made a 
master in chancery, which office he resigned on 
being again elected to the legislature. In 1885 
he was chosen city attorney for the special pur- 
pose of defending the city ii; several long con- 
tested and important suits. Three years later he 
was elected on the Republican ticket to the Illi- 
nois legislature, was re-elected in 1890 and again 

in 1892. He was the attorney for the Illinois 
State Board of World's Fair Commissioners. In 
1892 he was again chosen city attorney, from 
which time he has continued to hold that office, 
having been elected for the term of two years be- 
ginning May I, 1895. 

Mr. and Mrs. Paddock are members of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church, of which the for- 
mer is vestryman. He is a Knight Templar Ma- 
son, holding membership in Kankakee Lodge, 
No. 389, A. F. Sz A. M.; in Kankakee Chapter, 
No. 78, R. A. I\l.; and in Ivanhoe Commandery, 
No. 33, K. T., of which he has been commander. 
He is an active member of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Paddock Camp, Sons of Veterans, which he was 
instrumental in organizing and of which he has 
been commander. 

In political campaigns Mr. Paddock has long 
been a potent factor in support of Republican 
principles, and, being a popular speaker, his 
services have been much in demand on the stump. 
His first political work was in the support of 
Hayes in 1876, and in the support of Garfield 
and Arthur in the presidential campaign of 1880, 
when he made a vigorous canvass and was 
greeted by large and appreciative audiences 
wherever he spoke. Since that time he has taken 
an active part in succeeding campaigns and has 
ripened into a finished and eloquent orator. 

In the practice of his profession IMr. Paddock 
has been eminently successful, and has won a 
foremost place in the bar of Kankakee county. 
As a trial lawyer he has shown unusual force 
and has developed great strength as well in the 
systematic and careful preparation of his cases 
and the shrewd and thorough examination of 
witnesses, as in the eloquent, logical and con- 
vincing manner of their presentation before 
court and jury. He possesses many of the 
traits that distinguish his illustrious father 
as a brilliant speaker, sound advocate and able 

Mr. Paddock has one of the finest libraries to 
be found in Kankakee and has ever been a 
thorough student. Socially he is deservedly pop- 
ular, as he is afifable and courteous in manner 
and possesses that essential ciualification to success 
in public life, — that of making friends readily and 
of strengthening the ties of all friendships as time 

^-'^ y/ oAk 






ularly known as W. W. Shaw, was bom at 
Swineshead, near the city of Boston, Lincohi- 
shire, England, on the 14th of December, 1832. 
He is the eldest son of Robert and Rebecca Shaw, 
his father being a prosperous farmer at that well- 
known historical place. He received a sound, 
practical education at home, and in the fall of 
1853, being desirous of seeking a wider sphere 
for his energies than his native land afforded, 
he emigrated to the United States, selecting 
Cltveland, Ohio, as his first field. Shortly after 
his arrival he succeeded in obtaining employ- 
ment with a party surveying a railroad between 
Cleveland and Tiffin, Ohio, with whom he re- 
mained for a season, and in jMarch, 1854, he 
filled the position of clerk in the freight ofiice 
of the Columbus & Cincinnati Railroad. This 
position did not appear to him to open a road 
to the higher ones, for which he felt himself 
fitted, and in August of that year he moved to 
Chicago, then, as now, a city of illimitable pos- 
sibilities. Financial depression and the cholera 
scourge (which was raging to an alarming ex- 
tent during that year) offered a cold welcome to 
the young visitor and his search for work was a 
cheerless task. His perseverance, however, was 
rewarded, for in the little flour and feed store of 
Potter & Vincent, then on the northwest corner 
of Canal and Randolph streets, he found a posi- 
tion, in which he remained for three years. It 
was the introduction to his successful career. 
Shortly afterward he mairied Miss Mary Ann Har- 
rison, also a native of Swineshead, England, who, 
in company with a relative, had previously emi- 
grated to this country and settled in Chicago. 
At her suggestion he resigned his position with 
Potter & \^incent and entered Bell's Commer- 
cial College as a student. After four months of 
hard study, turning the night into day, he grad- 
uated in that institution at the head of his class 
and obtained the position of bookkeeper in the 
Mechaiiiical Bakery, the consideration for his 
labors being nine dollars per week. For twelve 
years he remained with that firm and saw his 

salary grow from nine dollars per week to two 
thousand dollars per annum. When Joseph M. 
Dake leased the Mechanical Baken.-, in 1868, and 
transferred the employees to his own baken', he 
placed Mr. Shaw in charge of his office, as he 
thoroughly understood his integrity and ability 
in that direction. Owing to the fact that the most 
important years of Mr. Shaw's business career 
have been connected with the Dake Bakery 
it will be appropriate here to make mention of 
that establishment. 

The origin of the Dake Bakery, which is now 
one, if not the principal, branch of the .\mer- 
ican Biscuit & Manufacturing Companv, dates 
back to i86r. when J- ^L Dake rented quarters 
in the rear of McVicker's theater and there laid 
the foundation of a great and useful industry in 
this Western city. Prior to that date he was a 
partner of O. Kendall & Sons, who owned a 
bakery on the southwest comer of Dearborn and 
Washington streets, the interests of whom he 
purchased, subsequently admitting C. L. Wood- 
man into partnership. This partnership contin- 
ued until Mr. ^^'oodman retired to establish a 
bread, cake and pastry manufactory, leaving Mr. 
Dake to carry on the manufacture of crackers. 
In the fall of 1868, finding the Mechanical Bak- 
er}' Company a formidable rival, Mr. Dake suc- 
ceeded in getting control of its works, thereby 
shutting off competition from that quarter. That 
company, in 1S57 or 1858, erected a large build- 
ing on Clinton street, south of Lake street, and 
therein placed a $40,000 Berdan cracker oven, 
si.x common ovens and other valuable machin- 
er\-, which enabled them to do a ven- successful 
business during the Civil war. Some of the best 
citizens were connected with this enterprise, J. T. 
Rycrson, Rumsey brothers, B. W. Raymond, E. 
C. Earned and others, being the principal stock- 
holders. Henry C. Cliilds was the superintend- 
ent and W. W. Shaw (the subject of this memoir) 
was chief bookkeeper. The works were oper- 
ated by Mr. Dake for a short time, when they 
were finally closed down and the majorit}- of the 
employees transferred to his own bakerA', where 



tliey were found in 1871 by the great fire, — two 
years and four months after the death of its suc- 
cessful founder. 

The executors of the late Mr. Dake sold the 
bakery to a company composed of E. Nelson 
Blake, F. I\I. Herdman, Samuel B. Walker and 
Kilby Page, who carried on the business under 
the firm name of Blake, Herdman & Company 
until 1870, when F. M. Herdman retired and W. 
W. Shaw was admitted as a partner. The neAv 
firm name was to be decided by tossing up a 
cent, "heads" to favor Blake, Walker & Com- 
pany, the reverse, Blake, Shaw & Company. The 
former won and as Blake, Walker & Company 
it was known. On the morning of October 9, 
1871 (a day never to be forgotten while Chicago 
lasts), their building, machinery and stock were 
destroyed by the great fire, which also swept 
awav the branch factory on Dearborn and Illinois 
streets, their total losses amounting to over 
one hundred thousand dollars. The fire, how- 
ever, did not destroy the energy or reputation 
of the firm, and, leasing ground from C. B. Good- 
year, on Clinton street, near Lake street, for a 
term of ten years, a building was erected, and on 
January i, 1872, the bakery was in full operation 
and doing a very extensive business. In April, 
1875, C. H. IMarshall, who had previously been 
one of their traveling salesmen, was admitted as 
as a partner of the firm, the progress and pros- 
perity of which, from the year 1872 to the year 
1880, was phenomenal. About 1878 Mr. Walker 
retired ; Mr. Shaw increased his interest to be 
on an equality with the senior partners, and the 
name and style of the firm was changed to Blake, 
Shaw & Company. In July, 1878, Mr. Marshall 
retired, and in 1881 the four-story and basement 
building, 80 x 200 feet, on Adams and Clinton 
streets, having been completed, was opened as 
one of the greatest biscuit manufactories in the 
United States. On IMarch i, 1884, INIr. Mar- 
shall repurchased an interest in the firm, which 
was followed in 1885 by the retirement of Kilby 
Page, who left E. Nelson Blake, W. W. Shaw 
and C. H. Marshall to carry on the industry. No 
ether change took place until 1889, when the 
Dake Bakerv Company was incorporated with 
F,. Nelson Blake, president : C. H. Marshall, vice- 
president; and W. W. Shaw, secretary and treas- 

urer. On January i, 1890, Mr. Shaw purchased 
the interest of Mr. Blake in this company, and 
ill June following, the American Biscuit & Man- 
ufacturing Company, having been incorporated 
v.-ith a capital stock of ten million dollars, the 
Dake Bakery Company was consolidated there- 
v.-ith. This great corporation embraces the lead- 
ing bakeries of the Western States. 

In addition to owning the largest cracker and 
biscuit maiuifacturing establishment of the West, 
the American Biscuit & ]\Ianufacturing Com- 
]mny has erected a plant in New York city which 
is one of the largest and most thoroughly 
equipped cracker factories in the world, its plant 
having cost over half a million dollars. W. W. 
Shaw, in addition to being one of the largest 
stockholders, is treasurer of the company, a di- 
rector, a member of the executive committee, 
and manager of the Dake Bakery here. 

The Dake Bakery has confined its attention 
to the manufacture of fine crackers, cakes, etc., 
and consumes from forty thousand to forty-five 
thousand barrels of flour per annum, its sales 
extending all over the Central, Southern and 
Western States. This great business has been 
developed chiefly through the sagacity and close 
attention to business of the old firm of Blake, 
Shaw & Company. W. W. Shaw has had the 
general charge of afifairs (financially and other- 
wise) for a quarter of a century. In the manage- 
ment, however, he has been and is ably seconded 
by an efficient corps of assistants, many of whom 
have worked with him and the old firm for fully 
twenty years. Some of them have grown from 
boyhood to be heads of families while in its em- 
ploy and could not be induced to sever their re- 
lations with this old reliable concern. Tliis 
speaks volumes for the generous treatment ac- 
corded the employees and could be pointed out 
to other concerns as a great object lesson. 

We now resume the personal history of Mr. 
Shaw. His wife died in 1859, and he, with his 
four-}ear-old son, William H. (now the owner of a 
valuable stock farm near Belvidere, Illinois, 
v.-here he resides), visited England, and for six 
months studied the people and conditions of his 
native land. Four years after his return to Chi- 
cago, on March i, 1863, he married Miss Sarah 
Flizabeth, daughter of Eli Bogardus, the famous 



broom-corn grower of Belvidere, Illinois. By 
her he has three children, — Eli B., Robert and 
^^'alden W. The first two named are associated 
with their father in the management of his im- 
mense business, and the third and youngest is 
now attending school. Mr. Shaw is of a very 
pronounced and positive nature, wonderfully 
frank, very energetic and persevering, and a 
straightforward, upright business man. He is 
generous and kind-hearted, one of the most 
genial and enjoyable of men, and altogether a 
striking example of the few representative men 
of Chicago who have carved out their fortunes 
by natural ability, steady application and indus- 
try. Mr. Shaw resides at 385 Ashland boule- 
vard, where he owns one of the handsomest 
homes on that popular street. In politics 

he is a most conservative Republican, although 
at all times he advocates and supports 
in the distribution of his suffrage the prin- 
ciples he believes to be just, irrespective of 

Last but not least, this gentleman, whose ver>' 
successful business career has been too briefly 
narrated in these pages, can be found every Sun- 
day morning with his family at the Second Bap- 
tist Church, on Monroe and Morgan streets, of 
which he has been a member the last twent}--five 
years, at all times rendering substantial aid to the 
Christian work which has been so successfully 
carried on in that well-known and prominent 
sanctuary by the popular preacher, the Rev. Dr. 
William M. Lawrence, of whom he is a great 


New Garden, a Quaker settlement of Guil- 
ford county, near Greensboro, North Caro- 
lina, May 7, 1836. Maternally he traces his 
descent in a direct line to the earliest arrival of 
the Quakers at Nantucket. His father, Horace 
F. Cannon, M. D., was of Huguenot antecedents, 
and our subject has inherited the best qualities of 
those virile races. 

In 1840 Dr. Cannon, together with many other 
non-slaveholding residents of his State, jour- 
neyed across the mountains to find a habita- 
tion where he and his family would be re- 
moved from the distasteful surroiuidings of 
a slave-holding community. He found the loca- 
tion he desired, on the Ijanks of the Wabash 
river, at Bloomingdale, Parke count}', Indiana, 
and there resumed the practice of his profes- 
sion., which he continued successfully until the 
time of his death, in 185 1. 

At that time Joseph was fourteen years of age. 
lie had attended the ordinary country school, 
and also the Bloomingdale ]\Ianual Labor School 
and Academy, founded by and conducted under 
tile auspices of the Society of Friends. This in- 
stitution was under the direct supervision of Pro- 

fessor B. C. Hobbs, later superintendent of pub- 
lic instruction. 

Shortly after his father's death the boy de- 
termined to earn his own livelihood, and in pur- 
suance of this determination, at the age of fif- 
teen, he became an employee in an ordinary 
country store, where he remained five years, fol- 
lowing the usual routine life incident to his po- 
sition, and performing the work allotted to him 
faithfully and conscientiously. For his ser\'ices 
during this period he received an average an- 
nual compensation approximating one hundred 
and twenty-five dollars, in addition to his board. 

Having now practically attained his majority, 
he determined to study law and to make that 
profession his life work. In November. 1856, 
as a student he entered the office of L'shcr & 
Paltison, the senior member of which firm, Hon. 
John P. Usher, afterward became a member of 
Lincoln's cabinet. He also attended a course of 
lectures at the Cincinnati Law School, at that 
time presided over by the late Judge Bellamy 
Storer, father of the present Congressman of the 
same name. He was admitted to tlic bar in 
1858, bv Judge Hanna, of Terre Haute, and the 
following year came to Illinois and located at 



the town of Tuscola, in the county of Douglas, 
which had just been organized from a part of 
Coles county. He there entered upon the prac- 
tice of his profession, and being young, ambi- 
tious and energetic he soon became recognized 
as the peer of his brethren of the bar. He not 
only acquired the reputation of being a young 
man of ability, well versed in all that pertained 
to his profession, but also gained the admiration 
and esteem of those with whom he came in con- 
tact from day to day, professionally or other- 

In those early days the old judicial circuit sys- 
tem was in vogue, and the practicing attorney 
became personally acquainted with a great num- 
ber of men, in the circuit with which his labors 
were associated. In 1861 Mr. Cannon was elected 
State's attorney for his district, and at the expira- 
tion of the four-years term for which he was 
elected was chosen his own successor. During 
his incumbency of this office he formed many 
warm and loyal attachments, as warmly and loy- 
ally reciprocated. In 1872, at the age of thirty- 
six, Mr. Cannon received the nomination for Con- 
gress from the Republicans of his district, and 
was elected a member of the Forty-third Con- 
gress, defeating W. E. Nelson, his Democratic 
competitor, by a majority of 3.300 votes. In 
1874 he was re-nominated and defeated J. H. 
Pickerell, who was the candidate of both the 
Granger and Democratic parties. In 1876 the 
Democrats and the friends of fiat money in Mr. 
Cannon's district placed General John C. Black 
in nomination against him. He, too, was de- 
feated. In 1878, 1880, 1882, 1884, 1886 and 1888 
he was regularly opposed each time by one of 
the most prominent Democrats of his district, 
but was uniformly successful in defeating all at 
the polls. In 1890 Mr. Cannon's opponent was 
Samuel F. Busey, of Urbana. The great Dem- 
ocratic wave that swept across the country caused 
the defeat of many of the most prominent Repub- 
licans in the land, and Mr. Cannon, for the first 
time, and after having served for nine consecu- 
tive terms, failed of re-election, by the small ma- 
jority' of five hundred votes. In 1892 Mr. Busey 
was a candidate for re-election and was again 
opposed by our subject. This time the result 
was reversed, and Mr. Cannon, having received 

a majority of 1,500, once more took his seat in 
Congress. In 1894 his district had been changed, 
and his adversary was Mr. Donovan, of Kan- 
kakee. Again Mr. Cannon was successful, and 
by a majority of over 9,000 votes, the greatest 
he had ever received. 

In 1892 he was chosen as delegate at large 
from Illinois to the Republican national con- 
vention at Minneapolis, and took an active and 
prominent part in the proceedings of that body. 
Together with a majority of his fellow delegates 
from Illinois he advocated. the renomination of 
President Harrison, and labored zealously and 
earnestly to accomplish that result. He was one 
of the most prominent members of that conven- 
tion, and was appointed one of the committee on 
resolutions, and he with ex-Governor Gear, of 
Iowa, Senator Joties, of Nevada, and Teller, of 
Colorado, as the sub-committee on currency, 
drafted and reported the financial plank, which 
was adopted as a part of the platfonn for that 

A complete record of the Congressional ca- 
reer of Mr. Cannon would of itself fill a large 
volume and therefore but a few of the more salient 
points can be referred to here. At the time he 
entered the national legislature many of the laws 
that were considered necessary during the con- 
tinuance of the Civil war still remained upon the 
statutes, and the taxpayers of the country de- 
manded the enactment of such legislation as 
would relieve them of much of their burden. Mr. 
Cannon at once became an active member of the 
house. He decided to devote his entire time and 
attention to the duties of his office, and concluded 
to discontinue his professional career in order 
to be able to give such time and thought as the 
proper attention to his official position required. 
Upon the organization of the Fort>'-third Con- 
gress, of which James G. Blaine was speaker, he 
was placed upon the committee on post-offices 
and post roads, and for some six or eight years 
thereafter was an active member of that com- 
mittee. His labors in connection with this po- 
sition have had a most important bearing upon 
the postal laws of the nation. In the Forty- 
third Congress he was appointed by J. B. 
Packer, of Pennsylvania, who was chairman of 
this committee, chairman of the sub-committee 



in charge of the revision of the postal code, which 
was carefully revised under the lead of that sub- 
committee. Tlie most valuable of the alterations 
made at that time was the change of method of 
payment of postage on newspapers and period- 
icals by prepayment of the same according to 
weight. To ^Ir. Cannon individually is credit 
due for this beneficial and important change. 
During his early boyhood books were a rare 
and almost unobtainable luxury to the inhab- 
itants of the ^^"est. The postal laws were such 
that the expense of obtaining them from the pub- 
lishers prohibited many from gratifying their 
tastes in that direction. Recollecting this fact, 
I\Ir. Cannon at the first opportunity altered the 
then existing condition, and by his actions in the 
sub-committee of which he was chairman em- 
bodied in the code above mentioned provision 
which practically gave the franking privilege to 
newspapers and serials on the supposition that 
they were the great public educators. Mr. Can- 
non is also the father of the parcel post. By ex- 
tending the postal system so as to include the 
carrying of small parcels at a minimum rate, he 
has saved to the mass of citizens an incalculable 
amount of money. Xot only have the people 
been enabled to send small packages of merchan- 
dise, printed matter, etc., at small expense by 
mail, but the reduction in the tariff of the various 
express companies is directly attributable to the 
reduction in the rate of postage on that class of 
matter. Previous to this reduction the express 
companies discriminated against all non-compet- 
itive points. The introduction of the parcel post 
lias not only saved millions to the masses but 
has also increased the revenues of the post-office 
department Although Mr. Cannon has not been a 
member of the committee on post-ofifices and post 
roads since 1880, he lias been the champion on tlie' 
floor of tlie house of all measures calculated to 
improve the postal system. From time to time 
vigorous onslaughts have been made against the 
continuation of pound rates on serial publica- 
tions, but all efforts in tliat direction liave proved 

At the beginning of the administration of Pres- 
ident Garfield Air. Cannon was made a member 
of the committee on appropriations, and has re- 
tained his membership on that committee through 

the various Congresses in which he has served 
since that time. During the session of the Fiftj'- 
first Congress he acted as chairman of that com- 

All who followed the workings of our national 
legislature are well aware that the committee on 
appropriations is of all divisions of Congress the 
most important. Mr. Cannon has been for many 
years one of its most indefatigable members. 
An exhaustive account of Mr. Cannon's actions 
in connection with the committee on appropri- 
ations during the past fifteen years would of 
itself involve the publication of the records of 
that committee. In the Fiftieth Congress Mr. 
Cannon was appointed a minority- member of the 
committee on rules by Speaker Carlisle, and 
upon the advent of Air. Reed to the speakership 
he continued as a member of that committee, 
and as such had charge of the code of rules and 
reported the same to the Fifty-first Congress. 

Although a zealous worker in the committee 
room, it must b}' no means be surmised that all 
of Air. Cannon's labor was directed in behalf of 
such measures as his committees reported. He 
has been an invaluable factor in smoothing the 
path for many of tlie worthiest measures passed 
by the house of representatives, and has invari- 
ably opposed all attempts at vicious legislation. 

The Fifty-first Congress deemed it necessary 
to revise the then existing revenue laws, and as 
tlie Republican party had always declared itself 
in favor of the principles of a protective tariff, it 
required no little ingenuity and hard work to 
draft a revenue measure that would reduce tlio 
revenue without withdrawing protection from 
the industries of the nation. Air. Cannon favored 
the abolition of the import duty on sugar in ad- 
dition to other revenue reforms, and under his 
leadership, with tlie co-operation of his col- 
leagues, Lewis E. Payson and John II. Gear, of 
Iowa, a vigorous stand was taken for free sugar, 
with the result that, when the bill was finally acted 
upon, sugar was placed upon the free list. 

The foregoing is a brief outline of some of the 
more important events in Afr. Cannon's Congres- 
sional career. By discontinuing his legal prac- 
tice in 1874 he has been enabletl to devote his 
undivided time to the interests of his constitu- 
ents. In youth he displayed those qualities that 



have since made him one of the most valuable 
members of Congress, and with commendable 
foresight and prudence lie then invested the pro- 
ceeds derived from his profession in Illinois lands, 
the increased value of which has placed him, as 
he modestly and epigrammatically expresses it, 
"above want and below envy." He has also be- 
come interested in various financial institutions, 

and is a member of the board of directors of the 
SeconJ. National Bank of Danville, and the First 
National Bank of Tuscola. 

Mr. Cannon was married in January, 1862, 
to Mary P. Reed, of Canfield, Ohio. She died 
in Uecember, 1889, sui-vived by two daughters: 
Mabel, now Mrs. E. X. Le Seure, of Danville, 
and Helen, who resides with her father. 


THE subject of this sketch, Orlando Powers, 
was born May 21, 1812, near the village of 
Charlton, Saratoga county. New York. He re- 
mained at home assisting in the work on his 
father's farm and attending school until he was 
about sixteen years of age. An older brother, 
William, at that time in business in Havana, 
Cuba, sent for Orlando to come and assist him. 

He embarked upon the schooner Helen at New 
York, which, when three days out, encountering 
a storm of great severity, was wrecked. Mr. 
Powers, Captain Tucker of the vessel and three 
of the sailors drifted upon the open sea for eleven 
davs, — upon the disabled hulk, part of which was 
out of water, — subsisting upon a scanty supply 
of sea biscuit and raw potatoes, with a very short 
allowance of drinking water. At the end of that 
time, when nearly famished for food and crazed 
for drink, they were picked up by a French brig 
bound for Bordeaux and eventually landed at La 
Rochclle, and taken on to Bordeaux by land. 
He arrived penniless and even without a hat, an 
inexperienced youth in a strange land. Through 
the kindness of an English gentleman he was 
made comfortable in the city of Bordeaux, his 
immediate personal wants being liberally sup- 
plied, until opportunity ofifered to return home. 
Reaching New York, through the business ac- 
C]uaintance of Mr. Powers' older brother, he was 
enabled to promptly discharge his pecuniary ob- 
ligations, and went, by steamer, up the Hudson 
river to his home, where he had been long 
mourned as dead. 

An incident of his early life of more than ordi- 
nary interest was vividly called to his recollection 

during the Columbian Exposition. When pass- 
ing through the Transportation building he came 
upon the old engine, DeWitt Clinton, the first in 
use in this country, with the primitive car- 
riages behind it. When a very young man, Mr. 
Powers was one of the earliest passengers in a 
train drawn by that engine, — a fact which should 
have been made known to the public at that time, 
for he stood there a living witness to the entire 
development of the railroad system of the United 
States from its very beginning to the present. 

Within a short time after his return from 
France, he again sailed from New York, going 
this time to Mobile, Alabama. For several years 
he was engaged in business in Alabama and Miss- 
issippi at Mobile, Tuscaloosa, Prairie Bluff and 
Aberdeen, with his brothers and brother-in-law, 
Chauncey AVilkinson. During the time of his 
residence in the South, two of his brothers, 
George and Samuel, and his mother, had re- 
moved to Decatur, Illinois. He made several 
visits to the latter point, and eventually, in 1847, 
removed there, where all of his life since then 
has been spent, except a period of ten years, from 
1874 to 1884, when, for the education of his chil- 
dren, he lived in Jacksonville, Illinois. 

After commg to Decatur, Mr. Powers built and 
operated for some time, a saw and grist mill, and 
later established a boot and shoe store. He had 
for many years the only set of abstract books in 
iMacon county. He was keenly alive from the 
first to the opportunities for investment and in- 
crease of wealth in central Illinois. Realizing 
the value of the fertile lands of the State, and the 
prospective growth of the city of his residence, 






he became the owner of a large amount of farm 
land and city property which, during the middle 
and later years of his life, he has improved and 

In 1S89 he built in Decatur an opera house, 
which in size, completeness of arrangement and 
elegance of finish would be creditable to a much 
larger cits', and, while not looked upon by him 
as a source of profit adequate to the investment, 
h.ns been, by reason of the comfort and satisfaction 
which it has given to his townsmen, a great 
pleasure to him. 

His character has always been one of great 
sincerity and firmness. His integrity has become 
proverbial. Careful, painstaking, exact and con- 
scientious, he has prospered from year to year 
deservingly. So great was the confidence in his 
solidity and judgment, that, when during periods 
of the greatest financial depression, old and strong 
financial houses were threatened with disaster, the 
mere fact that Mr. Powers stood by them as a 
friend with confidence in their ability to take care 
of themselves, and readiness to aid if necessary, 
was sufficient to protect them from loss and ruin, 
the extent of which would be hard to estimate. 

He has always been a quiet and unassuming 
man, not demonstrative, but in the enjoyment of 
the highest esteem and the utmost trust and re- 
spect of all who knew him. He is a man of un- 
ostentatious and varied liberality, giving freely 
and constantly to objects of charitable interest. 
To the erection of the two successive edifices oc- 
cupied by the First Presbyterian Church of 
Decatur, of which for many years he has been 
a member, he gave many thousands of dollars. 
He founded a scholarship some years ago in the 
Presbyterian Tlieological Seminary of the North- 

While he has never taken an active part in 
public afifairs, he has always been deeply 
interested in and contributed freely to the further- 
ance of the parties and measures \\hich he ap- 
proved. Pie was in early life a Whig and from 
the time of Mr. Lincoln's first nomination an earn- 
est Republican. 

By reason of his large success, his unblemished 
character, his just and liberal life, and the univer- 
sal esteem which he here enjoys, Mr. Powers 
might, without invidious distinction, be called the 
foremost citizen of Decatur. 



WILLIAM JACKSON was born in the 
city of Liverpool, England, August 14, 
1834. His parents were William Jackson, orig- 
inally a farmer, and Ann, «<y Pott. 

Our subject passed his boyhood and obtained 
his education in his native city, and was then ap- 
prenticed to a grocer for a period of five years; 
but he did not remain the entire term of his ap- 
prenticeship, for, becoming imbued with a de- 
sire to come to America, where he had relatives, 
both in New York and Illinois, he relinquished 
his position after three years of service and sailed 
for New York, landing in that city July 3, 1851. 

He remained in New ^'ork but a short time, 
and then set out for Illinois, arriving in Rock 
Island county in August of the same year, where 
he at once sought employment which he ob- 
tained, and during the next few vears serA-ed in 

a minor capacity in different stores and facto- 
ries in Moline. He continued to reside in Mo- 
line until 1862, during the latter part of which 
time he devoted himself to the study and practice 
of law. As a student he was at first in the office of 
H. L. Smith, of Graham & ^^'ebster and afterward 
upon being admitted to the bar in i860, he formed 
a partnership with James Chapman, under the 
firm title of Chapman «& Jackson, which contin- 
ued until May, 1862, at which time our subject 
removed to Rock Island and practiced alone 
until January i, 1864, when he became asso- 
ciated with E. D. Sweeney, the firm being Swee- 
ney & Jackson. This fimi rapidly rose into 
prominence and continued to occupy a leading 
position in the legal field until August, 1883. 
at which time Mr. Jackson was compelled to 
retire wholly from practice, owing to ner\'ous 



prostration. After a rest from business cares, 
which lasted until May, 1885, he once more en- 
tered the field of jurisprudence, and practiced 
alone until March, 1890, when he took in as a 
partner Mr. Elmore W. Hurst, forming the firm 
of Jackson & Hurst, which ranks as one of the 
leading law firms of the city. Their practice is 
a general one, and they are often connected 
with cases of local prominence. In fact Mr. 
Jackson has during his long legal career been 
counsel in many of the cases of importance 
that have been trietl in Rock Island. 

In his political belief Mr. Jackson is a strong 
Republican. He was township collector of Mo- 
line in 1859 and i860, and in 1873 was appointed 
by President Grant as postmaster at Rock Island, 
and served as such for three years. In 1880 he 
was an alternate delegate to the Chicago conven- 
tion that nominated Garfield for the presidency. 

r>ut while lie has taken great interest in public 
matters he has never aspired to hold office. He 
gladly assists others, but has no ambition for him- 
self in that direction. 

As president of the Citizens' Improvement 
Association of Rock Island for three years and 
as park commissioner he has done yeoman service 
in advancing the interests and beautifying the 
surroundings of Rock Island. Spencer Square, 
which he, as park commissioner, laid out, is one 
of the prettiest and most ornamental parks in the 
\\'est, and stands as a monument to his ability. 

Jilr. Jackson was married on the 21st day of 
May, 1863, to Miss Jennie E. Sammis, of Moline. 
They have two daughters, both of whom are 
married, the eldest, Carrie, being Mrs. J. M. 
r)arth; and the second, Hattie, is the wife of 
George M. Piabcock. Mr. and Mrs. Jackson at- 
tend the ^Methodist church. 



ON a farm near Coburg, Ontario, on the 22d 
of March, 1834, C. W. Marsh was born,— 
a son of Samuel and Tamar Marsh. His Amer- 
ican ancestors on his father's side descended from 
William i^Iarsh, who sought refuge in this 
country, fleeing from Kent county, England, in 
1650, vifhen the tide of the great civil war in that 
country turned against King Charles I. He was 
a royalist and in consequence was in danger of 
losing his life should he fall into the hands of the 
followers of Cromwell. Locating in Connecticut, 
he became the progenitor of a family that has won 
prominence in New England and has sent its 
members out into all parts of this country to take 
their places in the various callings of life and 
business. His youngest son went to Vermont 
and from this branch of the family the subject of 
this sketch descends. The mother of C. W. 
Marsh \vas a descendant of the Schemierhorn 
family of New York. 

Thus from sturdy New England ancestors 
Charles \V. Marsh inherited worthy character- 
istics. At an early age he began his education, 
and at the age of ten became a student in St. 

Andrew's school at Coburg and two years later 
entered Victoria College, where he remained for 
more than three years, when in 1849 li^ accom- 
panied the family on their removal to Illinois. 
Notwithstanding his life has been devoted to agri- 
cultural interests largely, he has always been of 
a studious disposition and now spends his leisure 
hours in familiarizing himself with subjects that 
add to his large fund of general information. 
While in college he was specially fond of the 
study of languages and mastered Latin and 
French, and in late years he has acquired a good 
knowledge of Spanish. 

Wlien the ^larsh family came to Illinois, they 
settled on a farm in DeKalb county. There were 
the parents, two sons and a daughter, the father 
and sons successfully operating the land, making 
the farm very productive. The boys early mani- 
fested great aptitude for mechanics ancl were 
always improving the farm machinery introduced 
into that section of the country. They began 
buying and selling farm machinery, and in addi- 
tion to managing the home place they operated 
"breaking teams " and threshing-machines, and 



also bought and sold land, under the firm 
name of C. W. & W. W. Marsh. During the 
'50s reapers were generally introduced through 
northern Illinois. The Marsh Brothers had been 
working with reapers for two or three seasons 
previous, but did not purchase a machine until 
1856. With all the reapers of that period, 
whether hand-rake, self-rake or dropper, the 
grain was cut and delivered in gavels upon the 
ground, the machines saving labor only in the 
cutting, as the gavels had to be taken from the 
stubble and bound as before. 

Continually studying to improve machiners', 
during the harvesting season of 1857 C. W. and 
W. W. Marsh came to the conclusion that two 
binders, standing upon a machine so constructed 
as to carry them and to cut and deliver the grain 
to them at proper height in good shape, could 
bind as much as four or five men on the ground 
walking from gavel to gavel, stooping to the 
stubble and gadiering the grain therefrom to bind. 
The result of their thought was that before the 
next harvest they had planned and built, with 
the aid of a country blacksmith, the first harvester, 
so constructed as to successfully and practically 
carry binders, whether manual or automatic, with 
which they cut and bound their harvests of 1858. 
With this machine the grain was cut, elevated and 
then delivered down an incline to the arms of the 
manual binders just the same as it is now cut, 
elevated and delivered down an incline to the 
arms of an automatic binder. The ]\Iarsh har- 
vester, carrying its two binders, effected as great 
a saving in the labor of binding as the reaper 
had in the labor of cutting. It did even more; 
for it furnished the foundation of the modern 
harvesting machine, as it was the first and only 
machine to which automatic binders could be 
successfully attached; but it was so entirely dif- 
ferent from other grain-cutting machinery of that 
period that its merits had to be demonstrated and 
established by general public use as a carrier of 
manual binders, before the idea of making it a 
carrier of an automatic binder was evolved, and 
many years elapsed before this was acconipliihed. 
The decade of the '70s had come before Locke, 
the Gordon Brothers, Whittington, Appleby and 
others began to attach their respective binders to 
the Marsli harvester. 

From 1858 until 1863 the firm of C. W. & W. 
W^. Marsh, besides carrying on their farm and 
odier business interests, were engaged in perfect- 
ing the details of their machine and endeavoring 
to interest capitalists in its manufacture. In 1863 
theyarranged with the Stewardsof Piano, Illinois, 
and established there a manufactory and placed 
the har\^ester on the market. It was operated so 
successfully through the season of 1864 that 
others became interested in its manufacture and 
a license was granted to Easter & Gammon, who 
a few years later dissolved partnership and divided 
up their territon,', the business being reorganized 
by the former under the name of J. D. Easter & 
Company and by the latter under the style of 
Gammon & Deering. The shops at Piano were 
enlarged from year to year and there the harvest- 
ers were manufactured for the firm of Marsh, 
Steward & Company, and later for those just 
named. The firm of Gammon & Deering soon 
obtained an interest in the Piano shops, and 
finally the entire property. 

In 1869 the Marsh Brothers established the 
Sycamore Alarsh Harvester ^lanufacturing Com- 
pany at Sycamore, Illinois, and in 1876 sold a 
controlling interest therein to J. D. Easter & Com- 
pany, retiring from the business. The following 
year Easter & Company failed and deeply in- 
volved the Harvester Company. The Marsh 
Brothers then came to the rescue but undertook 
too much, with the result that in 1881 the 
Harvester Company was closed out land suc- 
ceeded by the Marsh Binder Manufacturing Com- 
pany. The debts of the old company and the 
provision of means for running the new so oc- 
cupied the time aufl thoughts of C. W. Marsh 
that he could give little or no attention to the 
operation of the factory. The company at- 
tempted unsuccessfully to establish a new binder, 
lost largely and in 1884 failed, dragging down 
the Marsh Brothers, who were too heavily loaded 
widi the debts of the old concern. Meantime 
the Piano shops had become a great majuifactur- 
ing plant, turning out thousands of harvesters an- 
nually, with some automatic binder attachments 
as early as 1874 and more from year to year 
until 1879, when the firm of Gannnon & Deering 
was dissolved and Mr. Deering removed his in- 
terests to Chicago. A year or two later Mr. 



Gammon, in connection with W. H. Jones, or- 
ganized the Piano jNIanufacturing Company, 
which occupied the Piano shops. Under Mr. 
Jones' management, and guided by his long ex- 
perience in the business and great executive 
al)i!ity, the company has achieved a won- 
derful success and has made the name of 
the old shops renowned tliroughout the agricul- 
tural world. 

In 1885 the Farm Implement News was estab- 
lished and C. W. jMarsh, being then out of the 
manufacturing business, became its editor in 
chief, which position he has held continuouslv 
since, making this journal of great ii'lterest and 
benefit to the implement industry. The paper 
was a success from the start and now has a wide 
circulation in this country and abroad, being one 
nf the leading trade papers of the world. 

Though not strongly partisan or aggressive in 
politics, Mr. ]\Iarsh has been a Republican since 
the organization of the party. He was elected 
to the lower house of the State legislature in 1868, 
and on the expiration of that term so acceptably 
had he filled the office that he was nominated 

and elected to the State senate. He proved a 
wise and able legislator, taking counsel of mature 
judgment and supporting measures only after 
careful deliberation. He served for twenty con- 
secutive years as trustee of the Northern Illinois 
Hospital for the Insane, leaving that position only 
when the Democratic party came into control of 
tlie State. Men of little merit may secure such a 
position, but cannot hold it, and his long con- 
tinued service is a high tribute to his fidelity and 
trust. In whatever relation of life we find Mr. 
Marsh, whether in legislative halls, in public 
office, in the manufactory or at the head of one 
of the leading trade journals of the world, he is 
always the same honorable and honored gentle- 
man, whose worth well merits the high regard 
which is universally given him. 

On the 1st of January, i860, Mr. Marsh was 
united in maiTiage witli Miss Frances Wait, by 
whom he had three children — George C., Mary 
F. and Fannie S., all of whom are yet living. The 
mother died Aiay 12, i86y, and on the loth of 
January, 1881, ]\Ir. ATarsh was joined in wedlock 
with Sue Rogers. 


A POOR BOY, a newspaper employee, a 
lawyer, real-estate dealer, educator, an im- 
portant factor in the history of two States, a re- 
former, a benefactor, an honorable Christian 
gentleman, — in these few words are summed up 
the life and career of Harvey B. Hurd. He is a 
man not alone of Evanston — where he makes his 
lidnic — not even of Chicago alone, but belongs 
to the entire West, by reason of the part that he 
has played in its history and in molding its 
destiny. The true Western spirit of progress and 
enterprise, combined with a desire for pure gov- 
ernment, are the strong elements in his character 
which have left their indelible impress on the 
Mississippi valley. 

Born in Huntington, Fairfield county, Connec- 
ticut, on the 14th of February, 1828, Mr. Hurd is 
a son of Alanson Hurd, and on his father's side 
is of English lineage, while on his mother's side 

he is of Dutch and Irish descent. The energy 
of the first, the persistence of the second and the 
versatility of the third race seem to be combined 
in this prodvict of those various bloods. The 
early life of Mr. Hurd was certainly a prosaic one, 
for he worked on his father's farm, imder verv 
limited circumstances, until fifteen years of age. 
and then started out in life for himself with all 
his earthly possessions tied in a handkerchief: 
and it is said that when he reached Chicago some 
years later his capital consisted of a single half 
dollar. His school privileges were only those 
that were afTorded by the district schools near 
his home, but experience has been his teacher 
and valuable are the lessons that he has Teamed 
under her instruction. Then, too, he possessed 
an observing eye and retentive memory and stored 
in the recesses of his mind much that he has 
turned to account in his varied business career 



in early life. Those years of trial tested his char- 
acter, which stood the fire like pure gold. 

On leaving home Mr. Hurd walked to Bridge- 
port, Connecticut, and obtained a position as 
apprentice in the office of the Bridgeport Stand- 
ard, a Whig newspaper. In the fall of 1844, in a 
company of ten young men, he came to Illinois 
and entered Jubilee College, in Peoria county, 
then presided overby Rev. Samuel Chase; but after 
a year some disagreement occurred between him 
and his teacher and he left the school-room to 
seek employment in the city of Peoria, but failed 
in the attempt. What then seemed a hardship, 
however, turned out for his good, as it led him 
to Chicago to become in future years one of the 
leading citizens of this great metropolis of the 
West. He was first employed in the ofificc of the 
Evening Journal and later the Prairie Farmer, 
after which he took up the study of law in tlu- 
office of Calvin De Wolf, being admitted to the 
bar in 1848. He was first associated in legal 
business with Carlos Haven, afterward State's 
attorney, and then with Henry Snapp, later Con- 
gressman from the Joliet distinct. During his 
partnership with Andrew J. Brown, which ex- 
isted from 1850 to 1854, they dealt extensively in 
real estate, owning 248 acres of land, which they 
laid out as a part of the village of Evanston. Mr. 
Hurd was one of the first to build in what is now 
Chicago's most Iieautiful suburb, and his Evans- 
ton home was begun in the summer of 1854 
and ready for occupancy in September, 1855. .\t 
that time it occupied a block of ground and to- 
day it is one of the most beautiful residences of 
the town. Mr. Hurd was honored with an elec- 
tion as the first president of the village, and from 
its earliest history his family has been prominentlv 
connected with its social life. In May, 1853, he 
married Miss Cornelia A. Hilliard, daughter of 
the late Captain James Hilliard, of Middletown, 
Connecticut, and by this marriage were bom 
three children: Eda, wife of George S. Lord; 
Hettie, who died in 1884: and Xcllie, wife of lohn 
A. Comstock. ( )n XovemlKT i, i860, he mar- 
ried Mrs. Sarah Collins, widow of George Collins, 
and her death occurred in January, 1890. In 
July, i8(j_', Ik- married Airs. Susannah M. \"an 
Wyck, a lady highly esteemed in social circles 
in this citv and Evanston. 

About tJie time of his removal to Evanston Mr. 
Hurd became prominent in public afTairs, for in 
the year 1854 the Missouri compromise was re- 
pealed, and his actions had nnich to do with the 
settlement of Kansas, although he was never a 
resident of that State. This famous repeal made 
Kansas a contested ground, sought by the free 
people and the slavery men. The history of 
events that followed is familiar to all, — how the 
liorder ruffians controlled the State, the slave- 
holders destroying the property of the '"free" men 
and the latter retaliating, until the cry of ''bleed- 
ing Kansas" echoed through the North, where 
emigration societies were formed to aid, arm and 
protect free-State settlers. At a convention hekl 
In Buffalo, New York, at which a national com- 
mittee was formed, Mr. Hurd was made secretarv 
of its executive committee, with headquarters at 
Chicago. I-'rum that time he took a very promi- 
nent part in the events that shaped the future 
ilestiny of Kansas, and principally through peace- 
al)le means succeeded in largely quieting the dis- 
turbance; and this was accomplished in a large 
measure l)y throwing into the Territorv, in the 
spring of 1857, such large bodies of free-State 
settlers as to entirely outnumber the slave-State 
people, and cause them to exclaim, "These black 
caipet bags are too many for us," and retire from 
the contest. 

In 1856 the crops of the State were not 
sufficient to supply the demand, owing to the 
depredations which had been carried mi, and. as 
it was seen there would be a lack of seed for the 
planting in the coming spring, the committee 
which assembled in New York in February-, 1857, 
passed a resolution instructing the executive com- 
mittee in Chicago to purchase and forward the 
necessary seed, and at the same time api^ropriated 
five thousand dollars to John Brown for the or- 
ganization and ec|uipment of the free-soil settlers 
into companies for self-protection. Mr. Hurd 
f<nmd on his return to Cliica,go that the treasury 
would not meet liotli demands, and therefore de- 
cided to buy and seiul on the seed, purchasing 
and shipping one hundred tons of spring wheat, 
corn, potatoes, barley and other seeds. Some 
fault was found with Mr. Hurd for his action in 
this matter, but it was soon seen that he had fol- 
lowed the wisest ])olicy: for had not the settlers 



received the seeds and thus been enabled to raise 
crops, many would have been obliged to leave 
Kansas and the State would have been given over 
to the slavery men; but as it was the free-State 
settlers remained, many more came and tlie pro- 
sla\'ery men, thus outnumbered, were forced to 
give up the contest. This action of Mr. Hurd 
largely influenced the future of the common- 

In 1862 Mr. Hurd formed a law partnership 
with Henry Booth, and at the same time accepted 
a position as lecturer in the law department of the 
University of Chicago, which IMr. Booth had 
helped to organize three years before and of 
which he was principal. The firm was dissolved 
on the retirement from active practice of Mr. 
Hurd in 1868. His knowledge of law and 
superior ability called him to other duties, and 
in April, 1869, he was appointed by Governor 
Palmer one of three commissioners to revise and 
rewrite the general statutes of the State of Illinois. 
His associates, Messrs. \\'^illiam E. Xelson, of 
Decatur, and ]\Iichael Schaefifer, of Salem, both 
withdrew in a short time, leaving the work to Mr. 
Hurd, who completed the task after the adjourn- 
ment of the Twenty-eighth General Assembly in 
April, 1874, and was appointed by that body to 
edit and supervise the publication of the statutes, 
which he accomplished to the entire satisfaction of 
the people of the State. The labor which he per- 
formed in this revision is such as only lawyers 
can fully appreciate. He had not only to com- 
pile into one homogeneous whole the various 
laws which from time to time had been enacted 
at the biennial meetings of the legislature, but to 
adapt them to the new State constitution of 1870, 
discarding old provisions which were in conflict 
with it and constructing new ones in confonnity 
with it. The success of his work was immediate, 
the State edition of fifteen thousand copies was 
soon exhausted and Mr. Hurd has been called 
upon to edit eight editions since, all of which have 
received the unqualified commendation of the 
bar; and now Hurd's Revised Statutes is an indis- 
pensable work in every law ofifice and in many 
public offices throughout the United States. 

In the summer of 1874 Mr. Hurd was again 
elected to a chair in the law school which had be- 
come the Union College of Law of the Universitv 

of Chicago and the Northwestern University. 
This work is thoroughly congenial to him, and 
for the work he is specially fitted for his knowl- 
edge of law is surpassed by few, his powers as 
an advocate are superior, and he has the happy 
faculty of imparting to others the knowledge 
which he possesses and of training his classes to 
systematic and methodical habits. He is a close 
student himself, investigating all with which he 
comes in contact, analyzing cause and effect, and 
his whole time is now devoted to his academic 
work and his scholastic researches. 

He has in the meantime come once before the 
public as a candidate for public office, having 
been nominated by the Republicans for the office 
of judge of the supreme court of Illinois at the 
special election held on the nth of December, 
1875, but a combination of causes resulted in 
his defeat. He was opposed by T. L. Dickey, 
one of the strongest members of the Democracy, 
who, being the corporation counsel of the 
city of Chicago, had not only the support of 
his party but also the influence of the city 
administration, and in addition to this an un- 
conquerable power in the railroad corporations, 
which took this means of avenging themselves 
on Mr. Hurd for the stringent measures of 
railroad legislation which the general assembly 
had enacted, and which were contained in 
Hurd's Revised Statutes, and with the framing 
of which he had much to do. This combination 
caused his defeat, and since that time he has been 
associated with no public office save on one oc- 
casion, when he was one of six gentlemen selected 
to fill the vacancy in the board of count}' com- 
missioners of Cook county, created by the con- 
viction of members of that board for defraud- 
ing the county. 

Never for an instant, however, has Mr. Hurd 
ceased his work in behalf of the city, its improve- 
ment and upbuilding, and no citizen has labored 
niore earnestly to advance the material interests 
of Chicago than he. The existence of one of the 
most important improvements of the city of recent 
years is due to him, — the new drainage system, by 
which the sewage will no longer be discharged into 
the lake, the source ofthewater supply, but carried 
off into the Illinois river by means of a channel 
across what is known as the Chicago divide. 



This channel had long been talked of, but it was 
the labor of Mr. Hurd and his plan of operations 
that made it possible. It was thought that there 
was no way of raising money for this purpose 
without altering the constitution by an amend- 
ment, — for Chicago had already reached the limit 
of its borrowing and taxing power, — and this 
would cause a long delay; but Mr. Hurd sug- 
gested the creation of a new mimicipality with 
power to raise the necessary funds by taxation, and 
the issue of bonds, and it was this suggestion that 
led immediately to the raising of the drainage and 
water supply commission known as the Hering 
commission. Mr. Hurd was the friend and adviser 
of that commission, and was the author of the 
first bill on the subject introduced into the legis- 
lature in 1886, known as the Hurd bill, which re- 
sulted in a legislative commission to further in- 
vestigate the subject and present a bill. This bill, 
which was practically the same as the Hurd bill, 
was passed in 1887 and was supported before the 
legislature by Mr. Hurd and his friends, and he 
conducted the proceedings for its adoption by the 
people of the district. It was adopted at the 
November election in 1887 almost unanimously, 
and his plans are now becoming a thing of reahty, 
the work being vigorously prosecuted; and the 
drainage canal is now considered one of the 
v.onders of the age even in this period of great 
achievements. Its value to this city can never be 
estimated, as it gives to Chicago an excellent 
system of drainage and pure water, and is the be- 
ginning of a magnificent waterway connecting 
the great lakes with the Mississippi river and 
tributaries and the gulf of Alexico. 

The question of capital — of the amount which 
may be possessed by a single individual, — the 
question which is agitating the countn,- and which 
must some time come up for settlement, — has 
claimed some of the attention of Mr. Hurd. He 
has for several years been at the head of a com- 
mittee of law reform of the Illinois Bar Associa- 
tion, and the able reports of that committee are 
in favor of extending the American policy of 

breaking up large estates through the operation 
of the laws of descent and wills, by so amending 
tlie laws as to limit the amount one may take by 
descent or will from the same person, and in favor 
of a system of registration of titles which will 
make transfers of real estate as simple, inexpen- 
sive and secure as the transfers of personal prop- 
erty. The latter of these has already had its effect. 
A commission to consider the matter of trans- 
fer of titles was created by the action of the 
general assembly of 1891 ; of that commis- 
sion Mr. Hurd was chairman. It made its 
report on December 10, 1892, recommending a 
system of registering titles substantially embodv- 
ing the essential principles of the Australian or 
Torrens system. The bill recommended by the 
commission was enacted into a law on the 13th 
of June, 1895. 

Mr. Hurd's efforts in the line of charitable work 
have also borne much fruit. He is president of 
the Conference of Charities of Illinois, — an or- 
ganization composed of all charitable societies, — 
and holds the same office in the Children's Aid 
Society of Chicago, which has for its object the 
securing of comfortable homes for homeless little 
ones who would otherwise be thrown upon the 
cold charities of the world. These actions are 
known to the public, but many more are those 
which he quietly performs of which only the donor 
and the recipient have knowledge. He gives 
liberally of his means to the poor and needy, but 
it is after the spirit of the teaching which says, 
"Let not your left hand know what your right 
hand doeth." Viewed from any standpoint, his 
life may be said to be a success; and it is the 
success not merely of the man who prosecutes 
a prosperous commercial life, intent only on 
winning wealth, but that of the man who ad- 
vances public good in promoting individual pros- 
perity. The study of the character of the repre- 
sentative American never fails to offer much of 
pleasing interest and valuable instniction, and the 
life of Mr. Hurd certainly furnishes food for deep 
and profitable thought. 




THE ancestors of General Smith on the pater- 
nal side came to New England from old 
England in the last centiir>' and his mother's 
family about the same time from the north of 
Ireland. He was the son of George Washington 
and Katherine (Wilder) Smith, and was born in 
Brookh-n. New York, January 8, 1837. His 
great-grandfather was the provincial sun-cycir 
of New Hampshire, and his grandfather, also 
named Washington, was a native of that State, 
where, having lived to a good old age, he died 
in the same house in which he was born. The 
General's father was a manufacturer of electro- 
plated ware, one of the first in this country, and 
became a shareholder and officer of the Meriden 
Britannia Company of Connecticut. His mother 
was a lineal descendant of Captain Ephraim Wil- 
der, who served as a member of the ^lassachusetts 
convention by which the constitution of the 
United States was ratified and accepted, and one 
of those who gave that instrument their cordial 
support. He had been a captain in the Revolution- 
ary armv, and in 1775 married Lucretia, sister of 
Samuel Locke, who was afterward president of 
Harvard College. 

His father having removed to Albany, George, 
the subject of this sketch, secured his education in 
the schools of that cit\- and at the Albany Acad- 
emy. Before completing his scholastic course he 
engaged in the business of teaching, which he 
followed with successful results, and then re- 
turned to Albany, entering the law school of that 
city, at which he was graduated in 1856. Turn- 
ing his eye to the great West for a field in which 
to begin life for himself in the practice of his 
])rofession, he at once, and wisely, decided that 
the growing and enteq:)rising city of Chicago of- 
fered better opportunities than any other inviting 
locality, and accordingly, in October, 1858, he 
removed to this city and "hung out his shingle" 
at No. 10 South Clark street. 

The hindrances obstructing the success of a 
young lawyer in Chicago in 1856 were not 
so manv or formidable as they have be- 
come since that time. While there was nuR-h 

competition there was not so nutch con- 
centration of l)usiness, and a young man of 
good address and qualifications had a bet- 
ter opportunity to become known, and access 
to a paying practice was more readily obtainable. 
The grooves were neither well formed nor much 
worn, and there was a larger division of clientage 
than now. Young Smith was not slow in mak- 
ing acquaintances among whom the impression 
made as to his ability was favorable, and busi- 
ness naturally increased, if slowly. 

The years passed quickly, and just as he be- 
gan to feel that he was established on a firm foot- 
ing the great Civil war broke out. The first calls 
of the government were issued and the quota rap- 
idly filled, and there was a surplus of volunteers; 
but this condition was of a very short duration, 
and the country soon awalvened to the stubborn 
fact that it was confronted with an exigency 
which demanded all its resources of men and 
money. The really tr}ing time came in the sum- 
mer of 1862, up to which period the victories of 
our armies on the field did not overbalance their 
defeats, and the outlook for final success in put- 
ting down the rebellion was indeed gloomy. 
The president again called for three hundred thou- 
sand volunteers, to serve three years, and a like 
number of militia to serve nine months; and the 
question presented itself in this turning point of 
the war, Will the response be favorable? Ciiicago 
was stirred as never before or since, and among 
the first to sign the enlistment rolls of the Eighty- 
eightli, or Board of Trade, Regiment, to ser\-e 
during the war, was George W. Smith. One com- 
pany of this regiment was chiefl}' raised at 
Tonica and Amboy, where Mr. Smith went to 
secure volunteers, and partly at Chicago; and 
when the company came to be organized, with- 
out any outside influence or combination in par- 
celing out the offices, as frequently occurred in 
such cases, he was elected captain of the com- 
pany, receiving the votes (one hundred and two) 
of every member. When the regiment was organ- 
ized, as if this expression was not sufficiently de- 
cisive, another election was ordered, when he was 



again elected, receiving one lumdred and one 
votes, — every one present. 

The regiment was ordered to tlie front tlie last 
of August, and in six weeks was under fire and 
publiclv commended for its gallant conduct at 
the battle of Perryville, October 7, 1862. Of the 
many regiments raised under this call none can 
present a more patriotic record than the Eight],'- 
eighth. It was always at the front and never sent 
upon garrison duty. It was engaged in eleven 
principal battles, besides minor conflicts and skir- 
mishes without number. 

At the bloody two-days battle of Stone river, 
which occurred on the last day of the year 1862 
and January 2, 1863, the Eighty-eighth was in 
the thickest of the fight. The battle was lost and 
won on the first day and on the second day was 
finally won and the Confederates driven from the 
field. The terrific assault of Bragg on Rosecrans' 
left, on December 31, was not staid until it came 
in contact with Sheridan's division, containing 
the Thirty-sixth, Forty-fourth, Fifty-first and 
Eighty-eighth Illinois Regiments, against which 
they hurled their victorious battalions in vain, un- 
til after being three times repulsed, when, hav- 
ing lost their brigade commander and sixteen 
hundred and thirty men and officers, his ammuni- 
tion being exhausted, Sheridan slowly retired. 
Captain Smith was severely wounded, and being 
left in a house on the field was taken prisoner. 
He remained in the enemy's hands only four 
days, when, by the assistance of a friendly colored 
man, he was enabled to make his escape to the 
Union lines. After a brief absence he returned 
to hi.^ company. 

At Chickamauga Captain Smith acted as a line 
officer, and as reported by a correspondent from 
thot field of carnage, ''he was in all places where 
the battle raged fiercest." In his report of the 
battle of Mission Ridge the gallant Colonel 
Chandler, who commanded the regiment at that 
time, says, "Captain George W. Smith, acting 
field officer, was conspicuous for his bravery 
while urging on the men until about two-thirds 
of the way up the hill, when he fell severely 

The captain was promoted major October 14, 
1863, and lieutenant-colonel June 22, 1864, and 
after the loss of Colonel ChanfUcr, who glori- 

ously fell at Kenesaw, he commanded the regi- 
ment. After doing good ser\'ice in the Atlanta 
campaign, the regiment, with its division, was or- 
dered back to Chattanooga, and engaged in the 
campaign against Flood. 

The sanguinary battle of Franklin occurred 
Xovembcr 30, 1864. Hood, with fift>- thousand 
Confederates confronting a portion of Schofield's 
army, only ten thousand strong, behind hastily 
constructed defenses, upon the banks of the Har- 
peth river, riding in front of his men, shouted, 
''Break those lines and there is nothing more to 
withstand you this side of the Ohio river!"' And 
such was the impetuosit}- and strength of the Con- 
federate charge that before the two brigades sta- 
tioned on the other side of the river could retire 
in order, as they had been commanded to do, 
they were hurled back in a tumultuous rout and 
driven through our defenses, carr}-ing many oth- 
ers \\ith them. Our breastworks carried and the 
enemy forming within them to make their victon.^ 
sure, the day seemed hopelessly lost. At this time 
a brigade in reserve, commanded by the gallant 
Opdyke, in which was the consolidated Eighty- 
eighth and Seventy-fourth Illinois Regiments, 
moved upon the foe, and in less time than it re- 
quired to capture them they were retaken and the 
victory won. 

Lieutenant Colonel Smith was in the front rank 
and led the charge. An eye witness of the scene 
writes: "In all my life I never saw, in all my read- 
ings I never read, of a more knightly scene than 
Colonel Smith at the head of the charge and col- 
umn, cap in hand, dashing hither and thither in 
the heat of the fray, nerving the brave, shaming 
the coward, — an unconscious hero, every inch of 
him!" The thanks of his commanding general 
and a brevet as colonel of the United States \'ol- 
unteers was the reward of his valor. As a further 
acknowledgment of Colonel Smith's distinguished 
services he was appointed a brevet brigadier 

After taking part in the battle of Xashvillc and 
in the pursuit of Hood, the regiment was returned 
to Nashville, where it was mustcrcfl out June 9, 
1865. The story of its losses give in unmistaka- 
ble terms the record of its meritorious services. — 
its toils, its hardships and braver}-. Only two 
hundred and nine of the nine hundred and twenty 



men on the rolls were present at the muster-out; 
fifty officers and ninety-eight men had been killed 
in battle or died of wounds. jMany had been dis- 
abled by wounds and some had died, and some 
were prisoners in the hands of the enemy. 

As an officer General Smith was distinguished 
for his undaunted courage and devotion to duty. 
With the soldiers of his command, whose welfare 
he was careful to subserve on ever)- occasion, 
there was never a more deservedly popular leader. 
Having confidence in his militar\- judgment, they 
never hesitated to follow where he would lead 
them on, whether it was to victory or to death. 

Returning to the walks of civil life, after so 
many years spent in the field of strife, amid the 
booming of cannon and the march of armed hosts, 
it naturally required some time to adjust one's life 
to the changed conditions. A few, like General 
Smith, having a well grounded profession, which 
had been carefully selected, such was the disci- 
pline of their minds that they were enabled to ac- 
commodate themselves to the new surroundings 
in a comparatively short space of time; with oth- 
ers a longer time was required, while with many 
the habits and modes of camp life were carried to 
their graves. In resuming the practice of his pro- 
sion of the law, it was like starting afresh, and 
before General Smith became thoroughly estab- 
lished he was nominated by the Republicans, in 
1866, and elected State treasurer, which position 
he filled so acceptably as to entitle him to a re- 
nomination, and which could easily have been 
secured but for the fact that the location of other 
State officers on the ticket required, as it was con- 
tended, that the treasurer should be taken from 
the southern portion of the State. 

Having met the demands of his friends and 
party in the matter of official preferments, and 
having no farther ambitions or desires in this di- 
rection, General Smith now gave his undivided 
attention to his profession. Of the thousand or 
more names enrolled as attorneys in Chicago, at 
least one-half of them find but little to do. They 
struggle along before police magistrates and in 
the justices' courts with here and there a crumb, 
as it were, falling from the master's table. Among 
the next five hundred, perhaps half of them make 
a fair living, while the largest amount of busi- 
ness in courts and offices is shared by not ex- 

ceeding a hundred names or firms. These con- 
stitute the leading lawyers of Chicago, who have 
worked their way up from the smallest of begin- 
nings, either as corporation attorneys or promi- 
nent practitioners. Among them is found Gen- 
eral George W. Smith, who has achieved this 
distinction through the adaptability of his men- 
tal, moral and physical constitution to the de- 
mands required for a first-class lawyer. He is a 
man of studious habits, profound learning and 
broad grasp of mind; and, as has been well said 
of him by an eminent brother (quoting from the 
Centun-), ''he has that quickness of apprehension 
which enables him to apply his knowledge to the 
practical solution of intricate problems in every 
department of professional life with extraordinary 
precision and clearness. The powers of the mind 
are admirably balanced and have been severely 
disciplined. Cautious by temperament and always 
avoiding rash and vehement assertions, he is dis- 
tinguished not only for the spirit of candor and 
fairness evinced in the management of his case*;, 
but for the sobriety and solidity of his judgment. 
Few men can arg^ie a point of law with more 
learning and astuteness or try a case with more 
tact or abilit}'. No man in professional life is 
held in higher estimation for purity of character 
or generous social qualities." 

To this an ex-chief justice of the Illinois su- 
preme court says: "General Smith is in the best 
sense an officer of the courts, and he adorns the 
position by a life and practice consistent with the 
most exacting demands of his profession.. When 
trying a case in any court his statements as to 
the facts and issues involved are always received 
with the most implicit confidence. In his capac- 
ity of counselor and advocate he assists the courts 
in the administration of right and justice. It is 
difficult to conceive that there can be any higher 
privilege for a lawyer to attain." 

The General's practice has taken a wide range 
and is not confined to any special branch, except 
that he has eschewed the criminal courts. In 
1878 he made his mark as one of the attorneys 
of the city in a decision sustaining a law providing 
for the assessment of the tax levies of 1873-75. 
which had been declared illegal, thereby saving 
the credit of the city in the payment of $1,400,000, 
which it might have repudiated. Following this 



he was employed in important railway cases; 
cases relating to the validity of statutes; large 
corporation cases. In 1S91 he was appointerl 
attorney for the drainage commission, but 
such were the demands upon his time in 
other directions that he was compelled to re- 
sign the position. He is one of the principal 
attorneys in the lake-front-riparian-rights litiga- 
tion, carrying his side of the question, success- 
fully thus far, to the supreme court. The General 
is a member of the Chicago and State Bar Asso- 
ciations, and finds time to take an active part in 
their proceedings. 

Politically he is classed as a Republican, but is 
rather moderate and independent in his political 
views. He neither desires office nor admires the 
methods of the partisan who would sacrifice the 
best interests of his country to the success of his 

Socially General Smith is a member of the 
Union League Club, having once been its presi- 
dent, and also belongs to the Union, Columbus 
and Literary Clubs. He is also a vice-president 
of the Chicago Historical Society and president 
of the Industrial School for Girls. 

In 1869 he married Miss Louisa Kinney, 
daughter of William C. Kinney, of Belleville, 
and granddaughter of Lieutenant Governor 
Kinney. She is also a granddaughter of Elias 
Kent Kane, senator from Illinois, who died 
in Washington in 1836, during his term of office. 
The fan;ily consists of two sons and two daughters. 

The General is of medium height, with broad 
shoulders, well proportioned and of sanguine tem- 
perament. He is well preserved, notwithstanding 
the scars of battle, and with his abstemious 
habits and regular life has many useful years 
before him. 


THOMAS FOSTER was born in Carl- 
isle, Pennsylvania, on the 17th day 
of October, 1817, and is the elder of the 
two sons of Crawford and Elizal:)eth (Pat- 
tison) Foster. Of his mother our subject has 
no recollection, she having died during his child- 
hood. His father was in early life a printer, and 
in after years a merchant Thomas went as far as 
he could in the academy of his home village, but 
owing to opposition from his father was com- 
pelled to forego what he was most desirous of, — 
a collegiate education. Being thus disappointed, 
he started out at the tender age of fourteen to 
battle alone with the world. His first employ- 
ment was as clerk in a dry-goods store, for which 
he received no compensation. Relinciuishing 
this position, he at the age of sixteen years re- 
moved to Tennessee, where he was employed by 
his uncle, who was largely interested in the manu- 
facture of iron. Here he remained for si.x years, 
working night and day, and saving as much as 
possible of his earnings until he had accumulated 
two thousand dollars, which he left in his uncle's 
hands. Unfortunately for him, his uncle failed 

in business. Thomas was made trustee, but as 
the assets fell short of enough to pay the liabili- 
ties he found that his savings of years had been 
swept away. Such a blow to many young men 
would have been disheartening, but to our sub- 
ject it only had the effect of making him more 
determined than ever to succeed in life, and he 
set out, almost penniless, for St. Louis. Here, 
after long searching, lie obtained a position in the 
wholesale dry-goods house of Woods, Christy 
& Company, as bookkeeper. His excellent 
habits and his sound business judgment 
prompted his employes to give him the position 
of manager of a branch store they owned and 
operated at Galena, and he accordingly removed 
to that city in 1843. ^f"". \\'oods shortly after 
retired from the firm, and a new firm was formed, 
under the name of Woods, Howse & Company, 
Mr. Foster being the company. This connection 
continued until 1852, at which time Mr. Foster 
formed a partnership with Mr. Nicholas Stahl, 
one of the best men Galena ever produced, in the 
whiilesalc and retail ilry-goods business. This 
Venture was very successful, and the business was 



carried on until 1871. ^Vhcn the ^^erchants' 
National Bank was organized thirty years ago. 
Mr. Foster became one of the original stock- 
holders, and was elected a director, a position he 
has held continuously ever since. In 1882 he 
was chosen president of the bank, succeeding Mr. 
Augustus Estey, deceased. While he does not 
have supervision over the minute details of the 
bank's business, ]\Ir. I'^oster has been a most 
N-aluable officer. His sound judgment has been 
of utmost benefit to the bank, and of him and 
Mr. Snyder, the cashier, it may be truthfully said 
that no bank in the country has a more capable 
and efficient president and cashier. 

In addition to his banking interests, Mr. I'oster 
is interested in other corporations. lie has 
alwa\s taken stock in every entci"prisc whose ob- 
ject Avas to benefit the city or State of his home, 
even when his better judgment told him that 
such investment would not yield any pecuniary 

He is a moderate Democrat, and has served as 
a member of the Galena board of aldermen for 
three years, and as president of the scliool board 
for a like period. 

A consistent member of the South Presbyterian 
Church, he was its first elder, and for forty-nine 
years has held that office, and has always given 
fieely both of time and money to the cause of 
Christianity. Since December, 1880, Mr. Foster 
has been secretary of the Greenwood Cemetery 
Association of Galena. 

In 1848 Mr. P^oster was married to Miss 
Torode, who died leaving three children. In 
1861 he married Miss Mary L. Hempstead, a 
direct descendant of Sir Robert Hempstead, who 
emigrated to America in 1645 and became as- 
sociated with Governor Winthrop. Sir Robert's 
eldest child, Mary Hempstead, was the first white 
child l)orn in New London, Connecticut. Mr. 
and Mrs. Foster have four children: Mary Lisa, 
Augusta Hempstead, William Hempstead and 
Alfred Thomas. To the cause of education Mr. 
Foster is a warm friend. For fifteen years he has 
been a prominent director of the German Theo- 
logical Seminary at Dubuque, Iowa, and his wise 
counsels have done much toward the advance- 
ment of tlie prosperity uf this noble institution of 



WHI'LX Judge Caton passed away on the 
30tlil of July, 1895, Chicago lost one 
of the most prominent citizens that the West has 
produced. From the time that the city had an 
existence as an incorporated town Judge Caton 
was inseparably connected with its history. He 
was the pioneer lawyer, an eminent jurist, an 
author and one of the most successful of business 
men. His profession was the law, but his capa- 
bilities were by no means limited to one line of 
action or undertaking. He was a man of broad 
resources and was almost equally prominent on 
the bench, at the bar or in commercial circles, 
while his character was one ever above reproach. 
He rose from a humble to an exalted position 
entirelv through his own efforts and was a repre- 
sentative of our best type of American civiliza- 
tion and American chivalry. 

Judge Caton was born in Monroe, Orange 

county, New York, March iq, 1812. His father 
was three times married, and he was one of the 
four children of the third marriage and the 
twelfth son of the family. His grandfather was 
a British officer who settled in Maryland at the 
close of the Revolutionary war. Shortly after 
the birth of Judge Caton, his mother removed to 
Oneida county. New York, and there, at the age 
of nine }ears, he began work as a farm hand, 
continuing his labors through the summer 
months, while in the winter season he attended 
the district schools of the neighborhood. Re- 
alizing the value of an education he became, at 
the age of sixteen, a student in the academy at 
Utica, and upon returning home a year later be- 
gan school teaching. He possessed a laudable 
ambition to improve his condition and make the 
most of his opportunities in life and during the 
era of school teaching also took up the study of 

lr^~.M,^y\^ '^^^ 


I 2^ 

law and of civil engineering. The former, how- 
eviT, proved more atractive and he later read un- 
der die instruction of lleardsley & Matterson, 
|)rominent attorneys of Utica. He afterward 
continued his studies in the office of ^\'llecle^ 
ISarnes, of Rome, and with James H. Collins, of 

In 1S33, attracted by the almost limitless op- 
portunities of the West. Judge Caton started for 
Michigan, but while traveling he learned of the 
little town of Chicago, which as yet had no mem- 
ber of the bar. He at length arrived at \Vhite 
Pigeon, Alich., but he had determined to go to the 
future metropolis of the West, and on a raft made 
his way to St. Joseph, whence he came to Chicago 
on the vessel, Ariadne, under command of Cap- 
tain Pickering. In this latter part of the 19th cen- 
tury when Chicago is a metropolis rivaling in size 
and importance the old Knickerbocker city of the 
East, one can hardly realize that a man who was 
present at its incorporation has just passed away. 
At the time of his arrival it contained about three 
hundred inhabitants. On the second day he se- 
cured a bfsarding place in a log house just north 
of Lake and east of Dearborn street, where he 
found and shook hands with Giles Spring, a 
lawyer who had reached Chicago just five days 
previous. The two became fast friends, although 
afterward pitted against each other in many 
cases. Mr. Caton looked over the field and at 
length concluded that perhaps business might be 
better on the north side of the river. Accord- 
ingly he moved to the office of Colonel R. I. 
I lamilton, a log building, partly occupied by the 
lattcr's family. Both the young lawyers were 
looking for a good place in which to begin busi- 
ness, but neither opened an office until the follow- 
ing December, when Dr. John T. Temple erected 
a small balloon building on South Water street 
near Franklin. The two young lawyers opened 
an office together with the agreement that when 
one had a client the other shoukl leave the room, 
dins was established the first law office of the 
city. .Mr. Caton prosecuted on the first criminal 
case ever tried in Cook county. The justice of 
die i)cace wrote out the warrant ior arrest on his 
carpenter bench and then .Mr. Caton proceeded 
td the log cabinet shop of James W. Reed, who 
was l>. ith the onlv cabinet maker and the .>nl\- 

constable in the town. Then began the search 
for the accused man who had stolen $46. He 
was at length found, taken before the justice and 
Mr. Caton, who acted also in the capacity of 
detective, discovered the money in the prison- 
er's stocking. The culprit was defended by Mr. 
.Spring, the only other attorney in Chicago, but 
Mr. Caton secured a conviction and received $10 
of the recovered money as his fee, which was just 
sufficient to pay his board bill. He however 
spoke of it as the greatest fee he ever reccive<l. 

On the 1 2th of July, 1834, when twenty-two 
years of age, he was elected a justice of the 
peace, the precinct taking in the whole of Cook 
county, and out of two hundred twenty-nine votes 
he received one hundred eighty-two. He was 
connected with the first murder case ever tried 
in Cook county, but just before the trial came off 
he was taken ill and his partner, Mr. Collins, who 
had come to the city six months after Mr. Caton, 
followed out the plan which he had mapped out 
and won the case, acquitting the client. In the 
spring of 1835 the Judge determined to extenil 
his practice to Putnam county, the oldest settleil 
in the northeast part of the State, and started on 
horseback. There he succeeded in soon securing 
a liberal clientage and from that time on his suc- 
cess as a lawyer was assured. He applied him- 
self untiringly to any work that he began, and 
this application combined with his superior legal 
kno^vledge won him a position as one of the most 
eminent members of the liar of Cook county — 
a reputation which he maintained for man\- years 

Judge Caton was married in July, 1835. to Miss 
Laura Adelaide, daughter of Jacob Shcrrill. of 
New Hartford, Oneida county, .\'e\v \'i>rk. She 
was his faithful companion anil helpmeet for more 
than half a century, sharing with him in die hopes 
and disappointment in his earlier \ears, the pros- 
perity and successes of his later life. She ])asse(l 
awa\- in 1892, and was laid to rest in the cemetery 
of Ottawa, Illinois. In the family were three 
children, but .Mrs. Charles \l. Towne die<l in i8<)i. 
The son, Arthur Caton. is a leading citizen of 
Chicago, and the daughter, Mrs. Xorman Will- 
iams, at this date (.August 7, 1805) '^ traveling 

ludgc Caton had been in the West but a shon 



time before he had left an impress of his ener- 
getic, sturdy young character on this section of 
the country'. He was a member of the first politi- 
cal convention ever held in Illinois. It met at 
Ottawa on the 4th of March, 1834, Dr. David 
Walker serving as president, while Mr. Caton 
acted as secretary. In 1836 he formed a law 
partnership with N. B. Judd, and the same year 
built the first dwelling within the school section 
on the west side at the southeast corner of Har- 
rison and Clinton streets. About this time there 
was an endeavor made to secure a charter for 
the thriving little Western city and the Judge was 
active in the movement. The following year, 
when the country became involved in a financial 
panic, he too lost most of his real estate, and be- 
coming broken down in health he removed, in 
1838, to a farm near Plainfield that he had rented 
some vears before and to which he removed his 
family in 1839. 

Judicial honors were early in life conferred 
upon Mr. Caton. When not yet thirty years of 
age Judge Carlin appointed him judge of the 
supreme court and not long afterward he was ap- 
pointed by Governor Ford to fill another vacancy. 
When the supreme court was reorganized under 
the new constitution he was chosen as one of the 
three judges of that court, his associates being 
Judges Tree and Trumbull. For twenty-one 
years he filled that responsible position, and dur- 
ing six months of the time presided as chief jus- 
tice. On the bench his decisions were ever fair 
and just. He possessed a judicial temperament 
of peculiar adaptability and acquired a broad and 
comprehensive grasp of law. Though devoted 
to his chosen profession he by no means confined 
his energies to that one calling. He was the first 
citizen of Illinois to cross the State with a tele- 
graph line. With a sagacity seldom equaled he 
seemed to realize the importance of Professor 
Morse's invention, and organized and became 
chief proprietor of the Illinois & Mississippi Tele- 

graph Company. The success of the telegraph 
made him extremely wealthy. At one time he 
controlled all the telegraph lines in Illinois, but 
he leased them to the Western Union when that 
company was organized, and thereafter enjoyed 
an enormous income from these leased lines. 
Judge Caton became interested in granite street 
paving. He was also a stockholder in a glass 
facton,- in Ottawa, and he was equally successful 
as a fanner and author. 

On his retirement from the bench, Judge Caton 
went to his beautiful farmstead near Plainfield 
and devoted much of his time to agricultural pur- 
suits. He also established in Ottawa a beautiful 
home in the midst of a fine park, where deer and 
wild fawn roam at will under magnificent forest 
trees. He also had a substantial and tasteful resi- 
dence in Chicago, located at 1900 Calumet ave- 
nue. He was a deep student of natural history 
and a lover of nature. A man of broad general 
information and ripe scholarship, he was a fluent 
and forcible speaker and able writer. He traveled 
extensively in Europe and was familiar with ever}' 
part of America. He made a close and compara- 
tive study of the social and economic conditions 
of the country and published the results of his 
careful investigation in a peculiarly lucid and 
graceful stj'le. He has been the autlior ot many 
able, entertaining and instructive articles, and 
among his better known works are "The Unset- 
ting Sun — A Summer in Norway,'' "The Ante- 
lope and Deer of America" and "Early Bench 
and Bar of Illinois." He held membership with 
the Second Presbyterian Church of the city and 
gave his support to all interests that were calcu- 
lated to uplift humanity. He was especially 
charitable and benevolent, and the needy never 
applied to him for aid in vain. In social life he 
was a true friend, and it is said that no man ever 
practiced before the bar of Illinois or sat upon 
its bench that was more highly respected or ad- 
mired as a lawyer or citizen. 




AMONG the prominent insurance men of 
America few names are better known than 
that of the subject of this sketch, the founder, chief 
builder and popular former secretary of the 
Northwestern Masonic Mutual Aid Association 
of Chicago. 

James Alonzo Stoddard comes of a family 
which traces its ancestr\- in a direct and unbroken 
line to William Stoddard, knight, a cousin of Wil- 
liam the Conqueror, who came from Normandy 
to England with that illustrious gentleman A. D. 
1066. The origin of the name of Stoddard is 
undoubtedly of Norman origin. All books of 
reference conclude that the name was a title given 
to standard-bearers during the middle and dark 
ages, and at first the name was spelled De La 
Standard. Of William Stoddard, our subject's 
remote ancestor, it is recorded that he fought 
bravely and was distinguished for his valor dur- 
ing the conquest of England by his cousin, Wil- 
liam the Conqueror. In the sixteenth century- 
one of his descendants in the fourth generation 
settled in London, which at that time was be- 
coming a city of commercial importance. Li 
1598 mention is made, in John Stow's Sur\'ey of 
London, of a George Stoddard who was a mem- 
ber of the previously mentioned family-. He was 
a merchant of the parish of St. Olave, Tower 
street. He was well versed in the intricacies of 
the law, and by shrewd investments and merciless 
exactions became an exceedingly wealthy man. 
Though by occupation a grocer, he was some- 
what of a speculator and a lender of moneys to 
the nobility and needy country gentlemen. His 
transactions were respectable in their nature, and 
the affection he displayed toward his brothers, 
and the hospitable manner in which he treated his 
neighbors, who it appears honored him most 
highly, proves that he was a man of more than 
ordinary prominence, who in his day and time 
lived a worthy life. From him descended 
Anthony Stoddard, who left England at the age 
of twenty-five, in 1638, and settled in the Massa- 
chusetts colony. From him the Stoddards in 
America have descended. He was a merchant, — 

a dealer in linen. He married well, became very 
wealthy and left sixteen children. His death oc- 
curred March 16, 1686. He brought with him 
from England the family coat of arms which is 
still in the possession of some of the descendants 
of the family. This coat of arms is recorded as 
having been used by George Stoddard, gentle- 
man, of London, and his ancestor, Sir WiUiam 
Stoddard, before him. No other reference is 
made of the coat of arms being used previous to 
this time, but it is doubtless true that for many 
generations previous thereto this coat of arms 
was carried in battle by many a worthy squire. 
The coat of arms — sable, three stars within a 
liordure, gules, and the crest, a demi-unicom, 
ermine issuing from a ducal coronet, or with the 
motto, "Festina lente'' (Be in haste but not in 
a hurry) — was constantly used by Anthony Stod- 
dard of Boston, and in the "London Visitation" 
of 1658 this coat of arms was recognized as the 
property of George Stoddard, gentleman, of that 

The children of Anthony Stoddard and their 
descendants settled in various portions of New 
England, and some of the family were among the 
founders of Woodstock and Woodbury, Connec- 
ticut. The records show that in 1695 Simeon 
Stoddard of Boston secured a tract of land four 
miles square located at Pomfret, near \\'ood- 
stock, Connecticut. The land was secured by an 
execution of a judgment against a Major Fitch, 
who had become insolvent through convivial 

In 1716 Anthony Stoddard, a descendant of 
this Simeon Stoddard, conveyed this land to his 
three sons — Anthony, David and William — upon 
the condition that they would pay to him sixty 
pounds in money on tlie first day of every June 
at his home in Boston. In 1739 anotlier member 
of the family gave the village of Ashford in the 
same county a deed to two hundred acres of land 
upon condition that his title to land in Windham 
county, Connecticut, should not be disputed, and 
he thus received a clear title to nearly nine thou- 
sand acres in that countv. Previous to this time 



little effort had been made to cultivate or im- 
prove the property in Woodstock, but in 1747 the 
Stoddards had taken possession of the Stoddard 
lands, which had been in the family for more than 
half a century previous, and Phineas Stoddard 
became a resident of Woodstock and was in- 
cluded within society limits. In 1776 Lemuel 
Stoddard of Woodstock became one of the crew 
of the schooner, Oliver Cromwell, which was 
cc|uipped for private service. Ebenezer Stoddard 
was one of the earliest lawyers in Woodstock and 
one of the most prominent in the State. He was 
elected to Congress for four years, and in 1833-5 
was lieutenant governor of Connecticut. He also 
served in 1834 as a commissioner to locate the 
Ijoundaries between Massachusetts and Con- 
necticut, which had been in dispute for gen- 
erations. The commission's labors were highly 

Abel Stoddard, the grandfather of our subject, 
was a member of the \\'oodstock (Connecticut) 
branch of the family. His son. Jeremiah Stod- 
dard, became a minister of the Universal'st 
Church. He married Mary A. Smith, a dir' ft 
descendant of Peregrine White, one of the band 
of pilgrims who journeyed to their new home in 
the wilderness in the Mayflower. Rev. Jeremiah 
Stoddard resided for a time in Farmington, 
Maine, where his son, James A. Stoddard, the 
subject of this biography, was born, on the i8th 
of April, 1827. Later in life he moved to !Milford, 
Massachusetts, where he lived for some years be- 
tween 1853 and 1865. 

The boyhood days of James A. Stoddard were 
passed in the New England common schools, 
where he obtained such education as was afiforded 
by the facilities of the time. His father possessed 
but little means, and early in life it was de- 
termined that the boy should begin work in 
order to support himself and reduce a portion of 
the family expenses, which, although very small, 
were a burden that was almost impossible for the 
head of the family, whose health was failing, to 
support. At an early age James became an em- 
ployee of a farmer, for whom he labored faith- 
fully, receiving for his services but little more 
than his board and clothes. Tlie little that he did 
obtain in wages he brought home to his par- 
ents, who highly appreciated the noble efforts 

prompted by filial love. In 1841 he attended 
school during the winter, but the following year 
again began work upon a farm, and by his meager 
earnings added most materially to the comfort 
and happiness of his father and mother. At the 
age of eighteen he went to Boston and worked 
as a clerk in a store. He then learned the piano- 
forte trade, but in 1851 he and his parents moved 
to Milford, Massachusetts, where in 1853 he was 
n)arried to Marion Parkhurst, a daughter of Otis 
and Sarah (Jones) Parkhurst, of Milford. 

j\Irs. Stoddard is a member of one of the oldest 
ant! most highly respected of the early families of 
New England. In 1735 Isaac and Jonas Park- 
hurst settleil in Massachusetts. Their father, 
John Parkhurst, had endowed each of them with 
eighty and a half acres of land, which became the 
Parkhurst homestead. John Parkhurst's father 
also was named John, and his grandfather was 
George Parkhurst, who was a son of the original 
George Parkhurst of England, who settled in 
Vv''atertown, Massachusetts, in the early part of 
the seventeenth century. Otis Parkhurst, whose 
father was Nathaniel, a son of Jonas, was born on 
the 20th of September, 1781, and was a native 
of Milford. He was a man who possessed a 
stix>ngly constituted mind and an energy- capable 
of large enterprises. He did more than any 
other to promote the success of the boot and 
shoe manufacture of New England, and was an 
active, responsible and highly respected citizen. 
Ho was a stanch Universalist and was one of the 
t\ve!ve men who in 1820 built the brick church 
in which the denomination worshiped, and he 
generously gave the society his most earnest sup- 
port. He died on the 5th of March, 1869, having 
been preceded by his devoted wife, Sarah Jones, 
the daughter of Nathaniel Alden and Lois 
(Claflin) Jones, who died January 14, 1843. Na- 
thaniel Alden Jones was a descendant of John Al- 
den, of Mayflower stock. 

In 1865 Mr. Stoddard removed to Chicago, 
where he engaged in the book-publishing busi- 
ness and also published and edited a magazine 
called The Western Home. The great fire of 
1871 swept away both his business and his home, 
and the utter hopelessness of his affairs at that 
time forced him into the insurance business, 
which he entered with considerable reluctance; 




but the opportunity for developing- and utilizing- 
his best powers and brilliant faculties soon pre- 
sented itself. The peculiar talent requisite to at- 
taining a high degree of success in the vast enter- 
prise of life-insurance business was a distinctive 
trait of his character. He has shown particular 
brilliancy in managing field work and in marshal- 
ing and handling thousands of agents ; and to his 
remarkable energy, industry and executive ability 
is due the credit for the founding and upbuilding 
of the Northwestern ?iIasonic Aid Association, 
which now numbers about forty thousand mem- 
bers and carries over one hundred and thirty-eight 
millions of insurance on the choicest risks obtain- 
able on human life. His success in his chosen 
line has been highly appreciated by his associates, 
for on the ist of January, 1892, he was chosen 
vice-president and general manager of the associa- 
tion, and was succeeded to the responsible posi- 
tion of secretary by his son-in-law, Charles A. 

The entire life of Mr. Stoddard has been one of 
unusual activity and iiulusti-y, and he is a self- 
made man in the fullest sense of that so frequently 
misused word. Holding such an important posi- 
tion in the association controlling such vast in- 
terests, speaks louder than words of Mr. Stod- 
dard's executive and business ability. His meth- 
ods have always been in keeping with the 
highest prniciples of honorable and fair dealing 
and with conscious regard for the rights of others. 
He has a clear and comprehensive mind and is 
able not only to conceive great projects but also 

to execute well-directed plans. Although he has 
been closely identified with this large enterprise, 
his time and attention have not been wholly given 
to it. He has rare social qualities, delights in 
good fellowship and lacks none of those personal 
traits of character which are indicative of the 
warm-hearted and high-minded gentleman. His 
life has for years been closely identified with the 
Masonic order, and he was a Master Mason in 
Waubansia Lodge, No. 160, in Chicago in 1866, 
tilliug successively the chairs of senior deacon, 
junior warden, senior warden and worshipful 
master. He was exalted in Englewood Chapter, 
R. A. M., No. 176, and knighted in Apollo Com- 
mandery, No. i, Chicago. 

The home life of Mr. Stoddard is particularly 
happy and elevating. He is the father of five 
children, the eldest of whom, Irene, is the wife 
of Mr. Charles A. Capwell. They have one child, 
Marion J., born in Chicago, April 13, 1875. The 
second child of Mr. Stoddard, James N., died in 
infancy. The third, Adelaide M., married Lee H. 
Daniels, now deceased, and had one child, Cora 
jean, born May 17, 1888; Alice J., was the wife 
of Fred F. Aitkin, of St. Paul; she died, giving 
birth to Alison Stoddard, born March 25, 1889; 
Herbert A. Stoddard is Mr. Stoddard's youngest 
child, married to Miss Bertha Gross; their chil- 
dren are: Dorothy, who was bom December 18, 
1892; and Alice, born March 25, 1895. All of 
these were born at Milford, Massachusetts, with 
the exception of Herbert, who is a native of Chi- 


MR. McBROOM was born in county Ar- 
magh, Ireland, October 5, 1827, and was 
the eldest son of William and Mary (Harrison) 
McBroom, late of Rich Hill, in the above named 
county, and a landholder and an agriculturist. 

Our subject passed his boyhood in his native 
country vmtil his eighteenth year, at which time 
he emigrated to New York, and for some time 
served an apprenticeship at the tanner's trade, 
near Buffalo. The trade thus learned he followed 

until 1854, at which time he removed to Illinois. 
Artiving at Geneseo, he found the Chicago. Rock 
Island & Pacific Railroad establishing its line 
across the State, and in company with Andrew 
Crawford he took a contract to construct a fence 
along the right-of-way of the road. At that time 
a Mr. Parmelee was operating a grain warehouse 
near the depot at Geneseo, and, recognizing in 
voung AIcBroom a man not afraiil of work, he 
engaged him as a workman about the ware- 



house, and later he was employed by A. Van 
Winkle in the same business. 

During the time he worked for the railroad 
company and for Mr. Parmelee he had a very 
intimate friend whose name was Isaac Newton 
Wilson, and who aftenvard moved to Munson 
and engaged in farming. Mr. Van Winkle, Mr. 
McBroom's employer, became financially in- 
volved to such an extent that he was necessi- 
tated to dispose of a grain elevator he owned. 
Our subject, with that keen foresight for which 
he was noted, saw an opportunity to enter what 
he believed would be a profitable venture, as 
grain at that time was seeking the Geneseo mar- 
ket from as far north as Prophetstown, and as 
far south as Andover, there being no railroads 
through those towns at that period. Mr. ]\Ic- 
Broom at once wrote his friend \\'ilson, which 
after a short delay reached him, and proposed that 
they should purchase the elevator; and upon 
Vv'ilson's acquiescing both young men journeyed 
to Cambridge, the county seat, to ascertain 
whether the title to the property was perfect. 
This being satisfactorily accomplished, the pur- 
chase was made, and in 1862 the new grain firm 
of McBroom & \Mlson entered upon what has 
proven a most prosperous career. 

For about twenty years Mr. McBroom was 
president of the First National Bank of Geneseo, 

and its success and soundness is largely due to the 
fact of his having been the head of its affairs. 

For two terms he was mayor of the city, and 
gave the same careful, conscientious attention to 
the public weal as generously as he always has 
to his private business. In everjthing pertain- 
ing to the upbuilding of the city of his home he 
was a most energetic worker, and was one of the 
best beloved and popular of her citizens. 

In 1855 he was married to Miss Margritha 
Kaiser, of Annawan township, and of this union 
six sons have been born, — Alexander K., William 
J., Frederick K., Charles Emmett, Isaac N. and 
James H. A. K. and J. H. are lawyers at Spo- 
kane Falls, \\'ashington, and F. K. and C. E. 
are bankers at the same place; ^^'. J. is with the 
First National Bank of Geneseo, and I. N. is and 
has for many years been in the grain office of 
McBroom & Wilson. 

Mr. McBroom's death occurred March 2, 1895, 
after an illness of several weeks' duration. In 
spite of the tender ministrations of a loving and 
devoted wife, he passed away, — secure in a fame 
that is part of the history of the city of Geneseo. a member of the Unitarian Church, 
the funeral service was conducted by his old- 
time friend, Rev. M. J. Miller, assisted by the 
pastor, and was one of the largest that ever oc- 
curred in the city. 



WILLIAM CALDWELL was the son of 
Robert and ]\Iar}' (Ball) Caldwell, who 
were natives of New Jersey. After they were mar- 
ried they settled in Ohio, where they lived to- 
gether, sharing each other's joys and sorrows, 
successes and reverses, for about twenty-eight 
years, when they moved to the State of Indiana, 
and there resided until their death. They had a 
family of thirteen children. 

William Caldwell, whose name heads this 
sketch, was the tenth child in order of birth of his 
parents' family. He was bom in Butler county, 
Ohio, December 4, 1813. He assisted in the 
maintenance of the family, attending the common 

schools of his native county, and resided at home 
until he attained the age of fifteen years, when he 
accompanied his parents to Indiana. 

In the latter State he engaged to learn the 
cooper's trade, which he followed for some fifteen 
years, and which, in connection with his farming, 
occupied his time in Indiana, until 1851. In the 
spring of that year, hoping to better his financial 
condition in life, he came to this county and pur- 
chased a farm in what is now Rural township, 
located on section thirty-one, on which he settled 
and entered vigorously and energetically upon 
the task of its cultivation and improvement. He 
lived on this farm twelve years, and then pur- 



chased more land, in ]Mercer county, where he re- 
moved and resided twenty years, in tlie mean- 
time improving and cultivating his land. In 
the spring of 1S83 Mr. Caldwell purchased a place 
known as the James Donaldson farm, in Rural 
township, consisting of four hundred and forty- 
five acres, on which he settled and resided until 
his death, in 1885. He came to be ranked among 
the large land-owners of the county, being the 
proprietor of six hundred and sixty-five acres in 
Rock Island county and two hundred and forty 
in Mercer county. 

He was a gentleman who started in life with 
nothing but his own indomitable energy, and 
his accumulation of this world's goods is attrib- 
utable to his good judgment in predicting the 
future developments of the county and conse- 
quently the enhanced price of real estate, com- 
bined with the active co-operation of his life. His 
word in business transactions was considered as 
good as his bond, and he was justly recognized 

as one of the energetic and representative citizens 
of Rock Island county. 

As a citizen of the community in which Mr. 
Caldwell so long lived and was so active, he was 
highly respected, enjoyed the confidence of his 
neighbors, and was regarded a man of ex- 
cellent business judgment. Mr. Caldwell held 
several of the minor offices of the township. 
Politically he was identified with the Republican 

Mr. Caldwell was united in marriage, in Rural 
township, in i860, to Mrs. Lydia (Wilson) Hallcx , 
the accomplished daughter of William and 
Rachel Mills Wilson an(i widow of Henry Halley. 

Mrs. Caldwell had five children by her first 
marriage: Mary C, Robert C, Hannah M., Isaac 
X., William H.; and of her union with Mr. Cald- 
well two children were bom, namely: Jerome 
W., January 25, 1861 ; and Frank H., born August 
5, 1862. Mrs. Caldwell died in Rural township 
August 16, 1884. 


DA\'ID SHEEAX, the eldest of the five chil- 
dren of James and Mary (Lorden) Sheean, 
was born in Boston, Massachusetts, July 3, 1833. 
When but three years of age he removed with his 
parents to Jo Daviess county, Illinois, where his 
father engaged in farming. Our subject's educa- 
tion was obtained in the common schools and 
local academy, and after finishing his studies he 
went to California, in 185 1, where the subsequent 
four and a half years were spent in mining. Re- 
turning to Galena he began the study of law, and 
after his admission to the bar formed a partner- 
ship with John A. Rawlins, afterward so dis- 
tinguished as General Grant's chief of stafif during 
the Civil war, and later as secretary of war. This 
connection lasted until 1862, when Rawlins en- 
tered the army and Mr. Sheean practiced alone 
until 1867, and then formed a partnership with 
his brother, T. J. Sheean. In 1893 J. M. Sheean, 
a nephew, now city attorney, became a member 
of the firm, which is conceded to be the leading 
law firm of Galena. 

Mr. Sheean's practice has been a general one, 
and during his long career he has participated in 
many important legal contests, among which 
may be mentioned the condemnation suit of the 
Chicago, Burlington & Xorthcrn Railroad Com- 
pany against the Illinois Central Railroad Com- 
pany, involving the right of way of the fonner 
company between Galena and Dubuque: the 
Galena Axle Grease Company versus the Fraser 
Axle Grease Company, which he argued in the 
State supreme court; and a number of will cases, 
the more prominent of which are the Richardson 
estate and the Corman will cases, both of great in- 
terest, the former involving an amount of two 
hundred thousand dollars. One of his recent im- 
portant cases was that of John T. Davis versus 
lohn H. Schwartz et al., which was argued suc- 
cessfullv hv Mr. Sheean before the United States 
supreme court at \\'ashington, against John W. 
Xoble, late ex-Secretary of the Interior. In addi- 
tion to the foregoing he has conducted a number 
of criminal cases of greater or less importance. 



Mr. Sheean is a strong Democrat, and was 
elected by his party to the office of city attorney 
of Galena, which he filled most ably for a number 
of years. Later he was elected and served one 
term as mayor of the city. 

Socially he is a member of the Iroquois Club of 
Chicago. He was married in 1876 to Miss Cora 
L. Spare of Galena. 

]Mr. Sheean is a pleasant and affable gentle- 
man, and a stranger in his presence soon feels 
perfectly at ease. Constant study and close ap- 
plication to the details of his profession have en- 
abled him to reach the position — conceded to 
him by all — that he occupies, the leader of the 
Galena bar. 


AMONG Chicago's business and professional 
men, none are more closely identified with 
the growth and best interests of the city than 
George Mills Rogers, who has made his home 
here for thirty-seven years, — a period within which 
Chicago has attained her present proud position, 
vying with the metropolis of the East for leader- 
ship in the world of commerce, science, art and 
letters. For many years he has been known for 
his sterling qualities, his fearless loyalty to his 
honest convictions, his sturdy opposition to mis- 
rule in municipal affairs, and his clear-headed- 
ness, discretion and tact as manager and leader. 
His career at the bar has been one of the greatest 
honor, and he has given some of the best efforts 
of his life to the purification and elevation of 
the municipal government. An eminent lawyer 
and the son of a great jurist, he has not only 
maintained the high standard of his name but has 
also added to it new luster. 

George Mills Rogers is a native of Glasgow, 
Kentucky, born April 16, 1854, a son of the late 
Judge John Gorin Rogers and Arabella E. 
(Crenshaw) Rogers, coming of a family which in 
both branches has been conspicuous in the learned 
professions for more than two centuries. His 
grandfather, George Rogers, was the leading 
physician in (ilasgow and vicinity for a number 
of years, where his death occurred in i860. The 
maternal grandfather was the late Judge B. Mills 
Crenshaw, once chief justice of Kentucky. 

George Mills Rogers, one of a family of two 
sons and two daughters, was about four years 
old when his parents removed to this city, with 
the historv of \vliich he has since been familiar. 

He has seen its rapid development, witnessed its 
destruction when visited by one of the most dis- 
astrous fires the world has ever known, and saw 
it rise from the ruins to develop into a city that 
has long been the metropolis of the West and is 
rapidly becoming the metropolis of the country. 

His elementary education acquired in the pub- 
lic schools was supplemented by a preparatory 
course in the Chicago University, after which he 
entered Yale College, where he was graduated, 
in the class of 1876. He had a predilection for 
the law, and entered upon its study in the office 
of Crawford & McConnell, later attending the 
Union College of Law, which is the law depart- 
ment of the Northwestern University. Admitted 
to the bar in 1878, he soon began the practice 
of his chosen profession as a partner of S. P. 
McConnell, who later became, and served until 
very recently, as one of the judges of the cir- 
cuit court. This connection continued until Mr. 
Rogers accepted the appointment of assistant city 
attorney, — a position for which he had demon- 
strated his fitness as attorney for the Citizens' 
Association. While a member of that associa- 
tion he took an active part in the preparation and 
passage of the first reform election law, and per- 
sonally drafted the first primar\' election law, 
which was later known as the Crawford law, from 
the fact that Senator Crawford had charge of the 
bill in the legislature. 

For several )'ears after his admission to the 
bar, Mr. Rogers took a prominent part in political 
affairs as a leader of the Democratic party. About 
1880 he was nominated by the Democracy for 
the position of State Senator; and the fact that 



he reduced the usual Republican majority of two 
thousand down to eight hundred indicates his 
personal popularity and the confidence reposed in 
him. His abilities, both natural and acquired, 
fit him for leadership, and for some time he 
served as vice-president of the Cook county 
Democratic committee It was a glimpse behind 
the scenes, and the love of justice and purity in 
government as well as in private life led Mr. 
Rogers to attempt some reforms in party organi- 
zation and party methods; but the results were 
not very encouraging, as the "professional poli- 
ticians" had control and ran things after their 
own corrupt ideas. Mr. Rogers then became 
one of the organizers of the Iroquois Club, which 
took for its field of effort the domain of national 
politics, leaving local fights to those who might 
consider it to their interest to engage in them. 
He was elected one of the first vice-presidents 
of the club, representing the Third Congressional 
District of Illinois. Again he was called to pub- 
lic office when, early in 1886, he was appointed 
city prosecuting" attorney, which position he re- 
signed in April, 1887, in order to travel with his 
wife, who was in ill health. 

He was married June 3, 1884, to Philippa Hone 
Anthon, of New York city, a member of the 
Anthoin family so many of whom have been 
prominent in professional life in that city. Mr. 
Rogers and his wife spent several months in 
travel, and upon his return home in November, 
1887, he was appointed assistant United States 
attorney, and served in that capacity till the fol- 
lowing March, when he resigned to engage in 
private law practice. 

He is quick to master all the intricacies in a 
case and grasp all details, at the same time losing 
sight of none of the essential points upon which 
the decision of every case finally turns. He has 
a ready flow of language and as a speaker is 
fluent, forcible, earnest, logical and convincing. 
His knowledge of the law, it must be conceded, is 
hardly second to that of any member of the bar 
of Cook county. 

On the first of February, 1889, he was ap- 
pointed master in chancery of the circuit court 
of Cook count)', in which position he has, if pos- 
sible, added to the esteem in which he has long 
been held by his fellows at the bar. 

In 1893 it was deemed advisable by the lead- 

ing lawyers of Chicago to take some practical 
measure tending to the obliteration of political 
interests in the affairs of the courts, and to that 
end they decided to put in nomination for judicial 
honors eight lawyers of high character, — four 
Democrats and four Republicans. Mr. Rogers 
was chosen as one of the Democratic nominees. 
He received the largest number of votes of all 
the candidates: out of a total of 1,346 votes he 
received 1,222 votes. This nomination came to 
him without any action or solicitation on his 
part; and although the Democratic convention, 
under the machine rule by which it is dominated, 
did not endorse his selection for elevation to 
the bench, his flattering endorsement by the bar, 
uninfluenced by political considerations, and in 
furtherance of a wish to purify and elevate the 
administration of justice, was regarded as a 
greater compliment than could have been his 
election purely as the political candidate of any 
party, and, as an endorsement of his pre-eminent 
ability and integrity, more impressive tlian any 
that he could have received from any other 

In his social relations he is connected with the 
Illinois Club, a social organization, the Iroquois 
Club, the Law Club and the University Club. In 
the fall of 1888 he identified himself with the 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows, of which his 
father was such an eminent member, and has 
represented his lodge in the grand lodge of 
Illinois. In consequence of his prominence in 
political, professional and social life he has a wide 
acquaintance, and has gained a host of warm 
friends whose high and sincere regard, recogniz- 
ing his genuine worth, he fully possesses. His 
reading has been chiefly in the line of his profes- 
sion, yet he has given much study to political 
and economic questions; and, while inclined to be 
safely conservative, he yet holds many advanced 
ideas on questions of governmental policy. The 
soldier on the field of battle has displayed no 
greater lo_\alty than has Mr. Rogers in his sup- 
port of American institutions, and his c<:)ndemna- 
tion of political intrigue as practiced by both 
parties. There is no doubt that had he entereil 
into the methods of many politicians he could 
liave obtained almost any office he might desire; 
but with him principle is above party, purity in 
municipal affairs above personal interest. 





THE Neff family, of whicli there are many 
descendants in various parts of the United 
States, originated in Switzerland. The first of 
whom we have any authentic account was Adam 
Neff (or Naf as the name was originally spelled), 
of Wallenheid, near Cappel, who, in the war for 
the maintenance of the Protestant faith, with 
great bravery helped to rescue the banner of 
Zurich on the nth of October, 1531. On the 
nth of October, 1881, there was celebrated at 
Cappel, by a gathering of his descendants, the 
350th anniversary of that event. 

The first of the name to come to America were 
Rudolf and Jacob Naf, descendants of Adam, 
who sailed from Rotterdam, Holland, and ar- 
rived at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, September 
II, 1749. These brothers located in the colony 
where now stands Frankford, near Philadelphia, 
married and spent the remainder of their lives 
there. From them have descended most if not 
all of the families of that name in this country. 

Hon. James Irvin Neff was bom in Center 
county, Pennsylvania, October 5, 1839. His 
father was Josiah Neff, a farmer and a man of 
many strong qualities and striking characteristics. 
He was highly respected as a citizen, and was a 
useful member of the community in which he 
lived. James I. Neff's mother was MoUie Em- 
mert, also a native of Pennsylvania. 

The boyhood and youth of young Neff was in 
no wise dissimilar to that of most farmers' lads 
in that locality. He assisted in the work on his 
father's farm during the summer months, and 
attended the district school during the winter, 
until he was prepared to enter Dickinson Semi- 
nary, at Williamsport, Pennsylvania, at which in- 
stitution he was graduated in 1861. Ambitious 
f(jr a wider career than the opportunities of his 
native place afforded, he determined to come 
West, and in 1862 we find him located at Tififin, 
Ohio, as a law student in the office of Colonel Le- 
ander Stem. The outbreak of the Civil war soon 
interrupted the prosecution of his studies, and, 
fired with patriotic ardor, he obeyed the call of his 
country for volunteers, and enlisted in the One 

Hundred and First Regiment of Ohio Infantry, 
whicli had been organized and was commanded 
by his law preceptor. Colonel Stem. He was 
made second lieutenant of Company H, receiving 
his commission before leaving the State. This 
regiment was assigned to the First Brigade, First 
Division, Fourth Corps, of the Army of the 
Cumberland. For gallant and meritorious serv- 
ice Lieutenant Neff' was promoted as first lieu- 
tenant, adjutant and finally as captain of Company 
H. He gallantly led his comrades into action at 
the battles of Pern'ville, Stone river, Chickamau- 
ga, ]\Iissionary Ridge, Resaca, and other minor 
engagements. He participated with his command 
in the Atlanta campaign, which lasted nearly one 
hundred days. At Kenesaw mountain the regi- 
ment lost heavily in an attempt to capture the 
enemy's position by direct assault. During this 
campaign the battles of Peach-Tree Creek, At- 
lanta, and Jonesboro were fought, in all of which 
Captain Neft' was engaged. Upon the capitu- 
lation of Atlanta, Captain Neff united with the 
command of General Thomas in the pursuit of 
Hood, toward Nashville, and bore a gallant part 
in the stubbornly fought battle of Franklin. 
November 30, 1864, and of Nashville, December 
16 and 17, which conflict resulted in the thorough 
discomfiture and utter defeat of Hood's army. 
Captain Neff was mustered out of service with 
his regiment, at Cleveland, Ohio, in June, 1865. 
His old commander and former preceptor. 
Colonel .Stem, was killed in batde during the war 
and upon Captain Neff's return to civil life, he 
resumed his legal studies, in the ofiice of Lee & 
Brewer, at Tifiin, Ohio, and was admitted to the 
bar at Columbus, Ohio, in January, 1867. He 
then began casting about for a location in which 
to practice his profession. He had three uncles 
and a brother then living at Freeport, Blinois. He 
came on a visit to them, and while here was 
tendered a partnership in the law practice of 
Colonel Thomas J. Turner. Before accepting this, 
however, he extended his investigation into Iowa ; 
but, finding no location which suited him better, 
he returned to Freeport and formed a partnership 



with Colonel Turner. This association continued 
fo)' two years, when it was dissolved and the firm 
of Bailey & Neff was established, and for ten 
years they did an active and lucrative business. 
In the autumn of 1878 Mr. Neff associated him- 
self with Mr. J. H. Stearns, which copartnership 
continued until l\Ir. Nefif's death. During their 
association together, these two attorneys con- 
ducted numerous important cases, in the courts 
of Stephenson county and of this and other states. 
Both members of the fimi were well versed in law, 
keenly intelligent, active, painstaking and vigor- 
ous in the conduct of their cases, and were more 
than ordinarily successful. 

Mr. Neff was for more than fifteen years prior 
to his death the attorney of the Illinois Central 
Railroad Company and was also the attorney of 
the Chicago, ]\Iadison & Northern Railroad until 
the time of its absorption by the Illinois Central 
Railroad. He was president of the Freeport, 
Dodgeville & Northern Railroad until that road 
was absorbed by the Chicago, Madison & North- 
ern. He and his partner, Mr. Stearns, were in 
charge of the litigation incident to procuring the 
right of way of what was then known as the 
Minnesota & Northwestern Railroad, now Chi- 
cago Great Western. 

Mr. Neff was a member of the Illinois legis- 
lature in 1879-80, and rendered valuable service. 
He took a prominent part in the election of Gai- 
eral Logan to the United States senate. In 1884 
he was elected a member of the State board of 
equalization, and served in that capacity eight 
years. He was a zealous advocate and earnest 
supporter of the organizations of the Grand Army 
of the Republic, and was commander of the John 
A. Davis Post, and was also connected with the 
Illinois Commandery of the military order of the 
Loyal Legion of the United States. 

On January 29, 1879, ^^^- Neff was married to 

Miss Katherine Rowcll, daughter and only child 
of William D. and Amelia Rowell. of Freeport. 
To this union there were born two children: 
Florence, August 19, 1882; and \\m. R., Novem- 
ber 9, 1885. 

When the World's Fair was celebrated in Chi- 
cago, in 1893, Mr. Neff determined to take a long- 
deferred and much-needed respite from business 
cares. His health had become seriously im- 
paired by over-exertion and too earnest applica- 
tion to the duties of his profession, and he de- 
cided to rest for a while, and at the same time 
enjoy the wonderful e.xhibits in that marvelous 
display. He rented a house in Chicago and re- 
moved there with his family.* His health con- 
tinued to grow worse, and upon the advice of 
friends he went for a time to French Lick Springs, 
with the hope of recuperating. Instead of this 
he rapidly grew worse and came back to Chicago 
with the intention of returning to Freeport. His 
alarming condition, however, suggested the ad- 
visability of his being placed in a hospital where 
he could receive every attention. This was done, 
but to no avail. He died at St. Luke's Hospital. 
September 14, 1893. 

A-s an attorney, Mr. Neff certainly ranked as 
one of the foremost lawyers in this part of the 
State. He was a good judge of law, and, what 
is of almost equal importance, a good judge of 
men; and it was this quality, together with his 
great earnestness and abilit\- as a speaker, that 
gave him such marked success in jiu^' cases. He 
was not only a good lawyer, but he was a good 
business man as well: in fact he possessed unusual 
ability in that direction. He had a correct judg- 
ment as to values, together with admirable fore- 
sight, and his investments, which were many, 
almost invariably proved successful. In his 
death, Freeport lost one of its best citizens and 
strongest men. 




WITH the lasting work of his great father 
before him, himself a witness of its won- 
derful extent and magnificent results, it is small 
wonder that Voluntine C. Turner should have 
turned from the law to solve for cities the problem 
of rapid transit, as John Bice Turner had on a 
more magnificent scale, Init on a plan scarcely 
less broad, solved it for vast areas of country. 
Whe!n he entered upon the pilgrimage of life his 
father had not yet begun his career as a railroad 

He was born in Malta. Saratoga county, New 
York, on the 25th of February, 1823, and was 
named in honor of his mother. During his 
earlv youth his father l)ecamo interested in rail- 
roadmg. and thus from his childhood he was 
somewhat familiar with it. 

His literary education was begun in the public 
schools, and, after preparation at academies at 
Troy and Oxford, New York, he entered Will- 
iams College and took the classical course, and 
he was thus engaged at the time of his parents' 
removal to Illinois; but he continued his studies 
in the East until his graduation at that insti- 
tution, in the class of 1846. He then joined his 
parents in Chicago, and after thorough prepa- 
ration began practicing law. He spent ten years 
in successful practice as a partner of H. A. Clark, 
when the connection was discontinued and a few 
months later he became the partner of B. F. 
Ayer, their relation extending to i860, when J\Ir. 
Turner began practice alone. He brought to 
his law business the same keen perception, log- 
ical reasoning and untiring application which 
characterized his promotion of urban transpor- 
tation. In 1861 he joined his father and William 

B. Ogden, Charles V. Dyer and James H. Rees 
in securing the incorporation of a street railway 
company to lay tracks on the North Side and 
operate with horse power. The organization of 
the company was secured under the name of the 
North Side City Railway Company. Vohmtine 

C. Turner was appointed secretary and treasurer, 
and ser\'ed as such until 1865, when he became 
vice-president. A little more than two years 

later he became president, and for the next twenty 
years was the wise and efficient head of the com- 
pany, finishing, improving and extending its 
service so that it not only gave abundant satis- 
faction to citizens of the North Side but also 
became one of the most paying investments of 
the city. The success of the growing enterprise 
was largely due to Mr. Turner's executive abil- 
ity and competent management. Realizing the 
need of rapid transit, he placed in operation a 
system that provided a means whereby a people 
remote from the commercial center might reach 
their places of business conveniently and quickly. 

After some time the road became an object 
of desire to a number of capitalists headed by 
Charles T. Yerkes, who secured the property in 
1886 and converted the road into the cable line, 
now conducted under the name of the North 
Chicago Street Railway. 

At the time of the sale of the road Mr. Turner 
had attained the age of sixty-three years, although 
he appeared to be much younger; and, having 
acquired considerable wealth, he detennined to 
retire from active life and spend his remaining 
days in the enjoyment of a well-earned rest, with 
the companionship of his favorite authors and 
his friends, and in the pursuit of the pleasures he 
most enjoys. He is a man of broad mind, of 
liberal general information and scholarly tastes, 
and spends many of his most delightful hours 
in his fine library. His beautiful residence is 
situated on the Lake Shore Drive, and from it 
he makes occasional trips abroad, visiting va- 
rious points of historical interest and of beauty. 
The favorite sports of Mr. Turner are those of 
the rod and gun, and these he indulges each 
summer. He is president of the famous Pelee 
Club, which owns eight acres of the island of 
Pelee, situated in the midst of Lake Erie, on which 
stands a palatial residence. The club member- 
ship numbers some of the most prominent men 
of Chicago, New York and Cleveland, who 
spend the months of May and October in this 
delightful resort, surrounded by the charms of 
nature and providing the means of outdoor sports. 




There the followers of Izaak Walton tempt the 
beauties of the finny tribe, and the gun of the 
hunter often awakens the echoes. Among other 
prominent members of the club are George M. 
Pullman, J- Russell Jones; and the late Judge 
Gresham and General Sheridan were also 

Mr. Turner is a popular and honored member 
of the Union Club. He enjoys club life. 

Men of scholarly tastes seldom enter actively 
intcj politics, and this has been true of Mr. Tur- 
ner, who has been content to leave political af- 
fairs in the hands of others. During the Tilden 
campaign of 1876, however, he gave vigorous 
aid to the Democracy, with which he always 
casts his ballot. 

In his domestic relations Mr. Turner has been 
most happily situated. He was first married to 
Miss Eliza Smith, daughter of Colonel Henry 
Smith, who was a partner of W. B. Ogden. The 
wedding ceremony was performed on the 20th 
of May, 185 1, and for thirty-five years they trav- 
eled life's journey together, when death sepa- 
rated them. About the time of his retirement to 
private life he was again married, his second 

union being with Mrs. Green. For a quarter 
of a century Mr. Turner and his first wife were 
leading members of St. James Episcopal Church ; 
but on the organization of the Central Church, 
which convened in Central Music Hall, and over 
which presided that eminent divine and scholar, 
the lamented Professor David Swing, Mr. Tur- 
ner became one of its active supporters. It is 
often the case that the man of vast business af- 
fairs neglects the holier duties of life, content 
probably with giving his means for church work; 
but Mr. Turner has not only contributed liber- 
ally for the cause of Christianity, but has also 
given of his time and energies for its promotion. 
He is a man of even temperament, calm and 
self-poised, of refined character, in whom nature 
and culture have vied in making an honored 
and interesting gentleman. His erect form 
and clear-cut features give no suggestion 
of the fact that he has already passed the 
Psalmist's span of life of three-score vears 
and ten. Nature deals kindly with the man 
who abuses not her laws, and though his 
business cares are extensive, age rests 
lightly upon him. 


HONORED and respected by all, there is no 
man in Chicago who occupies a more en- 
viable position than John B. Kirk in mercantile 
and financial circles, not alone on account of the 
brilliant success he has achieved, but also on ac- 
count of the honorable, straightfonvard business 
policy he has ever followed. He possesses un- 
tiring energy, is quick of perception, forms his 
plans readily and is determined in their execu- 
tion ; and his close application to business and his 
excellent management have brought to him the 
high degree of prosperity which is to-day his. 
It is true that he became interested in a business 
already established, but in controlling and en- 
larging such an enterprise many a man of even 
considerable resolute purpose, courage and in- 
dustry would have failed; and he has demon- 
strated the truth of the saying that success is not 

the result of genius, but the outcome of a clear 
judgment and experience. 

From sturdy Scotch ancestry Mr. Kirk is de- 
scended, and the sterling traits of character of that 
people have left their impress upon him. 

His father was a ship builder and civil engineer 
of prominence, in Glasgow, Scotland, where 
James S. was born, in 1818. When he was a child 
six months old, the family moved to Montreal, 
where his childhood and earlier manhood days 
were passed. After receiving a thorough aca- 
demic education (graduating at the ^fontixal 
Academic Institute), he entered the lumber busi- 
ness, and personally superintended the camp in 
the woods and the drive down the Ottawa river. 
When scarcely twenty-one years of age, he mar- 
ried Miss Nancy Ann Dunning, at Ottawa (then 
known as Bvtown"), and removed to the United 



States, making Utica, New York, his home. He 
immediately began the manufacture of soap and 
perfumes, and thus, in 1839, founded the house 
of James S. Kirk & Company, which has become 
the largest establishment of its kind, not only in 
the United States, but even in the world. 

In 1859, James S. Kirk and his family removed 
to Chicago, and continued in the soap manufac- 
turing business. With the exception of the dis- 
astrous effects of the fire of 1871, the prosperity 
of the house has been uninteiTUpted. For fifty 
years the stem old churchman (for all his life he 
was an earnest and consistent Christian) had 
striven to perfect the business scheme of his life. 
Success crowned his efforts, and he was enabled 
to pass his declining years in well-earned retire- 
ment in a luxurious home in South Evanston. 

The ground that the manufacturing plant of 
James S. Kirk & Company covers is the historical 
site of the first house ever erected in Chicago. 
Less than a century has passed since then, and no 
more fitting comparison can be drawn than the 
statement that the spot where a solitary hermit 
made his abode ninety-odd years ago is now cov- 
ered by a manufacturing plant that has an output 
greater than any of its kind in the entire world. 

The business is still continued under the same 
name under which it was organized, an uninter- 
rupted period of fifty-two years, and it is 
now one of the very few establishments (it not 
the only one) in the United States that have 
passed through a half century of existence with- 
out change of name. The pride which tlie family 
take in the record of James S. Kirk will undoubt- 
edly cause it to be unchanged for many decades. 

The Northwestern University, located in Evans- 
ton, that most beautiful of Chicago's suburbs, al- 
ways found in James S. Kirk a warm champion and 
firm friend. His family still follows his desires in 
regard to assisting this worthy educational insti- 
tution, and take great and honest pride in assist- 
ing both financially and personally any deserving 
and needy cause that will advance the people to 
a higher degree of education. jMr. Kirk was es- 
teemed as a scholarly gentleman: he was ven,' 
highly educated, and took great interest in ever>-- 
thing pertaining to higher cultivation. 

In summing up the events of his life, it can 
most truly be stated that there never was a resi- 

dent of Chicago who was more highly respected 
and esteemed than he was. During the years of 
his life he was looked upon as a model of honor 
and an example of the traly honest business man. 
He ever endeavored to instill into the minds of 
his sons the honorable principles that placed him 
on such an elevated pedestal. That his descend- 
ants have treasured his desires and his good pre- 
cepts, is proven by the universal respect and es- 
teem in which all members of his family are 

On the fifteenth day of June, 1886, in the 
bosom of his family, he passed peacefully and 
quietly away from this earth, like one fully con- 
scious of meeting in a more sanctified place those 
nearest and dearest to him. 

By the death of James S. Kirk, the city of 
Chicago lost one (if its most respected citizens, 
its business conuiumity one of its brightest 
lights, and the cause of education one of its 
strongest champions. 

If a son follows in the footsteps of an honored 
father he adds new luster to a name that already 
shines with the glory of noble achievements. 
This has John B. Kirk done. He was born in 
Utica, New York, November 8, 1842, and was 
the second son of the family. He acquired his 
education in the city of his birth, and upon en- 
tering upon his business career joined his father 
in the manufacture of soap. In 1859 this enter- 
prise took root in Chicago, to grow and increase 
until the plant exceeds in dimensions any other of 
like character in the world, and the annual out- 
put exceeds seventy millions pounds of soap, in 
addition to which there are various other articles 
manufactured in vast quantities. It is a matter 
of interest that the immense factory is located on 
the site of the first house ever erected in Chicago, 
and not yet has a century passed. The fact that 
that spot now upholds the largest soap manufac- 
tory in the world indicates the wonderful and 
almost phenomenal growth of the city, a growth 
with which the business of the Kirk Company 
has kept fully abreast. When the sons were old 
enough to enter the business they were taken 
into partnership, under the name of James S. 
Kirk & Company, and this style has since been 
retained, an uninterrupted period of fifty-four 
years, and in honor to their father the name will 



probably be retained while the sons have control 
of the business. The success of the industry 
was assured from the start, and only once has 
disaster overtaken it, when, in the great fire cf 
1871, it was destroyed by the flames; but the 
firm was reorganized immediately, and through 
the hearty co-operation of all the members of the 
Kirk family the business was soon on a substan- 
tial footing, and it has continued on the road to 
prosperity ever since. Through the ingenuity 
of John B. Kirk and his brothers, the process of 
manufacturing soap has been revolutionized and 
many labor-saving methods have been devised. 

The attention of Mr. Kirk has not been wholly 
confined to the soap industry. He has been in 
lerested in banking, and his recognized ability as 
a financier led the directors of the American Ex- 
change Bank to choose him for the position of 
vice-president, and later he was made president, 
in which capacity he has served since 1889. It 
was his desire in early life to enter the medical 
profession, and had it not been his father's wish 
for the son to join him in business, John B. Kirk 
would probably have become an eminent physi- 
cian, for he would never have been content with 
mediocrity; and the same perseverance which has 
characterized his commercial life would have 
gained him prominence in that line. 

On the 4th of October, 1866, Mr. Kirk was 
united in marriage with Miss Susanna MacVean, 
daughter of Donald MacVean, a refined and 
cultured lady who holds a high position in social 
circles, and devotes much of her life to charitable 
and church work. She is a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, actively interested 
in home and foreign missionary societies, and a 
liberal supporter of the Guild University and the 
Hull House, most worthy institutions. In the 
family of Mr. and ISIrs. Kirk were five children, 
but the second, a daughter, Elizabeth, died in 
infancy. The others are James M., Frederick I., 
Josephine and Susanna. 

In his political views, Mr. Kirk is a Republican, 
inclined to conservatism. For one term he scr\'ed 
as president of the city council of South Evans- 
ton, and has always been active in promoting the 
best interests of this beautiful suburb and of the 
city. The Northwestern University, one of the 
most important educational institutions of the 

^^'est, has found in him a true friend, and for ten 
years he has sen-ed as a member of its executive 
committee of board of trustees. All worthy ob- 
jects that have the improvement of facilities for 
advancing the citizens of this country in educa- 
tion find in him a ready and willing sympathizer, 
and his own literary tastes are shown in the fine 
library in his own home, containing more than 
fifteen hundred standard volumes. Public and 
private charities receive his support, and no de- 
serving object is ever refused his aid. He has 
a deep and sincere sympathy for those who have 
a hard struggle to overcome the difficulties and 
hardships of life, and is especially ready to help 
those who are willing to help themselves, and 
quick to recognize and reward merit in those in 
his employ. 

Oratory and elocution are two of the grandest 
of man's accomplishments, and to stimulate these 
arts Mr. Kirk has donated an annual prize of 
$100 to be rewarded to the successful competitor 
in the annual oratorical contest held by the senior 
students of the University. One of the most in- 
teresting and longed-for events is this annual 
contest, and who knows but the desire of winning 
this prize may be the means of developing the 
talents of one who may win rank among the 
statesmen of the world? 

Mr. Kirk is an honored and valued member 
of various societies, civic and social. He belongs 
to the Union League Club, the Union Club, the 
Washington Park Club, the Tolleston Club and 
the Chicago Athletic Club, and was a charter 
or early member of most of them. He is also 
connected with the Country Club, the Boat Club 
and the Evanston Club, of Evanston. He be- 
came a member of Evans Lodge, Xo. 524, F. 
& A. ]\I., in which he served as senior warden : 
Evanston Chapter, Xo. 144, R. A. M. ; Evans- 
ton Commandery, Xo. 58, K. T. ; Oriental Con- 
sistory, and the Medinah Temple of the Mystic 

The career of John B. Kirk has ever been 
such as to warrant the trust and confidence of 
the business world, for he has ever conducted 
all transactions on the strictest principles of honor 
and integrity. His devotion to the public good 
is unquestioned and arises from a sincere inter- 
est in the welfare of his fellow men. What 



the \\orld needs is such men, — men capable of 
managing extensive, gigantic mercantile con- 
cerns, and conducting business on terms that 
are fair alike to employer and employee, — men of 

genuine worth, of unquestioned integrity and 
honor, — and then the questions of oppression by 
capitalists and resistance and violence by labor- 
ers will be forever at rest. 


THERE are no rules for building characters; 
there is no rule for achieving success. The 
man who can rise from the ranks to a position 
of eminence is he who can see and utilize the op- 
portunities that surround his path. The essen- 
tial conditions of human life are ever the same, 
the surroundings of individuals differ but slightly ; 
and, when one man passes another on the high- 
way to reach the goal of prosperity before others 
who perhaps started out before him, it is because 
he has the power to use advantages which prob- 
ably encompass the whole human race. To-day 
among the most prominent business men of the 
entire West, stands INIr. EUwood; and his name 
at once brings to mind one of the most impor- 
tant industries of the country. The history of such 
a man cannot fail to be of wide-spread interest, 
for he ranks high in commercial circles in the 
Prairie State, which has given to the Union some 
of its most eminent professional and business 

Mr. Ellwood was born at Salt Springville, 
Montgomery county, New York, August 3, 1833, 
and is the seventh son of Abraham and Sarah 
(Belong) Ellwood. He obtained a common- 
school education such as the period and place 
afforded, and entered upon his life work at an 
early age, driving a team on the Erie canal, for 
$10 a month. Subsequently he secured a clerk- 
ship and was employed as a salesman until eigh- 
teen years of age. The discovery of gold in Cali- 
fornia attracted him, and, with the hope of bet- 
tering his financial condition and more rapidly 
acquiring wealth, he made his way to California, 
in 1 85 1, and spent about four years on the Pacific 

After a year's experience as a miner he resumed 
clerking in Sacramento; and though he did not 
win a fortune in a few months he lived frugally, 

and as the result of his industry and perseverance 
he accumulated some little capital, which enabled 
him to secure a start in business for himself. But 
the far West was not the field in which he wished 
to enter upon his mercantile career, and journey- 
ing eastward we find him, in 1855, conducting 
a little hardware store in the village of De Kalb, 
Illinois. The future millionaire therefore had a 
humble beginning. The story of his life might 
be plainly told — a record of close application to 
business, of resolute purpose and unfaltering in- 
dustry. In the little hardware establishment he 
sold stoves or nails, just as the patrons wished, 
always endeavoring to accommodate them, and 
by his fair and honest dealing won the public 
confidence and the public trade. For twenty 
years that business was carried on, increasing in 
importance and profit as time went by. Nor did 
he confine his efforts alone to the hard-ware trade. 
He began auctioneering in the locality, and his 
quick thought, keen comprehension and readi- 
ness with which he grasped the situation won him 
success in this undertaking, and he gained a repu- 
tation that caused his ser\'ices to be in demand in 
distant sections of the State. 

Upon the broad prairies of the West, where 
the land was so rich and suitable for farming 
purposes, the agriculturists met with one seem- 
ingly almost insurmountable difificulty. The land 
was comparatively cheap, and they secured large 
farms; and, in order not to overstep the bounds 
of one another's property, and also to keep away 
stock from their crops, they must have fences. 
It was expensive to secure lumber for this pur- 
pose, as it had to be shipped in, and then the 
board or rail fences were continually being 
broken down and there was a pressing need 
which nothing seemed to meet. 

J. F. Glidden invented what is to-day known as 



the Glidden barb wire. 'Mr. Ellwood assisted 
in obtaining patents and had a half interest in 
the invention. In 1876 Mr. Glidden sold his in- 
terest to the Washburn & Moen Manufacturing 
Company, and they together, after a litigation 
of some years, granted licenses to various fac- 
tories. Through ]\Ir. Elhvood's influence and 
foresight, all of the underlying and first patents 
on barb wire and machinery for making the same 
were combined together, enabling him, with the 
assistance of others, to build up one of the largest 
and most successful business enterprises in the 
history of this countrv-. 

For forty years farming was carried on in this 
section of the United States with the same need 
of fencing material; yet not until the year men- 
tioned did any one take advantage of the oppor- 
tunity to give the worlil this important inven- 

For a time ]Mr. Ellwood was associated, in the 
n''anufacture of barb wire, with J. F. Glidden, and 
afterward with the Washbuni & ]\Ioen Manufac- 
turing Company, of Worcester, ^Massachusetts. 
This connection continued for some time, but ^Ir. 
Ellwood is now exclusive owner and manager 
of the large manufacturing establishment at De 
Kalb, doing business under the firm name of the 
I. L. Ellwood Manufacturing Company, ^^l^en 
he was associated with Mr. Glidden he was placed 
in charge of the business management of the 
firm, and to his tact and business ability may be 
attributed in no small measure the success of the 

From time to time improvements have of 
course been made. Countless objections were 
urged against the new fencing material, but this 
was to be expected, for no successful invention 
ever came at once into general use. Its utility, 
however, was soon demonstrated, and the sales 
increased rapidly after a time. The fencing be- 
gan to be used not only by the farmers but also 
by the railroad companies; and although the 
railroad corporations were loath at first to accept 
the invention they have to-day thousands of miles 
of road inclosed with barb-wire fence. In order 
to turn out this material at a lower cost, it was 
seen that it would be necessary to have autom- 
atic niachincr\-, which was secured through the 
eflorts of Mr. Ellwood. This machine was made 

for the purpose of taking the raw wire from the 
coil, barb, twist and spool it ready for use; and 
in perfecting this invention over one million dol- 
lars were spent; but the result was at length 
attained, and one machine was able to do the 
work of eight men and do it more perfectly. 

The works of the I. L. Ellwood Manufactur- 
ing Company are very extensive. The main 
building is 61x400 feet in dimensions, and is sup- 
plied with every device for perfect workmanship 
known to the business. In addition there is also 
a large store house, 100x160 feet, and in this 
establishment employment is furnished to two 
hundred and twenty-five men. The capacity of 
these works is ten carloads of finished fencing 
every ten hours, ^^'hile others also are engaged 
in the manufacture of barb wire, it is a widely rec- 
ognized fact throughout the countn,' that this in- 
dustry owes its successful establishment to ^Mr. 
Ellwood; and to-day he is at the head of the 
business. His pride in his success comes not 
from the pecuniary reward that it has brought 
to him, but from the means it has afforded him 
for benefiting others. 

He is a man of fine personal appearance and 
commanding presence. His ambition has been 
to acquit himself of life's duties honorably before 
all men, to improve his capabilities and oppor- 
tunities and to become of use in the world; and 
it is this spirit mainly that has made the little 
farmer boy of New York one of the most eminent 
business men of the West. 

In his political principles ^Ir. Ellwood is an 
unswer\'ing Republican, devoted to the best in- 
terests of his party, yet has never sought or 
desired political preferment, having held no 
office save that of aldemian of De Kalb. In 
his character there is something he obtained in 
the primitive schools where he was educated, 
and in his early farming experiences something 
that might be termed solidity of purjiose, and 
which is a characteristic worthy of emulation. 
His school privileges were meager, yet in the 
school of e.xperience he has leamed lessons that 
have made him a well-informed man, broad- 
minded and liberal in his views and with a char- 
ity that reaches out to all humanit}-. He is tnily 
benevolent, and the poor and needy count him 
among their friends, for no worthy one sought 



his aid in vain. His chief deHght in life seems 
to have been to ser\-e his fellow men, and help- 
fulness might be termed the keynote of his char- 

On the 27th of January, 1859, at the home of 
William A. IMiller of De Kalb, was celebrated the 
marriage of Mr. Ellwood and IMiss Harriet iSIil- 
ler. They have had seven children, four sons 
and three daughters, of whom two sons and three 
daughters are living. The eldest, William L., 

has for several years been engaged in importing 
and breeding French draft horses, making annual 
trips to France and personally attending to 
the purchase of his stock. He has entire 
charge of the Ellwood stock farms, lo- 
cated in the vicinity of De Kalb and con- 
taining some three thousand and four hun- 
dred acres, all in a high state of cultivation 
and with all modern improvements for 



tinguished citizen of Springfield, secretary 
of State from 1856 to 1865 and one of the found- 
ers and most active members of the National 
Lincoln Monument Association, was bom at 
Hillsboro Center, New Hampshire, April 11, 
1814, and died at his home, 1005 North Seventh 
street, Springfield, Illinois, on ]\Iarch 12, 1893. 

His father, Dr. Reuben Hatch, born June 
29, 17S7, at Alstead, New Hampshire, prac- 
ticed medicine in that State for nearly 
thirty years, and was highly esteemed both as a 
citizen and as a physician. He resided at Hills- 
boro during nearly the whole of this period, and 
Lucy Andrews, his first \vife and the mother of 
the subject of this sketch, was the daughter of 
one of the best-known citizens of that place. In 
1835 Dr. Hatch removed to Griggsville, Pike 
county, Illinois, taking with him his household 
effects and traveling overland with his own teams. 
He was accompanied by his wife, his two 
daughters and seven of his eight sons, — Ozias, 
the subject of this sketch, not joining the family 
until the following year. Upon the death of his 
first wife Dr. Hatch married Miss Ann Stratton, 
who died without leaving issue. For his third 
wife the Doctor married Miss j\Iary Ann Gilmore, 
of Newport, New Hampshire, who bore him one 
child, a daughter, Lucy Ann, now the wife of D. 
Walker Cree of Griggsville. Dr. Hatch died in 
1868. Of his large family by his first wife only 
t\vo sons and one daughter survive: Isaac A. 
Hatch, a banker, and Franklin Hatch, a farmer, 

both residing at Griggsville, and ^Irs. Daniel 
B. Hush, of Portland, Oregon. 

Ozais Mather Hatch, the subject proper of this 
sketch, was the third child of Dr. Reuben and 
Lucy (Andrews) Hatch. He received the or- 
dinary education incident to New England, at- 
tending the district school in winter and 
working on his father's farm during the summer 
season, supplemented by a brief attendance at a 
private school and academy. His father desired 
that he should study medicine, the family profes- 
sion, but he preferred business pursuits, and at 
the early age of fifteen left home, worked his 
way to Boston, and for seven years was clerk in 
a wholesale and retail grocery store; and it was 
while he was employed there that his father and 
family removed to Illinois, as above stated. In 
1836 he. joined them at Griggsville, and shortly 
afterward he engaged in a general merchandising 
business there, as a partner of his brother, Isaac 
A. Hatch, and David Hoyt, the firm name being 
Isaac A. Hatch & Company. Two years later 
this firm was dissolved. Mr. Ozias M. Hatch 
went to the Eastern cities and purchased a stock 
of goods, with which he returned to Griggsville 
and opened a new store, as a partner of Solomon 
McNeil, under the style of McNeil & Hatch. Tn 
1841 he retired from this finn to accept the'posi- 
tion of clerk of the circuit cotirt of Pike county, 
to which he had been appointed by Judge Samuel 
D. Lockwood. He served seven years in this 
capacity, displaying liigh integrity and ability in 
the discharge of his duties and the utmost zeal in 

(p. 7-}!. x^^Tt/, 



the public service. At the expiration of his term 
he re-engaged in business, becoming the partner 
of his brother, R. B. Hatch, in the firm of R. B. 
Hatch & Company, which opened a general store 
at Meredosia, Illinois. 

Mr. Hatch came prominently into politics in 
1851, when he was elected to the State legislature, 
serving one term. He had always been a pro- 
nounced abolitionist, and his fearless denuncia- 
tion of slavery, which he regarded as the greatest 
blight of modern civilization, although making 
some enemies of the old pro-slavery element, se- 
cured for him the admiration and fast friendship 
of the great body of earnest men who were de- 
termined to check and eventually exterminate this 
evil. In 1856 he was nominated by the newly 
organized Republican party for the office of 
secretary of State of Illinois, running on the 
ticket headed by the Hon. William H. Bissell for 
governor. He was elected by a flattering vote, 
and gave the people so efficient an administration 
of the secretaryship that he increased his popu- 
larity and the number of his friends In every part 
of the State. In i860 he was honored by a re- 
nomination, and was elected by one of the largest 
votes ever polled in the State. After the death of 
Governor Bissell, Mr. Hatch performed the 
duties of governor as well as those of secretary 
of State, as the lieutenant governor, John Wood, 
preferred to remain at his home in Quincy, 
where he had large business interests. 

Mr. Hatch's second term as secretary of State 
was served during the administration of Governor 
Yates, famous as the "War Governor" of Illinois. 
It covered the period of the outbreak and progress 
of the Civil war, and by reason of the delicate 
questions arising beforehand and the grave and 
arduous duties during the struggle demanded a 
high order of character, ability and patriotism. 
In none of these was Secretary Hatch deficient. 
He had the esteem and confidence of his party, 
and the whole mass of loyal citizens was in per- 
fect accord with the chief, the earnest and patriotic 
Yates. In the work of organizing troops for the 
defense of the Union he bore a conspicuous part. 
Some idea of the magnitude of this work may be 
gleaned from a knowledge of the fact that Illinois 
had sixty thousand armed men in the field as 
early as January- i, 1862, — some sixteen thousand 

in excess of its quota. Mr. Hatch was in a po- 
sition, as secretary of State, to become almost 
wealthy by charging fees for the issuance of com- 
missions, as allowed by law, but his heart was too 
deeply in sympathy with the Union cause and he 
"voluntarily resigned to the soldiers the fees to 
which he was entitled for such commissions." 
While the war was in progress he visited the sol- 
diers at the front — notably at the great battle- 
field of Shiloh — and was unweaning in his ef- 
forts to aid the wounded and sick, and to secure 
for all every comfort possible. 

At the close of his second term as secretary of 
State, the war being practically ended, he declined 
a re-election, and was never afterward an active 
politician, although he continued to take the liveli- 
est interest in public afifairs and remained closely 
identified with his party down to the day of his 
death. During his public life Mr. Hatch en- 
joyed the closest contact with the greatest states- 
men and soldiers of the period. His admiration 
and friendship for Abraham Lincoln were intense, 
and were cordially reciprocated. It was at a 
meeting held in Mr. Hatch's office, and at which 
he was one of the prime movers, that the first 
steps were taken toward organization for the pur- 
pose of securing to Abraham Lincoln the nom- 
ination for president. He was in a certain 
sense the right hand of Governor Yates in the 
able and successful efforts of the latter to keep 
the great State of Illinois in the foremost rank as 
regards fidelity to the Federal Government and 
the Union cause. His death removed the last 
living representative of the State officers of the 
administrations of Governors Bissell and Yates. 

]\Ir. Hatch's faith in the development of his 
adopted State never w-avered, and it was through 
investments in her rich soil, so fruitful in re- 
sources, that he became one of the well-to-do 
men of Sangamon county. His farming inter- 
ests have thus, of late years, partially occupied 
his attention. He was a public-spirited citizen 
and prominent in various local enterprises of 
Springfield, where he resided after his election as 
secretary of State. He was vice-president and 
director of the Sangamon Loan and Trust Com- 
pany from the date of its organization until his 
death. In the spring of 1870 he and his brother 
Isaac founded a bank at Griggsville, under the 



firm name of Hatch & Brother. In 1873 this 
was reorganized as a national bank, in which he 
continued interested. He was also concerned 
to some extent in railroad enterprises, being one 
of the founders and builders of the Hannibal & 
Naples Railroad. 

His great friendship and love for Abraham 
Lincoln were distinguishing traits of his life. 
He was one of the original members, as well 
as one of the most active, of the National 
Lincoln Monument Association, temporarily or- 
ganized in April, 1865, and permanently and 
legally incorporated in January, following. In 
company with ex-Governor Richard J. Oglesby 
he made a canvass of the larger Eastern cities to 
procure funds for purchasing the handsome statu- 
ary on the Lincoln Monument at Springfield, and 
on this mission his personal popularity, added 
to the magnetism of the genial ex-govemor, was 
attended with flattering results. 'Mr. Hatch was 
a man of warm sympathies and charitable in- 
stincts. His disposition was kindly and genial 
and his manner cordial. His popularity was 
unboundef!: wherever he went he made warm 
friends. Few State officers have received the 
confidence of the general public to so large an 
extent as he, and no one could have merited it 
better. In his death the State of Illinois lost one 
of its most able and patriotic public men, and 
the people one who was ardently in sympathy 
with every worthy cause. 

Mr. Hatch was married in i860 to Miss Julia 
R. Enos, daughter of Pascal P. Enos, who, with 
the assistance of Elijah lies, John Taylor and 
Thomas Cox, laid out the city of Springfield. 
This marriage identified him with one of the 
pioneer and honored families of the county. 
Mrs. Hatch survives her husband; also three of 
their children, — Ozias M. Hatch, Jr., Pascal E. 
Hatch and Frank I. Hatch, the last named a stu- 
dent at the Harvard Law School at the time of 
his father's death. 

One of Air. Platch's most intimate friends, Dr. 
William Jayne, of Springfield, writes of him as 
follows: "As a summary of the moral and in- 
tellectual organization of the mind and character 
of Mr. Hatch, I venture to assert that no living 
man could persuade him to say that good was 
evil, or evil good, contrary' to the convictions of 

his conscience. He was, from his early man- 
hood to the last days of his mature life, a man, 
not of impressions or opinions, but of convictions. 
As early as the days of the Alton riots, when 
Lovejoy was murdered in defense of the liberty 
of the press, Mr. Hatch was known far and v^'ide 
as a decided anti-slavery man. This proud po- 
sition he never yielded until slavery was abol- 
ished by constitutional enactment and the Union 
restored by the resounding tramp of a million 
armed men. 

"By birth and blood, by ancestry and educa- 
tion, Mr. Hatch was a gentleman, endowed by 
nature with a commanding presence, dignified 
deportment, refined manner and pleasing address. 
He possessed that happy gift of making friends, 
and that still more valuable tact of character of 
holding fast those made. Hence it came that 
the friends of his earlier years were the most 
attached friends of his mature and advanced days. 
His social and political associates were the lead- 
ing and most influential men of the State and 
nation. His true and tried friends were Lincoln, 
Trumbull, Yates, Oglesby, Palmer, Grimshaw, 
Taylor, Hurlburt, Uu Bois, — and in fact all that 
coterie of public men who gave form, force, 
charm and prestige to that potent party which 
made Illinois a power for good for more than 
thirty years, and gave to our glorious common- 
wealth such a conspicuous part during those per- 
ilous years when liberty and civilization were 
trembling undecided in the balance. His per- 
sonal popularity in the most fiercely contested 
elections carried him far beyond a strict party 
vote. This fact is best illustrated by the sim- 
ple statement that in the presidential elections 
of 1856 and i860, when politics were at a 
white heat, running on the same ticket with 
the hero of Buena Vista, the gallant Bis- 
sell, in 1856, and with Lincoln and Yates in 
i860, Mr. Hatch led the ticket from 1,000 to 
4,000 votes. 

"Though not a comnumicant of any Christian 
denomination, all churches had his respect and 
good will, and many received from his open 
purse substantial aid. In his private and public 
relations, his influence was given for social prog- 
ress and for the elevation and welfare of man- 






INDELIBLY engraved on the pages of history 
is the name of Elisha Gray. \Mthin the last 
lialf century America has demonstrated her right 
to the leadership of the world in the realm of in- 
vention. She, at first, by the brilliancy of her 
achievements, won the attention of the old 
countries, then commanded a respect which 
rapidly developed into a wondering admiration. 
Though she cannot cope with the old masters in 
the fine arts, Europe has acknowledged her pre- 
eminence in science and useful invention. She 
has given to the world unexcelled labor-saving 
and cost-reducing machinery, rapid transit and 
the means of close and immediate communica- 
tion. She has annihilated space by giving the 
power of conversing with one who may be thou- 
sands of miles away, and time therefore is scarcely 
any longer a matter of consideration. Now an 
invention is attracting the attention of the world 
which is of great superiority over the old methods 
of conmumication, in that a message can be 
transmitted in entire privacy without the interven- 
tion of operators between the parties. One's 
private afTairs may still be his own; and this 
wonderful invention, — the telautograph, — which 
will undoubtedly revolutionize telegraphy, is the 
product of the brain and inventive genius of Pro- 
fessor Gray. 

This gentleman was born near Barnesville, in 
Belmont county, Ohio, on the 2d of August, 1835, 
and is the son of David Gray, who was a native of 
Pennsylvania and of Scotch-Irish ancestry. His 
mother, who had borne the maiden name of 
Christiana Edgarton, was born in North Carolina, 
of English parentage. Mr. and Airs. Gray were 
Quakers and lived quietly upon a farm in the 
Buckeye State, wliere their son Elisha was reared, 
acquiring his elementary education in the com- 
mon schools of the neighborhood, while his 
physical training came through work in the fields. 
His time was thus passed until after he had at- 
tained the age of twelve years, when his father 
died, and he was thus largely thrown upon his 
own resources for a living. At the age of four- 
teen he apprenticed himself to a blacksmith and 

partly mastered that trade, but the arduous work 
greatly overtaxed his strength and he was obliged 
to give it up; so, accordingly, he joined his 
mother, who had removed to Brownsville, Penn- 

The financial circumstances of the young man, 
however, did not permit of rest and recreation 
to any great extent, and he entered the employ of 
a boat-builder, ser\'ing an apprenticeship of three 
and a half years, learning the trade of ship-joiner. 
At the end of that time he was a first-class 
mechanic and began to give evidence of his in- 
ventive genius. He recognized, however, that 
his powers were limited by his meager education, 
and it was his great desire to acquire the funda- 
mental knowledge that would open the way to 
intelligent research, investigation and ultimate 
achievement. As each one is conscious, in a de- 
gree at least, of his own powers, so Air. Gray felt 
that he had resources which, if properly used, 
would accomplish some important work in life. 
One of the most hopeful indications of those 
early years was the fact that, added to his genius, 
\\liich was then awakening into activity, there 
was a vast fund of practical common sense, for the 
lack of which so many men of talent have failed in 
their life work. He realized the need of educa- 
tion as a foundation for further work, and de- 
termined to secure the desired training. 

While working as an apprentice Mr. Grav 
formed the acquaintance of Prof. H. S. Bennett, 
recently of Fisk L'niversity and now deceased, 
but then a student at Oberlin College, Oliiu, 
from whom he learned that at that institu- 
tion exceptional opportunities were afforded 
to students for self-education; and immedi- 
ately after he had completed his term of 
service he started for the college witli barely 
money enough in his possession to carry him to 
his destination. It was in tlie sununer of 1857 
that he reached Oberlin, where he began work as 
a carpenter, and in this manner he supported him- 
self during a five-years college course. Eager to 
acquire a knowledge of the branches tauglit in 
that school, he applied himself diligently to his 



studies, manifesting that perseverance and 
patience which have cliaracterized his career in 
later life and been an important factor in his suc- 
cess as an inventor. While in college he gave 
special attention to the physical sciences, in which 
he was exceptionally proficient, his ingenuity 
being strikingly manifest from time to time in the 
construction of the apparatus used in the class- 
room experiments, his cleverness in devising 
these various appliances making him a con- 
spicuous character among his fellow students. 

At this time he had not yet determined what 
line of work he should follow and at one time 
thought some of entering the ministry, but finally 
abandoned this idea. Seeming trifles often mold 
the lives of people; and a chance remark, Mr. 
Gray says, had much to do with his subsequent 
career. The lady who afterward became his 
mother-in-law remarked one day that "it would be 
a pity to spoil a good mechanic to make a poor 
minister!"' She certainly must have possessed a 
very sound and discriminating judgment thus to 
discover the hidden worth of the young man ; and 
she, doubtless, more than anyone else in his 
earlier days, fanned the latent sparks of genius 
into the flame which in later days revealed to 
his brain the contrivances which have made his 
name famous, and which have proved of ines- 
timable value to civilization. 

The four years of continuous and earnest study 
left its impress on the health of Prof. Gray, and 
when the future seemed bright with promise, when 
indications were that his hopes of years were 
about to be realized, he was stricken with an ill- 
ness that incapacitated him for work during the 
five succeeding years. 

In 1862 he was married to Miss M. Delia Shep- 
ard.of Oberlin, and with the hope of improving his 
health he went to live upon a farm; but the out- 
door exercise did not bring the desired result, and 
he returned to his trade, working in Trumbull 
county, Ohio, until again prostrated by serious 
illness. His domestic relations have ever been 
of the most pleasant and happy character. His 
wife has proved not only the presiding genius of 
a happy home, but she has also shared in his 
hopes, sympathized with his efforts, and has ever 
been a source of inspiration and encouragement, 
urging and aiding him in the darker hours of his 

history to push forward. Both she and her 
mother had an abiding faith in his genius, and 
to her the Professor is always glad to attribute 
much of his success. 

For a time after his marriage the years were 
hard ones, checkered by difficulty, by success, 
and alternate hope and dispair. He found it 
difficult to pursue his investigations and experi- 
ments, for his means were very limited; yet time 
passed and at length success crowned his efiforts. 
In 1867 he entered upon what proved a more 
prosperous epoch in his life. He invented a self- 
adjusting telegraph relay, and although it proved 
of no practical value it served to make him known 
to the late Gen. Anson Stager, of Cleveland, gen- 
eral superintendent of the Western Union Tele- 
graph company, who at once became interested 
in him and furnished him facilities for experiment- 
ing on the company's lines. Prof. Gray then 
formed a partnership with E. M. Barton, of Cleve- 
land, for the manufacture of electrical appliances. 
Gen. Stager becoming associated with him in 
the business. Here he perfected the type-writing 
telegraph, the telegraphic repeater, telegraphic 
switch, the annunciator and many other inven- 
tions which have become famous within the short 
space of a few years. About 1872 he organized 
the Western Electric Manufacturing company, 
which is still in existence and is said to be the 
largest establishment of the kind in the world. 

In 1874 Prof. Gray retired from that company 
and began his researches in telephony, and within 
two years thereafter gave to the world that 
marvelous product of human genius, the speak- 
ing telephone. Noting one day, when a second- 
ary coil was connected with the zinc lining 
of the bath-tub — dry at the time — that when 
he held the other end of the coil in his left 
hand and rubbed the lining of the tub with 
his right it gave rise to a sound that had the 
same pitch and quality of the vibrating contact- 
breaker, he began a series of experiments whicli 
led first to the discovery that musical tones could 
be transmitted over an electric wire. Fitting up 
the necessary devices, he exhibited the invention 
to some of his friends, and the same year went 
abroad, where he made a special study of 
acoustics and gave further exhibitions of the in- 
vention, which he developed into the harmonic 



and multiplex telegraph. While perfecting this 
device, in 1875, the idea of a speaking telephone 
suggested itself, and in 1876 he perfected this in- 
vention and filed his caveat in the patent office 
at Washington. That another inventor suc- 
ceeded in incorporating into his own application 
for a telegraph patent an important feature of 
Prof. Gray's invention, and that the latter was 
thereby deprived of the benefits which he should 
have derived therefrom, is the practically unani- 
mous decision of many well informed as to the 
merits of the controversy to which conflicting 
claims gave rise; and the leading scientists and 
scientific organizations of the world — according 
to a certain periodical — have accredited him the 
honor of inventing the telephone. In recognition 
of his distinguished achievements he was made a 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor at the close of 
the Paris Exposition of 1878, and American col- 
leges have conferred upon him the degrees of 
Doctor of Laws and Doctor of Science. 

For several years after his invention of the 
telephone he was connected with the Postal Tele- 
graph compan)', and brought the lines of this 
system into Chicago, laying them under ground. 
He also devised a general underground telegraph 
system for the city, and then turned his attention 
to the invention of the telautograph, a device 
with which the general public is becoming famil- 
iar through the published account of its opera- 
tion. On March 21, 1893, the first exhibitions 
of the practical and successful operation of this 
wonderful instrument were given simultaneously 
in New York and Chicago, and on the same day 
the first telautograph messages were passed over 
the wires from Highland Park to Waukegan, 
Illinois. The exhibitions were witnessed by a 
large number of electrical experts, scientists and 
representatives of the press, who were unanimous 
in their opinion that Professor Gray's invention 
is destined to bring about a revolution in teleg- 

One of the beauties of electrical science is the 
expressiveness of its nomenclature, and among 
the many significant names given to electrical in- 
ventions none expresses more clearly the use and 
purpose of the invention to which it is applied 
than the temi "telautograph." As its name signi- 
fies, the instrument enables a person silling at one 


end of the wire to write a message or a letter 
which is reproduced simultaneously in fac simile 
at the other end of the wire. It is an instrument 
which takes the place of the skilled operator and 
the telegraphic alphabet. Any one who can write 
can transmit a message by this means, and the re- 
ceiving instrument does its work perfectly, with- 
out the aid of an operator. The sender of a 
message may be identified by the fac simile of his 
handwriting which reaches the recipient, and pen- 
and-ink portraits of persons may be as readily 
transmitted from one point to another as the 
written messages. In many respects the telauto- 
graph promises to be more satisfactorj* in its 
practical operations than the telephone. Com- 
munications can be carried on between persons at 
a distance from each other with absolute secrecy, 
and a message sent to a friend in his absence from 
his place of business may be found awaiting him 
on his return. These and many other advan- 
tages which the telautograph seems to possess 
warrant the prediction that in the not very distant 
future telautography will supplant in a measure 
both telephony and telegraphy. The transmitter 
and receiver of the telautograph system are deli- 
cateh' constructed pieces of mechanism, each con- 
tained in a box somewhat smaller than a type- 
writer. The two machines are necessarily at each 
end of the wire, and stand side by side. In trans- 
mitting a message an ordinary feed lead pencil is 
used, at the point of which is a small collar with 
two eyes in its rim. To each of these eyes a'fine 
silk cord is attached, running off at right angles 
in two directions. Each of the two ends of this 
cord is carried around a small drum supported on 
a vertical shaft. L'nder the drum and attached 
to the small shaft is a toothed wheel of steel, the 
teeth of which are so arranged that when either 
section of the cord winds on or oft' its drum a 
number of teeth will pass a given point cor- 
re.'^ponding to the length of cord so wound or un- 
wcimd. For instance, if the point of the pencil 
moves in the direction of one of the cords a dis- 
tance of one inch, fifty of the teeth will pass a 
certain point. Each one of the teeth and each 
space represent one impulse sent upon the line, sn 
that when the pencil describes a motion one inch in 
length a hundred electrical impulses are sent upon 
the line. The receiving instrument is practically 



a duplicate of the transmitter, the motions of 
which, however, are controlled by electrical 
mechanism. The perfected device exhibited by 
Prof. Gray and now in operation, is the result of 
six years of arduous labor, — an evolution to 
which the crude contrivance used in his earliest 
experiments bears little resemblance. The manu- 
facture of the instruments is carried on by the 
Gray Electric company, a corporation having 
offices in New York and Chicago and a large 
manufacturing establishment just outside the 
limits of the suburban village of Highland Park, 
Illinois, of which Prof. Gray has been for many 
years a resident. Here, in addition to his work- 
shop and laboratory, the renowned inventor has 
a beautiful home, and his domestic relations are 
of the ideal kind. 

In 1892 it was decided to hold international 
congresses of various kinds, making this a promi- 
nent incidental feature of the World's Columbian 
exposition; and accordingly a body, which be- 
came known as the World's Congress Auxiliary 
of the World's Columbian Exposition, was or- 
ganized for the purpose of promoting and making 
all necessary preparations for these gatherings. 
To Prof. Gray of Chicago this body assigned the 
task of organizing the "Congress of Electricians,'' 
and placed upon him the responsibility of 
formulating the plans and making all initiatory 
preparations for what was unquestionably the 
most important and interesting convention of 
electricians ever held in this or any other country. 
While the professor called to his assistance nianv 
distinguished members of his profession, by virtue 
of his official position, he was the central and 
most attractive figure in this great movement. 
When the World's Congress of Electricians as- 
sembled in the Art Institute of Chicago, August 
21, 1893, there were gathered there the most noted 
electricians of all parts of the world. The con- 
gress was divided into two sections, one of which, 
termed the official section, was composed of repre- 
sentatives designated by the governments of 
Europe and the Americas, and was authorized to 
consider and pass upon questions relating to elec- 
trical measurement, nomenclature and various 
othei matters of importance to the electrical world. 
To the other section of the congress were ad- 
mitted all professional electricians who came 
properly accredited, and they were permitted to 

attend the sessions and participate in the deliber- 
ations, although they were not allowed to vote on 
the technical questions which came before it. 

The career of Prof. Gray is marvelous in more 
than one particular. In his youth he was seen to 
possess the indomitable purpose, industry and 
resolution which are essential in the make-up of 
every successful business man. He began his 
inventive work, and in his earlier manhood gave 
to the public works which made him famous and 
for which he merited the gratitude of the civilized 
world ; yet, unlike many men of talent, he did not 
then rest from his labors. Some of the best 
known inventors of the century have perfected 
theii wonderful work in earlier life to then sit 
down and make no further progress. This may 
be due in part to the fact that as a man travels on 
in the journey of life mature judgment brings a 
coolness of deliberation and a slowness of action 
which is in many cases commendable; yet it per- 
mits the enthusiasm and daring of the more youth- 
ful man to take advantage of opportunities which 
he was considering. Prof. Gray, however, has 
not followed this plan. His deep research has 
continued up to the present time, and he has not 
only kept pace with, but has also been the leader 
in the progress and advancement which have 
marked the electrical world; and the more mature 
judgment and riper experience which have come 
with advancing years and which have been 
brought to bear upon newer problems, have in 
many cases resulted in inventions and improve- 
ments of the utmost importance to mankind and 
the cause of civilization. 

The professor is a member of the Union 
League Club of Chicago, and in his political views 
he is a stalwart Republican. He has traveled ex- 
tensively in this country and in Europe, and is 
a gentleman of fine personal appearance, pleasing 
address and commanding bearing, who will 
attract attention in any assembly. Although he 
has the appearance of the profound student, he 
has none of the eccentricities generally attributed 
to inventors; and when not in his work-shop or 
his laboratory, engaged with his experiments, he 
is a most genial and affable gentleman, whose 
pleasing manner has won him hosts of friends, 
while liis great electrical skill and general scien- 
tific attainments command the admiration and 
respect of the world. 





IN a brief sketch of any living citizen it is 
difficult to do him exact and impartial justice, 
— not so much, however from lack of space or 
words to set forth the familiar and passing events 
of his personal history as for want of the perfect 
and rounded conception of his whole life, which 
grows, develops and ripens, like fruit, to disclose 
its true and best flavor only when it is mellowed 
by time. Daily contact with the man so familiar- 
izes us with his many virtues that we ordinarily 
overlook them and commonly underestimate their 
possessor. Nevertheless, while the man passes 
away his deeds of virtue live on, and will in due 
time bear fruit and do him the justice which our 
pen fails to record. 

The Hon. Gustave Koerner, of Belleville, 
was born November 20, 1809, in the city 
of Frankfort, German}-. A fact worthy of notice 
is that this same year Lincoln, Gladstone and 
Tennyson also came into this world. The father 
of our subject, Bernhard Koerner, was a pub- 
lisher and bookseller and much esteemed as a 
man of great public spirit. He was extremely 
patriotic, an enemy of Napoleon; and before the 
defeat of Napoleon published many war-songs of 
Ernst Amdt and Theodore Koerner. After the 
war of Independence and the restoration of Frank- 
fort as a free city, he was repeatedly elected to 
the legislative assembly, in which he became con- 
spicuously known for his strong liberalism. He 
died in 1829, aged fifty-six, and his wife died in 
1847, aged about seventy years. 

Gustavus Koerner received his first education 
at an elementary school established upon the 
system of Pestalozzi, called the Model school; 
and when about twelve years of age he was sent 
to college at Frankfort, where he remained about 
six years, pursuing a classical course, and perfect- 
ing himself in English, writing and reading. At 
the age of eighteen he attended the University of 
Jena, to study law, remaining for two years. He 
pursuetl liis studies for one year at Munich and 
completed them at Heidelberg 1832, where he 
graduated and obtained the degree of LL. D. 
A law of his native city, being a queer old law 

which ought to have been repealed long before, 
required him to take the degree of Doctor of 
Civil and Canon Law before he could be admit- 
ted to the bar. He received a diploma of Doctor 
of Law of a very high grade (insigni cum laude). 
The faculty of Heidelberg sent him a letter of 
congratulations on the fiftieth anniversary of the 
promotion, in which the\' gave him the highest 
degree, "Summa cum laude." His examination 
was in Latin, and he had to write two dissertations, 
one on civil law- and one on common law. In 
June, 1832, he underwent the State examination 
and was admitted to the bar at Frankfort by the 
judges of the highest courts, ^^'hile a student 
he employed his leisure during vacation in visit- 
ing almost every part of Germany, familiarizing 
himself with the institutions and acquiring a 
thorough knowledge of the character of the 

During his residence in Alunich, and while, in 
consequence of the excitement produced bv the 
French revolution of July, disturbances of a 
serious nature had broken out in that place as 
well as many others in Germany, in which bloody 
conflicts between the military and civilians, verj' 
ofitn students, took place, Koerner, with some 
forty other students, was charged with having 
forcibly attacked the armed troops of the king. 
For this he was closely confined in prison for five 
months, but was finally discharged of the com- 
plaint by the supreme court of Bavaria. In 1833, 
iie, with thousands of other young men, prin- 
cipally professional, joined in an attempt to break 
up the German Diet, which had rendered itself 
obnoxious and had by unconstitutional ordi- 
nances destroyed the liberty of the press and free- 
dom of teaching at the universities, and die rights 
of association and public meetings in the States 
of Germany. His activity along this line in- 
volved him in a rising at Frankfort on the 3d of 
April, 1833, and in conflict with the soldiery, while 
storming a militan,- post, he was disabled by a 
wound. After the failure of the movement he 
succeeded in escaping from the city to France. 
The French government did not permit him to 



stay and sent him under escort to Switzerland. 
However, he again made his wa}', in disguise, into 
France, went to Paris and finally to Havre, where 
he set sail for the United States and arrived at 
New York on the i8th of June, 1833, ''fter a 
seven-weeks journey. 

The second day after his arrival he took out 
first papers of citizenship. He then came with 
the family of the lady who afterward became his 
wife, to Illinois, the journey from New York to St. 
Louis being about four weeks. This family he knew 
in Germany, the father being master of forests 
with the rank of major in the army. Mr. Engel- 
mann (this being his friend's name) on his ar- 
rival purchased a farm and our subject spent one 
year there and pursued his studies. In the fall of 
1834 he attended the law school at Lexington, 
Kentucky, principally to perfect his English, and 
was admitted to the bar by the supreme court, 
June, 1835. 

Ho. selected Ilelleville, near St. Louis, as his 
home, and here married Miss Sophie Engelmann 
in 1836. To this union there were born eight 
children. ^Irs. Koerner died March, 1888, aged 
sevent\-two. They had a golden wedding in 
188(1, when 500 people were present. She was a 
lady of culture and refinement, whose main joy in 
life was to make her home and husband happy 
and the abode of good cheer. 

In 1836 Mr. Koerner formed a partnership with 
;\.dam W. Snyder, father of Judge William W. 
Snyder, who was then senator of the State and 
was elected to Congress the same year. This dis- 
sohed the partnership, and on the advice of Mr. 
Snyder he formed a partnership with General 
James Shields, who by the way held more offices 
than any other man known to the writer of this 
sketch. He was senator from three different 
States. Their intimacy existed until the death of 
General Shields. When tlie general was ap- 
pointed conmiissioner of the land office Mr. 
Koerner became a partner of Judge Breese, while 
he was in the United States senate. 

In 1840 Mr. Koerner was appointed by the 
presidential electors of Illinois as the messenger 
to carry the vote to ^^'ashington, and while there 
he became acquainted with Van Buren, and was 
introduced by Governor John Reynolds to Henry 
Claj He also Isecame acquainted with J. O. 

Adams and others of equal importance. He 
heard speeches of Webster, Clay, Calhoun, Pres- 
ton of North Carolina, Benton and others. 

In 1842 he was elected from St. Clair county to 
the legislature for two years, and in 1845 was 
appointed by Governor Ford to fill a vacancy on 
the supreme bench, to which he was shortly after- 
ward elected by the legislature. The office of 
judge having in 1849 been made elective by the 
people, and the new constitution reducing the court 
to three members, each with a small salary, he 
did not become a candidate, but returned to 
his law practice. In 1852 he was elected lieu- 
tenant governor of Illinois, for four years. He 
attended the convention which was held in 
Philadelphia in 1856, and which nominated Fre- 
mont and Dayton. In 1858 he was president of 
the convention where Lincoln was nominated a 
candidate for United States senator against Doug- 
las and where Lincoln made his celebrated speech, 
"A house divided against itself cannot stand." 
In 1856, owing to the Nebraska question, he, 
with Medill, Horace White, Palmer, Trum- 
l)ul! and many other Democrats, voted for 
Fremont. He made no less than fifty speeches in 
each campaign, speaking English and German. 
In i860 he was appointed by the State con- 
x'enlion as a delegate at large, with Norman B. 
Judd, to the Republican national convention in 
Chicago. This was when Lincoln was nominated 
for president of the LInited States. He attended 
tlie inauguration of Lincoln at Washington. 
There were about five hundred Illinois men there, 
many armed in case of trouble, which was thought 
might happen. 

The war breaking out. Governor Koerner in 
tlie summer of 1861 raised an infantry regiment 
(the Forty-third), but before its organization was 
con:pleted he received from Lincoln an appoint- 
ment as colonel of volunteers and was assigned to 
the staff of General Fremont and afterward to that 
of General Halleck. Severe illness compelled him 
to resign in 1862. In the June following the presi- 
dent appointed him minister to Spain, whicli he 
filled vuitil 1865, when he resigned for financial 
reasons and returned to the United States. 

In 1868 he was appointed one of the electors for 
the State at large on the Grant ticket, and pre- 
sided over the electoral college of Illinois. In 



i8~i he was appointed by the governor one of 
tlie newly created Board of Railroad and Ware- 
house commissioners, of which he was elected 
chairman. The governor's well known statesman- 
ship and his large and liberal views on questions 
of public policy naturally indicated him as a 
leader in the political contest of 1872, and he be- 
came the nominee of the Liberal Republican and 
the Democratic parties as governor of Illinois: but 
he was defeated, though he ran 15,000 votes ahead 
of Greeley! Governor Palmer appointed him 
one of the board of directors to establish and or- 
ganize the Soldiers' Orphans' Home, to erect 
buildings and secure grounds. Since this time 
he has declined all public offices, giving his time 
to his practice. He was an active worker for 
Tilden for president, and took an active part in 
th; Hancock-Garfield campaign. 

It would be trespassing on the domain of 
history to recount his attendance to many con- 
ventions and the speeches delivered, the public 

men with whom he has labored and the political 
issues he has originated and supported. It is 
only necessan- to add that Governor Koemer's 
life has been busy, honorable and useful, and. as 
expressed by a friend of his, "like a clear limpid 
stream wherein you can see the form and color of 
the pebbles at the bottom, and through whose 
meandering course no sediment appears." He is 
a man with pleasing and expressive features. His 
voice is still strong. His language is clear, simple 
and graceful, and he leads his auditors along 
thrtnigh an argumentative path, decked with 
classic allusions, that, like the flowers on the bor- 
ders of a stream, seem to be native there. 

After a pure, honorable and useful life, actuated 
by unselfish motives, prompted by patriotism 
and guided by truth and justice, Governor 
Koerner may in old age rest assured that tb.v 
people of this country are not unmindful of those 
who have devoted themselves to their interests. 
"Palmam qui meruit ferat." 



GEORGE W. FUNK, the eldest son of Isaac 
and Cassandra (Sharp) Funk, was born at 
Funk's Grove, McLean county, Illinois, May 14, 
1827. He was reared upon his father's farm, 
and early taught those habits of industry which 
have had such an important bearing upon his 
entire life. He obtained his education in the 
district school, in the meantime assisting his fa- 
ther in such work as his age and strength would 
permit. He became interested in farming and 
st.ick-feeding when a boy. and has ever since fol- 
lowed that pursuit as his main business. 

L^pon the death of his father, Isaac Funk, in 
1865, a great amount of labor of settling up the 
estate devolved upon him. The estate was the 
most valuable ever divided in central Illinois: it 
included 27,000 acres of land and a large amount 
of stock and other property. By the unanimous 
consent of his brothers, he took charge of the 
lands, and that the estate was divided without a 
will and without any misunderstanding or con- 
tention speaks volumes for the undoubted integ- 

rity and honesty not only ni our subject but of 
the entire family. 

In the year 1868 Mr. Funk moved to Mount 
Hope township, and he now operates farms 
amounting to 4,000 acres in McLean countv : 
1,000 acres lie in West township, eastern part of 
McLean county, and include the site of the old 
Indian town and fort. He has also become in- 
terested in various banking institutions, among 
which are the First National Bank of Blooming 
ton and banks in Lincoln and Springfield and the 
People's Bank of .\tlanta. of which he is presi- 

He has been twice married. His first wife, 
-Susan Pumpelley. to whom he was married in 
1868, died the following year, leaving an infant 
son, Isaac G., now a young man of twent>-seven 
years. In 1876 Mr. Funk was united in mar- 
riage to Rose Fitzwilliams. They are the parents 
of three children, one of whom is dead. The liv- 
ing are Madeline and Julius. 

Politically Mr. l-'unk is a stanch Republican. 



and is ever ready to aid his party dnring its cam- 
paigns. While never seeking pohtical oflioe, lie 
lias been honored by his fellow-citizens by elec- 
tion to the State legislature in 1870. During the 
time he was a member of the assembly, an im- 
mense amount of work was performed by that 
body. It was the first session after the adoption 
of the new constitution, and it was an almost con- 
tinuous session for two years. Mr. Funk did 
effective work as a legislator and served as a 
member of the committees on banking, farming 
and agriculture. 

"Sir. Funk has made good use of his op- 
portunities, he lias prospered from year to 
year, and has conducted all business matters 
carefully and successfully, and in all his acts 
displays an aptitude for successful manage- 
ment. He has not permitted the accumula- 
tion of a vast fortune to affect in any way 
his actions toward those less successful than 
he, and has always a cheerful word and pleas- 
ant smile for all with whom he comes in 



THE pioneers of a country, the founders of a 
business, the originators of any undertak- 
ing, that will promote the material welfare or ad- 
vance tlie educational, social and moral influence 
of a community, deserve the gratitude of human- 
ity. The name of Kimball at once suggests the 
music trade, and the subject of this review is the 
pioneer of this enterprise in the Northwest. He 
now has a reputation which extends throughout 
the country, and to-day is ranked among the most 
prominent business men of his adopted city. 

William Wallace Kimball was born in Oxford 
county, Maine, in 1828, and is a son of David 
Kimball, a native of the same place, which has 
been the ancestral abode of the family since the 
close of the Revolutionary war. Through the 
chronicles of early New England the direct line 
of ancestr>' of the Kimballs on American soil is 
traced back through some twelve generations to 
Richard Kimball, of Ipswich, Massachusetts, who 
emigrated from Ipswich, England, and settled in 
that colonial village in 1634. The family name, 
thus associated with the antiquities of the nation, 
is frequently encountered in the introductory 
chapters of our country's history, coming to 
eminence in peace and war alike during all the 
earlier stages of colonial development and through 
the subsequent era of rapid political transition, 
ending in the establishment of our present repub- 
lican government. The family furnished many 
representatives to the war for independence, in- 

ckuling Moses Kimball, the grandfather of Will- 
iam W.: while in the war of 1812 David Kimball 
served with equal distinction. The Revolutionary 
hero at the close of the war became a farmer, and 
removing to IMaine settled in Oxford count\% 
which, two hundred years subsequent to the time 
of Richard, the Pilgrim of Ipswich, became the 
birthplace of W. W. Kimball. 

In the district and high schools of his native 
county the last named acquired his education, and 
at the age of eighteen entered upon his business 
career as a clerk in a store. Subsequently he en- 
gaged in teaching, but his tastes drew him toward 
commercial life, and upon attaining his majoritv' 
he proceeded to Boston, where he secured em- 
ployment in connection with a mercantile estab- 
lishment. He soon went upon the road, his 
labors taking him first to New England, afterward 
to the Middle, Southern and Western States. In 
this way he acquired an intimate and comprehen- 
sive knowledge of Western mercantile geography, 
which proved of inestimable practical advantage 
to him later on, in supplying those various lati- 
tudes and communities with the product of his 
own manufacture. 

In 1857 ilr. Kimball visited Chicago, then a 
frontier city, in a comparatively isolated region. 
Finding something congenial to his own tempera- 
ment in the whirl of its traffic and in the vitality of 
its enterprise, he decided to locate permanently 
in the place, and, in the fall of the same year, com- 



menced business as a dealer in pianos and organs. 
There was apparently at that time little to tenijit 
business enterprise to enter the musical field. The 
infinite domain beyond Chicago was mainly a 
wilderness, and, in the clearing and setdcment 
of that vast country, the material necessities had 
to take precedence of the arts. There was no art 
sentiment in the Northwest, for the settlers were 
pioneers endeavoring to make homes, and were 
content if they could accomplish this and secure 
the necessities of life during those earlier years. 
It v;as often a struggle to obtain food and cloth- 
ing for their families, and musical instruments 
were lu.xuries not to be thought of; but Mr. Kim- 
ball, with wonderful sagacity, looked forward 
to the future and saw the coming prosperity in 
the piano trade. Experience seemed also to dis- 
courage the project: all who had preceded him 
in that particular line of business had encoun- 
tered only discouragement and failure. Tlie 
young merchant seemed to realize the necessity 
of patient waiting, and so rested content with 
the local retail trade in the belief that the grow- 
ing requirements of the country would in time 
call for the establishment of a wide agency sys- 
tem and wholesale traffic connections with the 
larger opportunities thus implied. Nor did he 

In 1864 the wholesale trade in pianos, through 
his individual efifort, was established for the first 
time in Chicago, and the development of traffic 
became such as to justify his removal to the 
fame us Crosby Opera House on Washington 
street. Here he opened fine warerooms, which 
remained the center of the polite trade of the 
Northwest until the general conflagration of 
1 87 1. From ne\\spaper records of the period it 
appear? that W. W. Kimball, within forty-eight 
hours after the subsidence of that historic fire, 
had converted his private residence on Michigan 
avenue into a beautiful warehouse, with the bil- 
liard room for an office and the barn for a ship- 
ping department. The floorage, however, prov- 
ing inadequate for his business, a removal was 
made to larger quarters at the northwest corner 
of Wabash avenue and Thirteenth street, which 
served his purpose until the summer of 1873, 
when he took possession of the commodious 
building at the southeast corner of State and 

Adams streets, in the rebuilt central district. 
There in 1882 the business was reorganized, un- 
der the corporate name of the W. W. Kimball 
Company, and the growth of trade, including the 
extension of the manufacturing industry, led a 
few years later to the occupancy of the mam- 
moth structure at the southeast corner of State 
and Jackson streets. In tlie spring of 1891 the 
final removal was made to the stately new edi- 
fice 243 to 253 Wabash avenue, which is elab- 
orately planned and constructed for the perfect 
accommodation of all the different parts of the 
business that has now come to be represented 
by a thousand branches and to cover all the wide 
territory tributary to Chicago. 

In the prosecution of his business there has 
been manifest one of the most sterling traits of 
his character, — his desire to carry forward to the 
highest perfection attainable anything that he 
undertakes. This has marked his social and 
business career and has been one of the most 
important factors in his almost phenomenal suc- 
cess. Not content with mediocrity in anv line 
of life, he has given deep and 6amest thought 
to the study of perfecting the musical instruments 
which he manufactures. His plan aimed at once 
to advance the mechanical principles of construc- 
tion and to so economize the industrv as to fur- 
nish the highest grade of instruments at a greatly 
reduced cost to the public. In pursuance of this 
plan he erected an extensive organ factory in the 
\ear 1S81. The trade of the house now covered 
all the northwestern and western territory, and 
a careful review of the situation over a larger 
and more universal field indicated the time as 
opportune for inaugurating the industry. The 
experiment proved a wonderful success. In five 
years' time the Kimball parlor organ was selling 
in every American market and fomiing an im- 
portant item in the national export trade. The 
manufacture of pianos was begun six years later 
(1887), when a factory, corresponding with the 
dimensions of the vast organ plant, was erected 
in juxtaposition to the latter and completed a 
vast two-fold manufacturing system, covering a 
floorage of over ten acres and being thus 
made jointly available to the two separate 
but related industries. The latter enterprise also 
l)rovcd very successful, a product being soon re- 



alizecl, whicli, under the name of tlie new-scale 
Kimball piano, was at once accepted by the mu- 
sical authorities of this country and of Europe 
as among the foremost instruments of our time. 
Recently the manufacture of pipe organs has also 
been added to the enterprise. 

Mr. Kimball was married, in 1865, to ^liss 
Evalyne M. Cone, daughter of Hubbell B. Cone, 
of Chicago. He is a valued and interested mem- 
ber of various social clubs of the city, and his 
great activity, combined with his genial, social 
disposition makes him thoroughly enjoy the 
higher class of amusements and entertainments, 
being especially fond of the drama. 

A man's business life seems in part at least 
a public possession, but around his home and 
private life there should be drawn a veil which 
shuts out the curious gaze of the world. Those, 
however, who have attained prominence in any 
line cannot hope for the freedom from general 
notice in the same degree as one who has never 
left the ranks of the common people. In former 
ages history was a record of war and warriors, 
of conquests and conquerors; to-day histor\' is 
composed of accounts of commercial activity, of 
advancement in the lines of business, science, 
arts and letters. In learning of the inventions 
of printing, of cotton weaving, the inventions of 
the sewing machine and steamboat, who does 
not stop to inquire of the men in whose busy 
brains these things originated and learn of the 
life history of Guttenburg, Arkwright, Howe 
and Fulton? Mr. Kimball is a man of modest 
and unostentatious demeanor, never seeking self- 
praise; but when the complete history of the 
Northwest shall be written the question will be 
asked, What of the founder of the piano and or- 
gan making industries in this section of the 
country? It is but just, therefore, in view of 
his brilliant success, to enter somewhat in detail 

concerning the plans and methods he has fol- 
lowed and the characteristics which he has man- 

In business affairs "Sir. Kimball is energetic, 
prompt and notably reliable. Tireless energv, keen 
perception, honesty of purpose, a genius for de- 
vising and executing the right thing at the right 
time, joined to ever}-day common sense, guided 
by resistless will power, are the chief character- 
istics of the man. His business has passed 
through the era of war, fire and financial panic 
undisturbed, owing to the reliability of the man 
at the head. Justice has ever been maintained 
in his relations to patrons and employes, and 
many of those who began with him at the com- 
mencement of his career are still in his service. 
He has not been slow to assist and encourage 
others who have left his employ to enter busi- 
ness for themsf'lves, and in return he naturally 
has the loyal support of all the employes of the 
house. He has been watchful of all the details 
of his business and of all indications pointing 
toward prosperity, and from the beginning had 
an abiding faith in the ultimate success of his 
enterprise. He has gained wealth, yet it was 
not alone the goal for which he was striving, and 
he belongs to that class of representative Ameri- 
can citizens who promote the general prosperity 
while advancing individual interests. Charit- 
able and benevolent, he has given freely of his 
means in support of worthy charity, but one of 
his great qualities lies in his encouragement and 
material assistance to those who were willing 
to help themselves. Indiscriminate giving often 
fosters idleness and vagrancy on the part 
of the recipients, but aid given to those who 
are anxious to make the most of their op- 
portunities will develop self-reliance and hon- 
orable business men who become the bulwarks 
of the nation. 





JOHN W. PADDOCK was born in Caniillus, 
Onondaga county, New York, February 14, 
181 5. His parents were James and Ann 
Paddock, his father being a miller and a farmer. 
The Paddock family is one of the oldest in this 
country, their first settlements being made in the 
Plymouth Colony as early as 1630. The Plym- 
outh Colony records show that Robert Pad- 
dock was at that time a member of the colony, 
and subsequently recite the fact of the allotment of 
lands to him, and record that he was the con- 
stable of Duxbur>' about 1643, and show the 
date of his death and the record of the members 
of his family. His descendants afterward emi- 
grated to Yarmouth, and from there to Dutchess 
county. New York ; thence to Washington county, 
from there to Onondaga, New York, and then 
to Illinois. 

David Paddock, the grandfather of Ji'hn W. 
of this article, lived near West Point at the time 
of the Revolutionary war, was a soldier in Cap- 
tain Watcrlniry's company. Seventh New York 
Continental \''olunteers, and was engaged in the 
campaigns up and down the Hudson and in tlie 
battle of Saratoga. The father of John W.. 
James, was a soldier in the war of 1812; and the 
mother of John W., Ann ATcClaury, was of 
Scofch-Trish descent. Her parents emigrated to 
New York from the north of Ireland with the 
Clint(Mis of Revolutionary fame, and were re- 
lated to that familv. The David Williams, who 
was the captor of Major Andre, was related tn 
the wife of David Paddock above spoken of, 
and the name of the subject of this article was 
John \\'illiams Paddock, the Williams lieing in 
rccoenition of the relationship to the ^^''ilIiams 
f;iinilv. The origin of the Paddock familv was 
Wel>h. W'indsor. in liis history of Duxburv. 
states the fact that there was a tradition that 
Robert, one of tlie ancestors, was one of the 
minors who came over in the "Mayflower." Be 
that so or not, it is certain that by blood and 
tra<!ition the subject of this article descended 
from a line (^f men who were thoroughly endowed 
with the spirit of liberty, and whose convictions 

of what was right had all through the years that 
have gone impelled them to brave ever}' hard- 
ship and danger to maintain their principles. 
They were Puritans, Pilgrims, Federalists, Whigs 
and Nationalists. 

Colonel Paddock's preliminar\- education was 
acquired in the schools of his native place, 
whence he moved to Syracuse, New York, where 
he completed his academic course of studies. 
In the office of J. R. Hickox he studied law; 
from there in 1836, with his father, he removed 
to Lockport, Will county, Illinois, being the 
teacher of the first school in that village. He 
was admitted to the bar of this State and com- 
menced the practice of his profcssic^n in 1837. 
In June, 1853. he located in the city of Kanka- 
kee, then but a prospective town, and in the fall 
of that year he removed his family to this place. 
Previous to his settlement in this county he trav- 
eled and practiced at Middleport, Ottawa, Joliet 
and Chicago. After his establishment at Kanka- 
kee he was connected with all the important cases 
in both Kankakee and Iroquois counties. Per- 
haps the most celebrated cases with which his 
name was connected were those of the Chiniquv 
trials. He was occupied in the vigorous prose- 
cution of his professional duties until 1862, when 
he was elected to the constitutional convention 
as a Union man, and on the T''^nion ticket. He re- 
fused to sign the new constitution and contrib- 
uted largely to its defeat bv the people. In the 
fall of that vear he entered the I'^nited States 
.\rm\-. In earlv life he was an old-line ^^'hig. 
but upon the dissolution of that partv became 
an ardent supporter of Douglas, was an ardent 
and eloquent speaker, and an effective and valu- 
.nblc allv of that great Dem<icratic leader. When 
the tocsin of war was sounded and the question 
arose of loyalty or dislovalty. he forsook a re- 
numerative practice, and at his own expense 
traveled his Congressional district, delivering 
stirring speeches in favor of the vigorous prose- 
cution of the war for the l'''nion. 

He greatly aided Captain A'aughn in the or- 
ganization of the company of volunteers after- 



ward assigned to the Fifty -third Illinois Infantrs', 
and projected the organization of the Seventy- 
sixth Illinois Infantry. With this regiment he 
proposed entering the service, but six compa- 
nies still remained after the Seventy-sixth was 
filled. He remained with them and subsequently 
went with them to Chicago, where they were in- 
corporated with the four companies of the then or- 
ganizing Third Board of Trade Regiment, and in 
October, 1862, he was commissioned Lieutenant- 
Colonel of the One Hundred and Thirteenth Illi- 
nois Infantn.'. Before leaving for the seat of war 
he was, in the presence of the regiment at Camp 
Hancock, presented with a superb sword by his 
fellow-townsman, James ]\T. Perry, of Kanka- 
kee. The One Hundred and Thirteenth joined 
Sherman in his expedition against Vicksburg 
in the fall of 1862, and witnessed that terrible 
but unsuccessful struggle. Colonel Paddock 
participated actively in the battles of Chickasaw 
Bayou and of Arkansas Post, after which the 
regiment was divided, part going to Springfield, 
Illinois, the remainder being assigned to Young's 
Point, Louisiana. They were also engaged in 
the movements which resulted in the capture of 
Vicksburg, July 4, 1863, Colonel Paddock being 
in command at the time. He was with General 
Sherman on the Rolling Fork expedition, and 
during the greater portion of the time consumed 
in the siege of Vicksburg commanded the force 
assigned to the protection of the landing of the 
Yazoo, whence Grant drew his supplies. In 
August, 1863, Colonel Paddock was ordered to 
report to General Hurlbut, at Memphis, an or- 
der ivhich he at once prepared to obey in com- 
pany with his regiment, then badly stricken with 
disease. He reached Memphis, but owing to 
the return of that dreaded fever, contracted while 
on the field, he was sent to the officers' hospital 
located in that city. There, after lingering in 
great pain, he died Sunday evening, August 16, 
1863, attended by the chaplain of the regiment. 
His remains were brought home and interred 
on the 24th of August, at Kankakee, followed to 
the grave by one of the largest funeral corteges 
in the histon,- of the county. Colonel Paddock 
was a man of commanding presence; he stood 
six feet high, was well proportioned in his body, 
had long, flowing, black hair, large blue eyes 

and full, round face, and was of light and buoyant 
spirits. To him all men were equal and every 
man was to be treated as a man. He felt no con- 
descension in listening to the complaints of the 
poor and lowly, and to assert and defend their 
rights was always a gratification to him; nor did 
he feel any elevation in being associated with 
the wealthy or great. He was actuated through- 
out life with a broad spirit of charity, and was 
imbued with an intense love of his country and 
its institutions. The principles of the Declara- 
tion of Independence he exemplified in his life 
and his death. His funeral sermon was preached 
bytlie Rev.C. B.Thomas, of the Unitarian Church, 
at Chicago, from which we take the following 

'■ \\'e have met to do honor to the noble dead ; 
we have cr>me here to the home which was so 
dear to him to pay to his memory this last trib- 
ute of respect and love. A generous, manly, hon- 
orable man has passed suddenly away from us, 
and gone out into solemn mystery. Another 
great heart, which beat with an intelligent, wise, 
determined love of his country, is stilled forever. 
I could not now recount the story of his noble 
life here among his neighbors and friends, who 
I new it so much better than I, and who loved it, 
too. I need not remind you, I am sure, while 
his silent form is before us, of the great heart, 
more thoughtful of others than himself, which 
our brother carried in his bosom; of the sterling 
qualities which made him the good citizen, the 
earnest patriot, the firm friend, and hater of 
all meanness, the lover of all that was honorable, 
true and brave. 

"Nor need I remind you how he laliored for 
his country; how he went out all unused to such 
labor with a holy purpose in his soul ; how bravely 
lie shared the perils of war; how finally he was 
smitten with disease; how the other day the tid- 
ings came of his decline, and how of the next in- 
telligence he came wrapped in the folds of the 
holy flag for which he had fought so manfully, — 
came in silence and in gloom, with no word of 
greeting on his lips, no joy of a wanderer re- 
turning to the dear old home flashing from his 
eyes. You will not forget that manhood, you will 
not cease to be influenced by that intelligence, 
nor to cherish the thought of that devoted and 



self-sacrificing friendship which was his. I am 
told how thoughtfiily he cared to the last for 
those under liis command. I am told how the 
bovs loved him, finding in him the same nobility 
and generosity which won the affection and re- 
spect of his neighbors; I am told how he robbed 
himself of his blankets to put them beneath a sick 
soldier: how he drove miles, weak and ill himself, 
to obtain something which could alleviate the suf- 
ferings of a dying youth." 

His last letter, written on the field of \^icksburg. 
contains this sentiment, speaking of the assault 
about to be made: "I may fall; I hope not, but 
if I do, may God protect you and the children. 
I hope to survive and see you all again, but should 
this be my last, let the clustering recollections of 
the past assure you that my last prayer was for 
you and the children. Tell my boys to stand by 
their country's cause at all times, love and obey 
their mother, and, though I never come back, 
God will prosper them." 

The following, from the pen of Colonel Lord, 
who was a young officer in the regiment of 
Colonel Paddock, is a fair estimate of his relation 
to tlie service: "Lieutenant-Colonel Paddock, of 
the One Hundred and Thirteenth Regiment of 
Illinois Infantn,-, w-as a conspicuous figure in the 
personnel of that regiment, and the remembrance 
of his face and form and character must always 
awaken feelings of friendly admiration an 1 rci^^ret 
in the minds of those who knew him and served 
with him. 

" A Democrat in his political affiliations and 
a politician of influence; a lawyer by profession; 
a man in middle life with a large family to whom 
he was devoted; having apparently no taste for 
militar}- life in itself, and but little of the physical 
hardness required of the campaigner, it was 
naturally a matter of some surprise among those 
who met him for the first time in the regiment that 
he should be in the service at all. Longer ac- 
quaintance, however, made it sufficiently clear whv 
he was, and emphasized both the integh'ty of his 
motives and the degree of his personal sacrifice. 
His more conspicuous traits as they became un- 
folded to his regimental associates were a broad 
and general impulse of kindliness to everyone, a 
ready and genial humor, and an intense form of 
patriotic zeal. He had but a small opinion of 

tactics, and was impatient of the petty reg^ila- 
tions and restraints of military routine. The 
caste distinctions, also, of rank in the army, which 
others gradually came to accept and recognize, 
made little impression upon him. The men and 
officers whom he had known in civil life were just 
as much his neighbors in the service as before, 
whether in commission or in the ranks, with the 
distinction that he felt a more personal responsi- 
bility for the well-being of the latter. He could 
assert himself and his right on occasions of duty 
or emergency, but his ruling sentiment was one 
of comradeship with all men who had undertaken 
with him to resent and redress the evil which 
threatened the country. On this common ground 
all men were equal with him, and the military 
organization was nothing save a means to an end 
which all equally sought. That end was the over- 
whelming of the enemy and the restoration of the 
l^nion, — not in some remote future, but at once. 
He would have massed an irresistible column 
\\\\\\ which to cut the Confederacy in tw'o in a 
single campaign. He seemed to suffer a sense of 
personal indignity that his late political allies 
should have betrayed him as well as his country', 
and his resentment and his patriotism intensified 
each other. He was in a service which was dis- 
tasteful to him, at a sacrifice of everything most 
cherished and desired, but he could not do less, 
or look back, until the end. So beneath his 
genial good-nature there was always a restless 
impatience of delay, an impetuous instinct to go 
on to the speedy deliverance of the countrv, and 
then to his own deliverance from his self-imposed 
task. His hour of triumph at the surrender of 
\'icksburg, after his regiment had devoted more 
than half a year and sacrificed many lives to ac- 
complish it, was all too brief. The fatigtie and 
exposure which the campaign had made neces- 
sary, and the miasma of the region in which his 
regiment was encamped, proved too much for a 
constitution wholly unfitted for the field, and, 
almost before his men knew of his serious illness, 
his eager, hopeful spirit had fled." 

Colonel Paddock was a devoted husband, a 
kind father, a faithful brother, an honorable and 
enterprising citizen, a genial and generous com- 
panion, an eloquent advocate, a safe counselor, an 
earnest, patriotic soldier and a brave, gallant and 



vigilant, vet kind and luimane, officer. Eqnally as 
a lawyer, soldier and citizen, he left a record to 
which his descendants may point with just pride. 
Our subject was twice married, his first wife 
being Frances Birch, by whom he had two chil- 
dren, Henry C. and Emma J- Henry C. was after- 
ward a lieutenant in the Twenty-fifth Illinois 
Regiment, and was desperately wounded at the 
battle of Fort Blakely. Subsequently he was for 
five years superintendent of the public schools 
of Kankakee county, and now resides in Page 
county, Iowa, with his sister Emma. Our sub- 
ject's second wife was Helen TifTaimy, who was 
a descendant of the Ransom familv, of Erie 

county, New York, pioneers of that county from 
Massachusetts in the latter part of the last 
century. By this marriage he had ten children, 
two dying in infancy. The surviving children 
were James H., of Springfield, Illinois; Daniel H., 
of Kankakee; Helen F., now married to D. F. 
Sherman, of Portland, Oregon ; John W., of Port- 
land, Oregon ; IMars- R., now married to George F. 
Lovell, of Kankakee, Illinois; Portia S., princi- 
pal of the Lincoln School, of Kankakee; Lucia, 
now married to W. W. Cobb, of Kankakee; 
and Catherine A., who was drowned in 1884, 
in a pleasure excursion on the Kankakee 


THE descr\'ed reward of a well-spent life is 
an honored retirement from business in 
which to enjoy the fruits of former toil. To-day, 
after a useful and beneficent career, Mr. Sea- 
man is quietly living at his beautiful home in Oak 
Park, surrounded by the comfort that earnest 
labor has brought to him. He is a prominent 
citizen not alone of Chicago but also of the na- 
tion, winning this place by his superior ingenuity, 
mechanical skill and business ability, through 
which he has been able to build up the largest 
business in his line of cooperage in the country, 
not only to the benefit of himself, on account of 
his many inventions for labor saving, but also 
to the advantage to the consumer, both in qual- 
ity of work and cheapness of price, thereby in- 
creasing consumption as well as proving a benefit 
to the public. The story of the founders of this 
nation and of the Revolutionary forefathers is 
interesting, not only from a historical standpoint, 
but also as a source of inspiration and encourage- 
ment to others. Yet we need not look to the 
past; the present furnishes many examples 
worthy of emulation in the men who have risen 
through their own efforts to positions of promi- 
nence and importance in professional, political, 
mercantile and industrial circles. To this class 
belongs John Alexander Seaman. 

He was born in New ]\Iills, near Newburg, 

Orange county. New York, October 10, 1826, 
and is a son of John and Melissa Ann (WandelO 
Seaman. His paternal grandfather, John Sea- 
man, a native of England, came to the L^nited 
States in early life and married in this country. 
He was a cooper by trade and his son, the 
father of our subject, followed the same occupa- 
tion, liecoming an exceedingly capable work- 

The early school days of John A. Seaman were 
spent in Orange county. New York, where he 
attended the common schools. When he was 
thirteen years of age the family removed to New 
York city and he continued his studies there for 
a year. At the age of fourteen he entered a 
cooper shop, and under the direction of his father 
became an expert at that trade. At the age of 
twenty-one he began working for himself, and 
soon saw the necessity for steady application if 
success was to be attained in a chosen field. 
Seeking broader opportunities in the West, in 
1854 he went to St. Louis, ^Missouri, where for a 
time he was employed as a journeyman cooper, 
and then began business on his own account. 
He spent seventeen years in that city, but the 
competition which he there encountered did not 
please him, nor did it hold out any promise for 
success. Accordingly he returned to New York 
city, where he spent three years as a journeyman 

0^=^-^^^^ . .^^-^'^^-•'^^^9*^^^^-^^-^ 



cooper, and in 1873 became identified with the 
business interests of Chicago. 

After furnishing his home and establishing 
himself as a citizen of this growing metropoHs, 
Mr. Seaman found that he had a cash capital of 
only about $100. All his life he had engaged 
in the cooperage business and had made a thor- 
ough study of it. He had invented many little 
devices which were important to the trade in 
handwork, and had also invented a number of 
machines to replace handwork but which had 
up to this time never been utilized. Previous 
efforts at doing the labor by machines had re- 
sulted in partial failure in producing tight work 
and Rad made those who had use for cooperage 
suspicious of any inventions along this line and 
disinclined for further experiments. The con- 
sumers who required tight cooper work pos- 
itively refused to use machine-made packages 
because of the inconvenience and loss they had 
formerly encountered. Mr. Seaman of course 
wished to have his inventions come into general 
use, but soon concluded that he would be obliged 
to overcome prejudice by demonstration of the 
superiority of his machine-made packages over 
hand-made. He did not claim that his product 
was better than hand work could be made, but 
he did maintain that the average output of each 
class would prove that the machine-made was 
superior. Therefore he began advertising "pat- 
ent-machine cooperage" for tight work and se- 
cured a few prominent patrons whose names he 
used as reference, and therefore in a short time he 
had secured a large business and had the satis- 
faction of receiving orders which called for "'ma- 
chine" cooperage. 

Mr. Seaman always attended personally to the 
business, superintending both the manufacture 
and sale of his products. Having but little 
ready money, lie became associated with a part- 
ner who subsequently disposed of his interest to 
a friend of Mr. Seaman, by the name of William 
Kennedy. The firm was then Seaman & Com- 
pany, and two years afterward Mr. Kennedy sold 
out his interest on account of a partnership he 
liad formed with a brother in the oil business in 
Pennsylvania. The cooperage business then be- 
came the property of our subject, who was later 
joined by Iiis brnthcr. and the trade increased 

until the yearly sales exceeded $120,000 per an- 
num. About this time the entire plant was de- 
stroyed by fire, causing a severe loss. An in- 
ventory showed that Mr. Seaman had but $20,000 
remaining, and in order to rebuild he was obliged 
to purchase his brother's interest and reorganize 
the business. It was then incorporated under 
the name of Seaman, Cox & Brown, with a cap- 
ital of $60,000, the partners in the enterprise be- 
ing Rensselaer W. Cox, of Chicago, and William 
Brown, of St. Louis. The last named, however, 
gave no personal attention to the business. 
Previous to ^Ir. Brown's death the capital of the 
company had greatly increased and part of his 
interest was purchased from the estate by the re- 
maining partners until they held $140,000 worth 
of stock between them out of a total capital of 
$150,000. No change, however, was made in 
the name, for the company was well known 
under the stj-le of Seaman, Cox & Brown, 
and no desire to change the firm title was mani- 

Mr, Seaman retained the general management 
of the business up to the time of his retirement 
to private life, improving means, methods and 
machinery in making this company the largest 
in the line of general cooperage in the Unitetl 
States, if not in the world, and obtaining a repu- 
tation for honorable, straightforward dealing 
that might well be envied. Among the very 
valuable inventions which Mr. Seaman has made 
are three entirely new patented machines, all con- 
structed upon entire new principles, which have 
made it possible for the Seaman, Cox & Brown 
Company to far distance its competitors. The 
stave-jointing machine, in addition to reducing 
the expense of making uniform staves of superior 
shape, always saves its waste, so that it can be 
otherwise utilized, thereby paying the expense of 
running the machine, while formerly it was an 
expense to remove the waste. The trussing 
machine has done away with the noisiest and 
hardest work in the cooper trade, that of hammer- 
ing the bands on the packages. This machine 
works automatically and forces all the bands on 
the barrel simultaneously, irresistil)ly and ac- 
curately. The third machine is for finishing the 
barrel ready for the head and is called a howling, 
chamfering and crozing machine. In addition 



to these Mr. Seaman has secured patents on 
other inventions on machines and improvements. 

The policy of the company was ever a com- 
mendable one. All transactions were conducted 
on strict business principles, and the trust of those 
with whom they had dealings was unequivocally 
given. In the extensive establishment there was 
a vast army of employes who were the more 
faithfully devoted to their work because they 
knew that fidelity to duty would at the proper 
time win recognition. 

Mr. Seaman continued his connection with the 
company until 1892, when he suffered from a 
severe attack of la grippe. He was seriously ill 
for some time, and during that period came to 
the conclusion that if he did not seek rest from 
financial care soon, he would perhaps never have 
the opportunity. It had been his desire in early 
life to secure a good home and competence, and 
his hopes have been realized. In 1893 therefore 
he sold his interest in the cooperage business 
and retired to his beautiful home in Oak Park, 
where he has resided most of the time since 1882. 
On his retirement the Seaman, Cox & Brown 
Company was consolidated with the Pioneer 
Cooperage Company, of St. Louis, Missouri, of 
which Mr. Seaman's former partner, Mr. Brown, 
was the founder; but the Chicago branch of the 
business is still conducted under the old name, 
and its practical workings are superintended by 
A. S. Ray, a son-in-law of Mr. Seaman, who has 
been carefully instructed in all departments of 
the business in order to insure the future success 
of the concern, and the management shows a 
high degree of executive and mechanical develop- 

In 1894 Mr. Seaman completed one of the 
finest homes in that beautiful suburb, Oak Park, 

and there, surrounded by family and friends and all 
the comforts that wealth can procure, he is spend- 
ing the evening of his life. In 1853 was cele- 
brated his marriage to Miss Eliza Josephine 
Lewis, of New York city. They have three 
daughters: Ella J., now the wife of Thomas 
Bradshaw, of Oak Park; Sarah J., wife of Allen 
Ray, who has taken Mr. Seaman's place in the 
management of the extensive cooperage busi- 
ness; and Eliza J-, wife of A. S. Hurd, of Chicago. 
While living in New York city, Mr. Seaman 
was a member of the Masonic fraternity, but has 
since taken no active part in social organizations. 
He is, however, connected with the Oak Park 
Club. He thoroughly enjoys home life and 
takes great pleasure in the society of his family 
and friends. He is always courteous, kindly 
and affable, and those who know him personally 
have for him warm regard. A man of great 
natural ability, his success in business, from the 
beginning of his residence in Chicago, was uni- 
form and rapid. As has been truly remarked, 
after all that may be done for a man in the way 
of giving him early opportunities for obtaining 
the requirements which are sought in the schools 
and in books, he must essentially formulate, de- 
termine and give shape to his own character; 
and this is what Mr. Seaman has done. He 
has persevered in the pursuit of a persistent pur- 
pose and gained the most satisfactory reward. 
His life is exemplary in all respects and he has 
ever supported those interests which are calcu- 
lated to uplift and benefit humanity, while his 
own high moral worth is deserving of the high- 
est commendation. He has been a strictly tem- 
perate man, never using either liquor or 
tobacco, and he has the esteem of his friends 
and the confidence of the business public. 




• T)EACE," said Charles Sumner in one of 
X his most eloquent orations, "hath its vic- 
tories no less renowned than war." The man 
whose enterprise has included within its gjasp 
the traffic of distant lands and the production of 
many and various commodities has really 
achieved a greater triumph and won far more 
than the warrior who has led conquering hosts 
over, desolate homes and amid ruins of sacked 
cities; and if this peaceful hero uses his wealth 
as wisely as he acquires it, and by his enterprise 
and beneficence makes thousands happy and 
contented, then are his victories greater than that 
of any marshaled host whose garments are 
stained with blood, for his triumphs are over the 
forces of nature and the selfish passions of men. 
"He that ruleth his own spirit is greater than he 
that taketh a city." Among the heroes of such 
a bloodless war that has been waged in northern 
Illinois ever since its first settlement, Alonzo 
George is entitled to a high place of honor. Dur- 
ing a long and successful commercial life, char- 
acterized by enterprise, he ever maintained an 
enviable reputation for the highest honor and 
principle, and no unworthj' deed or word ever 
linked itself with his name and no citizen in Illi- 
nois made better or more unostentatious use of 
his accumulations. 

The George family originated in England and 
was founded in America about the middle of the 
eighteenth centur}', when three brothers of the 
name settled in the New England colonies. They 
were Isaac, Moses and Benjamin, the latter be- 
ing the direct ancestor of the subject of this 
sketch. Both Isaac and Benjamin were partici- 
pants in the Revolutionar}- war, and the former 
was taken prisoner at Quebec, December 31, 1775, 
while a member of Captain Hanchetfs company. 
(See Genealogical Record of the George family 
published at Yarmouth, Maine, in 1875, by A. W. 
Corless, assisted by Mrs. Betsy Ayre and Mrs. 
Mary H. Webster, of Haverhill, Massachusetts.) 
Hon. Alonzo George was born at StrafTord, 
Orange count\% Vermont, April 11, 1822, and 
was a son of Ebenezer and Betsy (Kibling) 

George. On his mother's side he was also de- 
scended from ancestors who were active in the 
Revolutionar}' war, and some of her people were 
numbered among the pioneers of New Hamp- 
shire, where both the parents were bom, the 
father near Manchester and the mother at Keene. 
They early went to Vermont, where the father, 
a man of moderate circumstances, followed farm- 
ing. Alonzo was reared there to manhood, as- 
sisting in the work of the farm from his early 
youth as the seasons demanded, and his educa- 
tional advantages were those afforded by the com- 
mon schools of the Green Mountain State. He 
remained on the farm until he reached the age of 
sixteen years, at which time he entered upon a 
clerkship in a general mercantile establishment of 
Strafiford, which was conducted by Justin S. Mor- 
rill, now United States Senator from Vermont. 
A year later he was admitted to a partnership in 
the business, which was successfully conducted 
for several years. During that time Mr. Morrill 
was elected to Congress, but their connection 
did not cease until he was elected to the United 
States senate, in which he is now the oldest mem- 
ber in point of continued ser\-ice. 

Upon the dissolution of this partnersliip, ^Ir. 
George embarked in a similar business at Post 
Mills, \'ermont, and again met with a high de- 
gree of prosperity. While there he was twice 
elected to the Vermont legislature. During his 
first term the State house was burned, and he 
served as a member of the committee which had 
in charge the erection of the present ciipitol build- 
ing. The general mercantile business during 
those early days embraced not only the buying 
and selling of produce and ordinary general store 
commodities but also consisted largely in the bar- 
ter trade, — the exchange of goods for wool and 
other farm products. The business training so 
secured has universally proved the most suc- 
cessful foundation for a broad, liberal and suc- 
cessful business career. 

In 1859 Mr. George decided to visit the West 
and came to Aurora, Ilhnois, where he remained 
nI)ont a year. He then returueil to Post Mills, 



Vermont, where he bought and again disposed of 
a stock of merchandise. When he once more 
arrived in Illinois and took up his residence in 
Aurora, he engaged in wool dealing, building up 
a most extensive trade in that line. The New- 
England frugality had enabled him while in \^er- 
mont to save considerable mone}^ which he 
brought West with him; and, realizing that no 
business could be more profitable than the loan- 
ing of money, he early embarked in it. He also 
engaged in the lumber trade and at various times 
owned one or more farms. Thus he soon be- 
came one of the most prominent as well as in- 
fluential men in Kane county and rapidly in- 
creased his wealth. 

Up to 1871 x^urora could boast of but one 
regular banking institution— the First National 
Bank — though there were numerous banking 
firms. Mr. George recognized the necessity of 
additional banking facilities and became the 
prime mover in founding the Second National 
Bank during that year with a capital of $100,000. 
Of the new financial institution ]\Ir. George was 
elected president, and it immediately became the 
most important bank in Aurora, — a position that 
it has ever since maintained. His abilities as a 
financier were at once recognized, and the bank 
successfully weathered the panic of 1873 and 
was even enabled to extend assistance to weak- 
ened neighbors. The capital stock of this con- 
cern was well distributed, but largely held by 
well known and careful business men; and the 
aim of the president and other officers was ever 
to do a careful business, increasing with the de- 
mands of the community. The principle upon 
which !Mr. George managed his bank, as shown 
bv the reports to the comptroller of the currency 
for the past t^venty years, is of the most conserva- 
tive kind. Although the bank regularly paid 
large dividends, amounting to ten per cent, per 
annum from its incorporation, it created a large 
surplus which in 1891 amounted to $150,000, or 
$50,000 in excess of the amount of its capital. 
When, in 1891, the charter of the Second National 
Bank expired, its aflfairs were liquidated, the 
surplus and capital of $250,000 distributed, the 
bank reorganized with a capital of $200,000 — 
double its previous capitalization. Few people 
knew what had taken place until the name of the 

bank was changed to that of the Old Second 
National Bank, of Aurora, and none of its pa- 
trons realized that any change had been made. 
The Second National Bank has been a power for 
good to the manufacturing interests located in 
its vicinity. There is not a factory in Aurora that 
has not at one time or another felt grateful for 
its assistance, which at the most critical and dan- 
gerous moment was never withheld. The same 
great confidence wdiich Mr. George extended to 
business men of merit was also cordially given to 
many young men of Aurora during the early 
years of their struggles when they had no other 
recommendation than thoir face and honest efifort; 
and it is curious to note that in no case did the 
result fail to testify to Mr. George's sound judg- 
ment. He continued as president of the bank 
until January, 1895, when he was succeeded by 
his son, William George. 

The name of this excellent citizen will ever be 
inseparably associated with many of the sub- 
stantial business enterprises that have built up 
Aurora, and given the city its present industrial 
prominence among cities of the West. He w^as 
prominent in the establishment of the Aurora 
Cotton Mills. A year after the organization he 
took the office of treasurer and the active man- 
agement of the industry, which he established on 
a paying basis. The company has paid large 
and regular dividends, besides accumulating a 
large surplus. Mr. George w^as also president 
of the North Aurora Flouring Mills from 1879 
until his death, and a stockholder in the 
Aurora Silver Plate Manufacturing Company. 
His connection with these largely insured their 

Up to the time of his retirement Mr. George 
was far too grealjy engrossed w-ith his business 
duties to give much time to the social w^orld. 
His life was that of a thoroughgomg business 
man. He was particularly prompt in keeping 
his business engagements and expected the same 
consideration from others. He gave a ready 
hearing to all who desired to see him, and dis- 
posed of all matters claiming his attention quietly 
and critically. Many of his associates testify in 
strong terms of his kindness of heart, finding in 
him not only a safe adviser but also one whose 
counsel was not that of words alone. He, how- 

aBifiitshm^ Co 



ever, objected seriously to any publicity connected 
with his charitable contributions, desiring to see 
only practical results from his assistance. He 
gave quietly yet liberally to many churches 
though a member of none, and the poor and 
needy found in him a true friend. 

In political life Mr. George was a Whig until 
the Republican party w^as organized in 1856, 
when he joined its ranks, yet he has never been 
strictly partisan, believing it to the interest of the 
community to have its affairs conducted by hon- 
est men. regardless of their political affiliations. 
He was often solicited to become a candidate for 
public office, but always refused save on a few 
minor occasions. In 1870 he was super\-isor for 
Aurora, later was school director for three years, 
was mayor of the city in 1873 and at various times 
acted as town treasurer. 

During the last year of his life Mr. George 
practically lived retired. A long and active busi- 
ness career well entitled him to rest. He had been 
the architect of his own fortune and had builded 

wisely and well. He was a man of sound judg- 
ment, never arriving quickly at conclusions, but 
when once his mind was made up as to what was 
the right course nothing could deter him from 
pursuing it. He possessed excellent executive 
and business ability, combined with a resistless 
energy and resolute purpose. His own success 
was marvelous, but he never selfishly used his 
wealth for his own interest. He passed away 
May 18. 1895, and Aurora mourned the loss of 
one of its most valued and honored citizens, a 
man who had the respect of all who knew him, 
the confidence of the business public and the 
warm regard of a host of personal friends. 

In 1 85 1 Mr. George married Miss Lydia R. 
May, daughter of Colonel Elisha May. of West 
Fairlee, ^'ermont. The Mays are of the foremost 
of our early American families, and the ancestors 
were also prominent in Revolutionary times. The 
children born of tliis marriage were: Lizzie, born 
in i860: and William, the well knoivn banker 
and business man of Aurora. 


THERE is no one man in the State of Illinois 
more widely known than Hon. Henry H. 
Evans, of Aurora, whose name is synonymous 
with that of the city of his home. His efforts 
toward advancing the material interests of Au- 
rora arc so widely recognized that they can be 
considered as being no secondary part of his 
career of signal usefulness. While practical poli- 
tics have claimed much of his time and while his 
stalwart Republicanism has been exceedingly 
valuable to his party, his sers'ices in that direction 
must necessarily be held secondar)- to those of 
much greater importance, as implied in his public 
spirit, progressiveness and liberalit\- 

Colonel Evans, who is entitled to the rank 
designated by reason of his appointment on the 
staffs of Governors CuUom, Fifer, Oglesby and 
Hamilton, is a native of Toronto, Canada, where 
he was born on the Qth of March, 1836, being 
the son of Griffith and Elizabeth (Wcldon) Evans, 
both of whom were natives of Harrisburg, Pcnn- 

sylvania. His father was a millwright and his 
work took him to various parts of the United 
States and Canada, and it wrs while his parents 
were thus absent from home by reason of the 
father's business engagements in Toronto that our 
subject was born. The Evans family traces its 
lineage back through several generations in Penn- 
sylvania, but came originally from Wales, the 
family having been established in this countn,- 
many years prior to the war of the Revolution. 
In June, 1841, Griffith Evans removed with his 
family to Aurora, Illinois, and here he aided in 
the construction of tlie Black Hawk, Montgomery 
and Eagle mills. Later he was foreman of the 
car shops of the Chicago. P>urlington & Quincy 
Railroad, in Aurora. He died suddenly, of heart 
disease, September 28, 1882, aged seventy-three 
years. His wife had preceded him into eternal 
rest, her death having occurred January 20, 1882. 
at which time she had attained the age of sixtv- 
iiinc years. They left a family of ton children, of 



whom the first four were born in Canada and the 
remaining six in Aurora. Colonel Evans was 
but five years of age when his parents took up 
their permanent abode in Aurora, and his life 
since that time has been consecutively passed in 
this place, with the welfare and substantial pros- 
perity of which he is unquestionably more closely 
identified than is any other one individual. As 
a child he had no special advantages; he went to 
the public schools and was reared in a manner 
similar to that which is characteristic of the train- 
ing and discipline of the average village boy. He 
had, however, the benefit of a good home train- 
ing and example, and these have left an indelible 
impress on his character: One of his most 
marked traits w^as his filial solicitude, and in 
1873 he induced his father to resign his position 
in the shop of the Chicago, Burlington & Ouincy 
Railroad, where he was engaged under the surety 
of a salary suiificient for all his needs. His con- 
tract with his son was faithfully carried out, and 
he was made the recipient of handsome and valu- 
able presents from his son. 

The first business venture made by young 
Evans was in a restaurant and the ice cream 
business, and this enterprise was conducted with 
a fair profit, until 1862, when his loyal nature was 
thoroughly aroused by the imperative needs of 
his country, and he enlisted as a member of the 
One Hundred and Twenty-fourth Regiment of 
Illinois Volunteers, serving until the close of the 
war. Our subject's first active military service 
was at Jackson, Tennessee, and he thereafter as- 
sisted in the siege and capture of Vicksburg, and 
after the capitulation of that city he was detached 
and assigned to hospital duty, his knowledge of 
the restaurant business making him a valuable as- 
sistant in the culinary department. Within the 
time of his military service he made a little money 
in two or three legitimate speculations, and when 
he was mustered out, in 1865, he returned to 
Aurora with this as a nucleus for what is now his 
ample fortune. 

On leaving the army ^Ir. Evans again engaged 
in the restaurant business, which he followed un- 
til 1873, when he effected the purchase of the Fitch 
House, which is now known as the Hotel Evans. 
This popular house he conducted for a few years, 
and then leased it. About this time Colonel 

Evans, with his usual foresight, began buying 
real estate in and about Aurora, and every in- 
vestment of this kind resulted in a decided profit. 
He has platted ten large additions to the city, 
and his successful handling of these properties 
developed in him a great capacity for other busi- 
ness enterprises, which have been of vital impor- 
tance in the building up of Aurora. He organ- 
ized and put in operation the first street railway 
in the town ; induced the Aurora, Joliet & North- 
ern Railway to run its line here, and secured the 
watch factory, the Rathbone, Sard & Company 
stove works and several other factories, all of 
which have large plants in Aurora, and give em- 
plovment to hundreds of individuals. In addi- 
tion to these enterprises Colonel Evans is con- 
nected with several others of equally vital impor- 
tance to the welfare of the city. He was president 
of the German-American National Bank of Auro- 
ra at the time of its organization, and is still one of 
its heavy stockholders, and holds the incumbency 
as vice-president and a member of its directory. 
He is also a director in the Aurora Gas Company. 
Colonel Evans has been largely instrumental in 
forming these corporations, and has done much 
to place the enterprises on a paying basis. He 
is the owner of the new additions to the city 
and is improving and developing them, 
having also erected a fine modern business block 
and an opera house which compares favor- 
ably with many in the large metropolitan 

In September, 1882, our subject organized the 
Aurora Street Railway Company, was elected its 
president, and two months later had five miles of 
track laid and the line in operation. He was 
also the founder of the Aurora, Joliet & Northern 
Railroad, having secured the most of the sub- 
scriptions to its capital stock, and superintended 
its construction. He not only had the road in 
running order in a short time, but made it finan- 
cially successful from the start. 

Industrious and successful as he has been in 
?11 of his undertakings, whether for the advance- 
ment of personal interests or the benefit of Au- 
rora, it is as a politician of a highly diplomatic 
order that he has won his greatest fame. His 
political career had its inception in 1876, when 
he was elected to the State legislature. In the 



same year he was elected to the Aurora city 
council from the ninth ward. In 1880 he was 
chosen to represent the district in the State sen- 
ate, and was re-elected in 1884, receiving each 
time a ver)- complimentar}' majority. Since then 
he has been in the senate continuously, and has 
done excellent service for his constituents and 
the State. It was through the efforts of Colonel 
Evans, while representative in 1877, that the 
Soldiers' Home at Quincy was established, and 
his fighting qualities were so typically manifested 
at that time that Governor Cullom appointed him 
on his staf?, and he has sen'cd all succeeding 
governors in a similar capacity. He was in- 
fluential, also, in securing the passage of the State 
militia and police pension bill, both of which 
measures have since received warm public in- 
dorsement, though only secured with sufficient 
votes to earn*-. The only real opposition ever 
developed against Colonel Evans was in 1890, 
v.hen a faction of his party, unable to defeat him 
for renoniination, sought to encompass his ul- 
timate defeat by nmning an independent candi- 
date at the polls. Colonel Evans was re-elected, 
however, by a good majority, and signalized his 
return to the senate by taking a radical stand 
against any compromise for the election of a 
United States senator. Neither the Republicans 
or Democrats had votes enough to elect a senator 
without winning over the Farmers' Alliance mem- 
bers. The last mentioned repeatedly offered to 
vote with the Republicans on certain conditions, 
but as often as any movement in this direction 
was detected Colonel Evans and three or four 
others who supported him defeated it by refus- 
ing to vote. The result was the election of the 
veteran statesman, Hon. John M. Palmer, the Al- 
liance members finally conceding him the votes. 
On being accused of thus helping to elect a Dem- 
ocrat, Colonel Evans said: "I prefer the elec- 
tion of an outspoken Democrat like Governor 
Palmer to that of any compromise man secured 
by a surrender of Republican principles by Re- 
publican members." His course has since been in- 
dorsed by the leading men of his party, who 
pronounce it to have been a wise and proper 
one. In 1888 our subject was seriously con- 
sidered as a candidate for governor, and but for 
his own protestations would have been nomi- 

Colonel Evans is a very liberal man in the 
matter of financial contributions to all deserving 
objects. He is not a church member, but no 
church edifice has been erected in Aurora with- 
out a generous subscription from him. He was 
one of the largest contributors to the fund for 
building the Soldiers' ^Memorial Hall and Library. 
In 1888, when the need for a new city hospital 
became imperative, he pledged himself to raise 
five thousand dollars for the purpose, and he ac- 
complished this, although at the time he was 
more than usually engrossed with political and 
business affairs. There is no man in Aurora who 
enjoys the confidence and respect of all classes 
of people to a greater extent than does Colonel 
Evans. He has not only been signally fortunate 
in all his ventures and free from errors in his offi- 
cial career, but there is a spirit of heartv good 
fellowship about him that has won him friends by 
the score. He is liberal and sympathetic to all in 
misfortune or distress, but never makes his bene- 
factions with ostentatious display. He is happy 
in his expressions, whether of condolence or con- 
gratulation, and shows in all his actions sound 
judgment and sterling common-sense. At the 
age of fifty-nine years (1895) he is a mental and 
physical giant. He stands six feet and two inches 
in height and is as erect, alert and vigorous as a 
man of twenty-five. He is not easily provoked 
to anger, but when occasion requires uses his 
great strength like an athlete, especially when 
defending the weak and those in need of phvsi- 
cal protection. The intellect of Colonel Evans 
is keen and virile and is continuously at work 
evolving some new project for adding to the 
material prosperity of Aurora. 

The marriage of our subject was solemnized in 
1858. when he was united to Miss Alice M. 
Rhodes, a native of Lancashire, England. They 
have one son. Arthur R. Evans, who is now in 
the employ of the United States Express Com- 
pany, as agent at Aurora. 

Colonel Evans is almost as well known in Chi- 
cago as he is in Aurora, and he has many warm 
friends among the representative business men 
of the Garden City, where he has also extensive 
financial interests. He was a director in the 
National Dank of the Republic, in Chicago, and is 
actively concerned in other financial and indus- 
trial enterprises. 





ISAAC FUNK was bom November 17, 1797, 
in Clark county, Kentucky. His ancestors 
were of German extraction, his grandfather, 
Adam Funk, having emigrated from Germany at 
an early day. His mother, whose maiden name 
was Sarah Moore, was also of German descent. 
Adam Funk, Jr., the father of Isaac, was raised in 
Mrginia, and was at one time quite wealthy ; but 
misfortunes came and he lost his property and 
died poor. Isaac Funk was one of nine children, 
si.x boys and three girls. Hie had very little 
schooling, but was prepared for the struggle of 
life by the roughest outdoor education, where 
his muscles were developed and practical good 
sense was brought into exercise. 

In the year 1823, Mr. Funk set out for Illinois, 
but did not arrive here until the following April, 
as he was detained by high water in the Wabash 
river. He first went to Sangamon county, but 
on the third of May he settled in Funk's Grove, 
in the present McLean county. Here he and 
his brother Absalom, who had accompanied him 
from Ohio, and Mr. William Brock, built a little 
pole shanty, twelve by fourteen feet, at the south- 
east side of the grove a short distance from the 
homestead of the Funk family, "Indian fashion," 
with no window and one door made of clap- 
boards. The Funks then went to breaking 
prairie and buying and selling catde. 

In June, 1826, Isaac Funk married Miss Cas- 
sandra Sharp, of Fort Clark (Peoria). This lady 
was born in Baltimore, Maryland. When she 
was only three years of age her father emigrated 
to Ohio, and sixteen years afterward to Fort 
Clark, Illinois, where, at the age of twenty-four, 
she became Mrs. Funk. The dowry which Mr. 
Funk obtained with his wife was a cow, a spin- 
ning-wheel and a bed; but he obtained with his 
wife something better than money; he found in 
her a noble-minded companion. She was an 
active, stirring woman, possessing the best of 
sense and discretion ; and perhaps it was in some 
measure due to her influence that Mr. Funk was 
afterward so remarkably successful. 

It is not easy for us to take our mind back to 

early days and to place the condition of things 
correctly in our imagination. We can only ob- 
tain some small idea by making comparisons and 
looking at particular things. It is said of Mr. 
Funk that he "did not own a wagon for seven 
years; went to mill near Springfield fifty miles, 
with oxen; took from ten to fourteen bushels of 
corn (no wheat then) part of the way with a 
cart and sled; and carried a plow thirty miles on 
a horse to get it sharpened! " 

The result of all this energy and industry was 
that Mr. Funk became worth at the time of his 
death a large fortune, estimated at not far from 
two millions of dollars. Perhaps some one will 
think that Mr. Funk must have kept a corps of 
clerks and bookkeepers to know where all his 
property was, and to keep the matter clearly in 
mind; but, on the contrary, he never kept a diary 
or even a memorandum book or a regular ac- 

In politics Mr. Funk was positive and decided 
in his views. He was a stanch Whig up to the year 
1854, when the Republican party was formed, and 
then he joined it and remained an honored mem- 
ber of that organization vmtil the day of his death. 
In 1840 he was elected to the legislature of the 
State, but no particular note is made of his con- 
nection with politics at that time. In 1862 he was 
elected to the State senate to fill the unexpired 
term of General Oglesby and at the expiration 
of his term was re-elected and remained a mem- 
ber until his death. It was in February, 1863, 
while he was in the State senate, that he made 
his celebrated speech in favor of an appropriation 
for the Sanitary Commission. The circum- 
stances under which the speech was made were 
these: The opponents of the war had a majority 
in the legislature and were determined to prevent 
the passage of an appropriation in aid of the 
Sanitary Commission. They tried to liinder the 
matter from coming to a vote by making all kinds 
of dilatory motions, and they also discussed the 
propriety of sending commissioners to a peace 
convention which was to meet at Louisville. All 
tliis aroused Mr. Funk's temper, and he made his 



knock-down speech, which was published im- 
mediately all over the country. The following is 
the speech as reported: 

"Mr. Speaker: I can sit in my seat no longer 
and see such boy's play going on. These men 
are trifling with the best interests of the country. 
They should have asses' ears to set of? their 
heads, or they are secessionists and traitors at 
heart. I say that there are traitors and secession- 
ists at heart in this senate. Their actions prove it. 
Their speeches prove it. Their gibes and laughter 
and cheers here nightly, when their speakers get 
up in this hall and denounce the war and the ad- 
ministration, prove it. 

"I can sit here no longer, and not tell these 
traitors what I think of them; and while so telling 
them, I am responsible myself for what I say. I 
stand upon my own bottom. I am ready to 
meet any man on this floor, in any manner, from 
a pin's point to the mouth of a cannon, upon this 
charge against these traitors! (Tremendous ap- 
plause from the galleries.) I am an old man of 
sixty-five. I came to Illinois a poor boy. I have 
made a little something for myself and family. I 
pay $3,000 a year taxes. I am willing to pay 
$6,000, aye $12,000. (Great cheering, the old 
gentleman bringing down his fist upon his desk 
with a blow that would knock down a bullock, 
and causing the inkstand to bound a half a dozen 
inches in the air.) Aye, I am willing to pay my 
whole fortune, and then give my life to save my 
country from these traitors that are seeking to 
destroy it. (Tremendous cheers and applause, 
which the speaker could not subdue.) 

"Mr. Speaker, you must please excuse me. I 
could not sit longer in my seat and calmly listen 
to these traitors. My heart that feels for my 
poor country would not let me. My heart that 
cries out for the lives of our brave volunteers in 
the field, that these traitors at home are destroying 
by thousands, would not let me. My heart that 
bleeds for the widows and orphans at home, 
would not let me. Yes, these villains and traitt^rs 
and secessionists in this senate (striking his 
clenched fist on the desk with a blow that made the 
house ring again) are killing my neighbors' boys, 
now fighting in the field. I dare to tell this to 
these traitors, to their faces, and that I am re- 
sponsible for what I say tu one or al! of them. 

(Cheers.) Let them come on, right here. I am 
sixty-five years old, and I have made up my mind 
to risk my life right here, on this floor, for my 

"These men sneered at Colonel Mack a day or 
two ago. He is a little man; but I am a large 
man. I am ready to meet any of them in place 
of Colonel Mack. I am large enough for them, 
and I hold myself ready for them now, and at 
any time. (Cheers from the galleries.) 

"Mr. Speaker, these traitors on this floor should 
be provided with hempen collars. They deserve 
them; they deserve them. They deserve hang- 
ing, I say (raising his voice and violently strik- 
ing his desk). The country will be better off to 
swing them up. I go for hanging them, and I 
dare to tell them so, right here, to their traitorous 
faces. Traitors should be hung. It would be 
the salvation of the country to hang them. For 
that reason I would rejoice at it. (Tremendous 

"Air. Speaker, I beg pardon of the gentlemen 
in the senate who are not traitors but true and 
loyal men, for what I have said. I only intend 
it and mean it for secessionists at heart. They 
are here in this senate. I see them joke and 
smirk and grin at a true Union man. But I defy 
tliem. I stand here ready for them and dare 
them to come on. (Great cheering.) What man 
w ith the heart of a patriot could stand this treason 
any longer? I have stood it long enough. I will 
stand it no longer. (Cheers.) I denounce these 
men and their aiders and abettors as rank traitors 
and secessionist^. Hell itself could not spew 
out a more traitorous crew tlian some of the men 
who disgrace this legislature, this State and this 
country. For myself, I protest against and de- 
nounce their treasonable acts. I have voted 
against their measures. I will do so to the end. 
I will denounce them as long as God gives me 
breath ; and I am ready to meet the traitors them- 
selves here or anywhere, and fight them to the 
death. (Prolonged cheers and shouts.) 

"I said I paid three thousand dollars a year 
taxes. I do not say it to brag of it It is my 
duty, — yes, Mr. Speaker, my privilege, — to do it. 
But some of these traitors here, who are working 
night and day to get their miserable little bills 
and claims through the legislature, to take money 



out of the pockets of the people, are talking about 
high taxes. They are hypocrites as well as 
traitors. I heard some of them talking about 
high taxes in this way, who do not pay five 
dollars to support the Government. I denounce 
them as hypocrites as well as traitors. (Cheers.) 
"The reason that they pretend to be afraid of 
high taxes is, that they do not want to vote money 
for the relief of the soldiers. They want also to 
embarrass the Government and stop the war. 
They want to aid the secessionists to conquer our 
boys in the field. They care about taxes? They 
are picayune men anyhow. They pay no taxes 
at all, and never did, and never hope to, unless 
they can manage to plunder the Government. 
(Cheers.) This is an excuse of traitors. 

"Mr. Speaker, excuse me. I feel for my 
country in this, her hour of danger; I feel for her 
from the tips of my toes to the ends of my hair. 
That is the reason I speak as I do. I cannot help 
it. I am bound to tell these men to their teeth 
what they are, and what the people, the true loyal 
people, think of them. 

"Air. Speaker, I have said my say. I am no 
speaker. This is the only speech I have made; 
and I do not know that it deserves to be called 
a speech. I could not sit still any longer, and 
see these scoundrels and traitors work out their 
selfish schemes to destroy the Union. They have 
my sentiments. Let them one and all make the 
most of them. I am ready to back up all I say, 
and I repeat it, to meet these traitors in any 
manner they may choose, from a pin's point to 
the mouth of a cannon." 

The legislature was sometimes a little more 
sharp than honest, and it is refreshing to hear the 
opinion of an honest farmer spoken boldly and 
fearlesslv, with regard to some of its acts and 
doings. The following is "Senator's Funk's pro- 
test against the bill providing for the payment of 
the salaries of the ofiticers in gold, delivered in 
the senate of the State, Januar>- 14, 1865:" ]\Ir. 
Funk said: 

"I would like to have an opportunity to make 
an inquiry, and then to explain my position."' 
Leave being given the honorable senator pro- 
ceeded as follows: "Was there a bill passed on 
Thursday last respecting the pay of members of 
the legislature being made in gold?'' 

The speaker: "Yes, sir." 

Mr. Funk: "These lawyers understand these 
awkward words, and can sift them out and arrange 
them and comprehend them better than I can. 
But I want to inquire whether it has ever been 
the practice for a member who does not have 
his vote recorded either for or against a measure, 
in consequence of his absence, to have that vote 
recorded, when it does not alter the result?" 

The speaker: "The senate cannot alter the 
vote, but he can have it recorded on the journal, 
if another will join him in requesting it.'' 

?\Ir. Funk: "I would like to have mine entered 
on the journal.'' 

Mr. Ward : "I second the request of the senator, 
and will join him, so that there maybe two names." 
Mr. Funk: "I am opposed to that measure. I 
oppose it on principle. I think that we were 
sent here to legislate; to set good examples; to 
correct errors and wrongs; to do justice to the 
community and to ourselves also. Now, if a law 
had been passed to pay all debts in gold, I would 
not say much about it; but when this honorable 
body passed a law to pay itself in gold, I think 
it is setting a very poor e.xample, — not but what 
they deserve more pay than they get, but what 
they get is no object to any member here, I am 
sure. The little, pitiful sum that any man gets 
who represents the State of Illinois in the gen- 
eral assembly, every one of us ought to disdain 
to stoop down and pick up in the road. Now, 
for my own part, I am willing to receive my pay 
as a senator just as they pay me at home for my 
cattle and hogs, my wheat and corn. My hired 
man I pay in common currency, and I do not 
think we are any better tlian the laboring man. 
I think that the labor of ourselves should be 
paid in the same kind of money that pays for 
other things. Now, if this becomes a lav/, it will 
come up from the hostler and the hired man in 
this State, and they will say to us, "Why, my 
dear sir, you voted yourselves pay in gold: vi'on't 
you give it to us?' What kind of a position will 
that be? I would rather go without a cent than 
have my pay in that way. I object to it on prin- 
ciple. I do not mean to insinuate anything 
against my man, but I do think that men have 
voted without thinking upon the evil conse- 
quences. Not but that there are men here who 

in^i^ ^IL jcM^c 



could tell as much in a few minutes as I expect 
to speak in all my life, but when I say Yes I 
mean Yes, and when I say No I mean No. It 
is the most outrageous thing I ever heard of, 
and I want it branded upon my forehead in let- 
ters as big as the moon, that I am against it, 
and shall ever be against it." 

It was not tmtil 1864. when Mr. Funk had be- 
come ver\- wealtliy, that he built his large house, 
the homestead of the family at Funk's Grove. 
He did not live long to enjoy it, and only slept 
ill it twice previous to his death. The circum- 
stances of his death are as follows: He came 
from his attendance at the legislature at Spring- 
field on Saturday, Januarj' 21, 1865, to his resi- 
dence at Funk's Grcve. On the following day 
his health seemed poor!;,' and on ^londay he 
came to Bloomington, where he was taken sick 
abed at the residence of his son, Duncan. His 
disease was erysipelas, and he was also affected 
with diphtheria. On Wednesday his wife came 
to see him and was taken sick the following 
day, because of anxiety for her husband. They 
both had all the care and attention which med- 
ical skill could give, but all was unavailing. j\Ir. 
Funk died at five o'clock on Sunday morning, 
the 29th day of January, 1865, and Airs. Funk 
died at about nine o'clock! They were both 
buried at Funk's Grove, in a burying ground, 
beside Air. Funk's father. 

Mr. Funk was about five feet ten and one- 
half inches in height and weighed about two hun- 
dred pounds. He had keen, black eyes, which 
were expressive, especially when aroused. His 

hair was jet black and curly, but had become 
gray at the time of his death. His nose was rather 
prominent and somewhat Roman. His forehead 
was full but retreating, showing a ver\' practical 
turn of mind. He was very quick and loud- 
spoken and was exceedingly independent. He 
had a great deal of push and drive about him; 
indeed, his energy' was wonderful. He was very 
quick-tempered, but his anger did not last long. 
He was good-humored and appreciated a joke 
as well as anyone. He was very accommodating 
as a neighbor, but would not stand an imposi- 
lion from anyone. He loved his brothers and his 
family, all of his relatives; and indeed the family 
has always been remarkable for the entire ab- 
sence of any quarrelsome disposition. 

Isaac Funk never made any will. At his death 
his property' was divided by his children among 
tliem selves, without any difficulty and without 
any administration or tlie intervention of any 
outside parties. A remarkable fact in connec- 
tion with Isaac Funk's estate is that although it 
had been distributed amongst the several heirs, 
so well have they cared for their shares that 
none of them has permitted his portion to 
depreciate in value, and to-day, thirty years 
after the death of Isaac Funk, the estate he left 
is virtually intact and has increased largely in 

Since the death of Mr. Funk his family have 
snbscril^ed ten thousand dollars to endow the 
Isaac Funk Professorship of Agriculture at die 
Wesleyan University, which is a fine testimonial 
to the worth of their father. 



JUDGE JOHN M. SCOTT, the subject of tliis 
sketch, was born in August, 1824, in the 
county of St. Clair, Illinois, and has the dis- 
tinction of being the first native citizen to become 
a member of the supreme court of Illinois. His 
ancestry in the paternal line were Scotch-Irish, 
in which fact he takes great pride, being a constant 
attendant of the sessions of the Scotch-Irish Con- 
gress and one of the vice-presidents of the society. 

He has many of the characteristics of that sturdy, 
fearless and talented race of men. His mother's 
maiden name was Nancy Biggs, a daughter of 
Judge William Biggs, of Virginia, who emi- 
grated to Illinois at a ven*- early day, and was 
identified with the first settlement of the State. 
His mother, as a child, passed through that fear- 
ful ordeal incident to the struggle between civiliza- 
tion and barbarism as manifested in the massacres 



and wars between the Indian and white man. 
Educated in that school of suffering and danger, 
in common with her many other good qualities of 
head and heart, she became a woman of heroic 
mold and well worthy to perform the delicate 
trust of training children in a courageous dis- 
charge of duty. His father was in comfortable 
circumstances, and afforded his son all the facili- 
ties incident to a new country for procuring an 

Having, in connection with his attendance at 
school, availed himself of the advantages of 
private tuition, he acquired an accurate knowledge 
of the English branches, besides a fair knowledge 
of Latin and the higher mathematics. The bar 
at Belleville in the early history of the country 
was the ablest in the State, and well calculated to 
fascinate the mind of a young man with the pro- 
fession of the law; and that, in connection with 
a natural taste for the bar, induced him to read 
law, in the office of Messrs. Kinney & Bissell, 
then among the most accomplished lawyers in the 
West. Like many others who have acquired dis- 
tinction at the bar and on the bench, as prelimi- 
nary to his career as a lawyer, he devoted some 
time to the profession of school-teaching. He 
studied the elementary books of the law with 
industry and diligence, and thereby acquired a 
knowledge of legal philosophy which, through his 
life both as a lawyer and judge, fitted him to deal 
with the law as a science and not as a mere aggre- 
gation of arbitrary rules. Upon his admission 
to the bar in 1848 he removed to McLean cotmty, 
where for more than forty years he has resided, 
discharging during that time some of the highest 
functions of a citizen of the State. At the time 
he became identified with the McLean county bar, 
lawyers of distinction were among its members. 
Judge Davis and General Gridley were of the 
local bar, and Abraham Lincoln and John T. 
Stuart were among the non-resident attorneys 
who attended the courts. While Judge Scott had 
every qualification for a successful trial lawyer, 
like his illustrious predecessor on the bench of 
the circuit court. Judge Davis, he had a peculiar 
aptitude for the higher function of judge, and 
from his admission to the profession the taste of 
his ambition inclined to the bench. He had but 
little trouble in securing his share of business, and 

was not subject to that anxious solicitude which 
often intervenes between coming to the bar and 
coming to a practice. 

In 1849 he was elected school commissioner, 
and served in that office until 1852, superintend- 
ing the educational interests of the county and 
distributing the money of the school fund. In 
the winter of 1852 he was elected to the respon- 
sible position of judge of the county court, which 
at that time not only had within its jurisdiction 
probate matters but also all the public business of 
the county. In addition to his official duties and 
general practice he was the attorney of Blooming- 
ton, recently organized as a city. From boy- 
hood the judge was a great admirer of Mr. 
Webster, and as a result of that predilection when 
he came to the years of manhood he was a Whig 
and continued an ardent supporter of that party 
until its dissolution in 1852. Upon the formation 
of the Republican party he became a Republican 
when that party was struggling for an existence 
as a political organization. In 1856 he was nomi- 
nated on the Republican ticket for the State 
senate, and made a most vigorous and able can- 
vass for the defense of Republican principles in 
a district largely Democratic in sentiment; and al- 
though defeated he reduced the majority to a 
point highly complimentary to himself. In this 
campaign he and Mr. Lincoln often addressed the 
same audiences, and between them there was the 
most cordial personal and political relations. 

In the first years of the Judge's practice his 
clearness of thought, accurate knowledge of the 
law, services as county judge and his dignity of 
character directed the attention of the people and 
the bar to him as having the qualifications for 
higher judicial duty; so that in the year 1862, 
when Judge Davis became a member of the 
supreme court of the United States, Judge Scott 
was selected as his successor by a unanimity of 
sentiment of both the bar and the people. He 
did not, in the administration of his office as 
judge of the circuit court, disappoint the expecta- 
tions of his most sanguine friends, and at the 
end of the unexpired term of Judge Davis he was 
re-elected without opposition. He held the circuit 
ccLirt in the eighth district, during the most 
troublous times of the Civil war, and was called 
upon in the discharge of his duties to repress the 



violence of both sides, which he did with a fear- 
lessness and courage worthy of the best age of the 

In the year 1870 a constitutional convention was 
held, and on the 2d of July, that year, the con- 
stitution formed by that body was adopted, which 
made it necessar}- to elect additional members of 
the supreme court. The district of which ]\IcLean 
county formed a part was entitled to one of the 
new judges and embraced within its limits the 
central portion of the State, commencing at Taze- 
well on the northwest and running to Edgar on 
the southeast. Embracing as it did Sangamon 
and other large and populous coimties of the 
State, it necessarily had some of the leading mem- 
bers of the profession. When it was known that 
there would be an increase in the membership of 
the supreme court, the public mind was directed 
to Judge Scott as well worthy of the exalted posi- 
tion. This was especially so among the lawyers 
of the district; and in June, 1870, a convention 
of the bar was held, and although some of the 
leading jurists of the district and State were can- 
didates. Judge Scott was chosen by the conven- 
tion, and in July, 1870, he was elected a judge of 
the supreme court for the term of nine years. 

At the time he became a member of that court 
many questions of importance to the prosperity of 
the State and people were pending in the supreme 
and circuit courts incident to the extraordinar\- 
development of the railroad interest in the North- 
west; and Chicago, with its complex and diversi- 
fied character, its extraordinary' and sudden 
growth, and its many schemes of speculation and 
trade, made the supreme court of Illinois one of 
the most important courts of the United States. 
Outside of the State of New York, it may be safely 
assumed that for importance of litigation, and 
questions of difficult solution, no other in the 
Union presented a field more fruitful in legal con- 
tention than the State of Illinois. At the time 
Judge Scott became a member of the court he was 
in the prime and vigor of his life, and had ac- 
quired at the bar and on the bench a capacity for 
legal information which fitted him to deal in- 
telligently and ably with all the questions which 
came before the court. He has been identified 
with the judicial history of the State for a period 
of nearly forty years, as a lawyer, county, circuit 

and supreme judge. His name first appears in 
the 3d volume of Oilman's Reports as a practic- 
ing attorney, and his opinions extend from the 
54th to the 126th volume of Reports as a judge 
of the supreme court. At the end of his first term 
as a justice of the supreme court, he was elected, 
in Tune, 1879, by a very large majority over one of 
the most accomplished lawyers of the State. His 
second term expired in June, 1888, when he de- 
clined a re-election, having ser\'ed for a period of 
eighteen years with marked ability, and to the 
cm ire satisfaction of the people and the bar of 
the whole State. 

During those eighteen years he served as chief 
justice three terms, and is the first native bom 
citizen of Illinois who held that responsible and 
dignified position. During the eighteen years 
which he held the office of a justice of the 
supreme court, the litigation was larger, more 
complicated and important than in the fifty-two 
years which intervened from the admission of the 
State to the year 1870. The legal controversies of 
the citizens had changed from the simple ques- 
tions of law, which were the subjects of judicial 
discussion and determination in the early history 
of the State, to questions more abstruse and diffi- 
cult, depending upon more enlarged, involved 
and complex conditions of fact. The lawsuit of 
1870 and that of 1820 in the supreme court of the 
State were very different as legal controversies. 
In later years immense records had to be ex- 
amined and digested in order to present the whole 
case and fully develop the real issue to be de- 

In the power to master a voluminous record, 
and to eliminate the immaterial matter of a legal 
proceeding, Judge Scott has great ability, as 
shown in his numerous opinions upon almost 
every conceivable subject of human contention. 
.\ supreme court of the State is much more diver- 
sified in its jurisdiction than the supreme court of 
the United States, for the reason that it is the 
court of final jurisdiction for almost ever\' wrong 
which can be connnitted and for every right which 
can be protected. Subject to the limited jurisdic- 
tion of the supreme court of the United States, it 
is the court of final resort which settles, by the 
authority of law, the many contentions and dis- 
putes incident to men as they form human society. 



During his tenn of service the labors of the court 
extended through seventy-three vokunes of re- 
ports, so tliat it may be safely assumed that his 
contribution to the body of judicial law of Illinois 
is as large and important as any member of the 
supreme court at any period in the history of the 
State. His services in the supreme court covered 
a period which may be called formative as to some 
of the more material interests of the State, and 
from which important litigation originated, as the 
park systems of Chicago, the railroad and ware- 
house commission, the modified special assess- 
ment methods, and the many questions of corpo- 
ration law growing out of, and dependent upon, 
the adoption of the new constitution. 

The protection of the life and liberty of the 
citizen is the most important and delicate trust 
committed to the jurisdiction of a court; and one 
of the leading opinions of the court on that sub- 
ject was written by Judge Scott in the case of 
Ker vs. The People of the State of Illinois, re- 
ported in the iioth volume. The question pre- 
.'■ented by the record was one new and novel, and 
called for the highest and best resources of judicial 
reasoning in the determination of legal questions 
made by the facts. The defendant, Ker, com- 
mitted the crime of embezzlement and larceny in 
Chicago, as the cashier of a bank, and fled to 
Peru, at the time that country was in military 
pC'iSsession of the Chileans, and it was practically 
impossible to proceed under the treaty for his 
return. Owing to the condition of the country, 
the defendant was taken by force, placed on board 
a United States ship-of-war and brought back to 
the United States. When he was arraigned in 
the criminal court of Chicago, he pleaded in de- 
fense the illegality of his arrest and extradition. 
The court below sustained a demurrer to the plea, 
and the case, upon the correctness of that decision, 
was appealed to the supreme court. The court, 
in a very able opinion delivered by Judge Scott, 
sustained the decision of the criminal court, and 
from that decision an appeal was taken to the 
supreme court of the United States. The State 
court said: "A fugitive from justice has no asylum 
in a foreign country when he is guilty of an 
offense for which he is liable or subject to ex- 
tradition by treaty between this and the foreign 
country. If he is illegally and forcibly removed 

from such foreign country, that country alone has 
the cause of complaint, and he cannot complain 
for it." In the decision of the supreme court of 
the United States it is said: "The treaties -of ex- 
tradition to which the United States are parties 
do not guarantee a fugitive from justice from one 
of the countries an asylum in the other. They 
do not give such person any greater or more 
sacred right of asylum than he had before." It 
will be seen that the line of argument pursued by 
Judge Scott in the supreme court of Illinois was, 
in substance, followed by the supreme court of 
the United States; and by a series of uniform 
judicial determinations, the law upon an im- 
portant question of individual liberty and inter- 
national right was settled as far as it can be 
settled by the decisions of the highest courts of 
one nation. 

In the case of Lenfers vs. Henkle (73d Illinois 
Reports) the supreme court of Illinois was called 
upon to decide a question which, up to the time of 
the decision, had never been passed upon by any 
court either in England or the United States. 
The controversy relates to the dower interest of 
a widow in the mineral or mining lands of the 
husband. Judge Scott delivered the opinion of 
the court on the question involved in a remark- 
ably clear, original, and well-reasoned argument, 
showing his ability to deal with questions upon 
the broad ground of original thought, unaided 
by express authority. During his term of service 
in the supreme court he wrote many opinions 
upon the subject of municipal taxation and the 
law of real-estate property growing out of the 
great yalue of land in Chicago; but the compass 
of this article will not permit special reference to 
them. They will stand as limitations to, and quali- 
fications upon, municipal authority and the law 
of realty throughout the entire history of that 
State which has to deal with the most remarkable 
municipal corporation tliat has ever appeared in 
the history of time. 

The Judge has great respect for the dignity of 
judicial place and power, and no man ever pre- 
sided in a court with more respect for his environ- 
ments than did Judge Scott. As a result of that 
personal characteristic the proceedings were al- 
ways orderly upon the part of every one — au- 
dience, bar, and the officers from the highest to 



the lowest His opinions are fine specimens of 
judicial thought, always clear, logical, and as 
brief as the character of the case will permit. He 
never enlarged beyond the necessities of the legal 
thought in order to indulge in the drapery of 

His mind during the entire period of his course 
at the bar and on the bench had been directed 
in the line of his profession and his duty, and as 
a result he has not given much time to specula- 
tion and money-making. But by the judicious in- 
vestments of the reward of his toil, he is now 
in independent and prosperous circumstances. 

He is the owner of many fine farms in the 
vicinity of Bloomington, and to the care of these 
he devotes considerable attention, renting them 
to good tenants at not more than one-half the 
ordinary rent of other farms of like improvements 
and situation. He takes great delight in the 
success and welfare of his tenants, and as an in- 
ducement to them for their toil he gives them 
the lowest rent he can afford. 

During his term of service as county judge, in 
the year 1853, he was married to Miss Charlotte 
A. Perry, daughter of Rev. David J. Perry, of 
Bloomington. His marriage was most happy. 
Mrs. Scott is a lady of culture and refinement, and 
enjoys with grace and without ostentation the 
assured place given her by the public ser^'ice and 
life of her husband. They have had two children. 

who died in their infancy, but have an adopted 
daughter, to whom they are devoted in the most 
fervent attachment. 

The Judge is of fine literary taste, and as a result 
of that inclination he has one of the choicest 
libraries in central Illinois, abounding in books of 
standard quality and highest excellence of author- 
ship. His tastes are simple, but refined and deli- 
cate, and whatever he has is of the best quality. 
Since his retirement from the bench his time has 
been devoted to looking after his private interests 
and in the enjoyment of his home and libran,-. 
Conspicuous among the many good traits of his 
character, is his fearless devotion to whatever he 
thinks comes within the pale of public or private 
duty. He has moral courage fit for any emer- 
gency, and although he has always been a pro- 
nounced Republican he is without partisan prej- 
udice, and in his candidacy he has been sup- 
ported with enthusiasm by many leaders of the 
opposition. He is now, as he has been for many 
years, a devoted member of the Presb}i;erian 
Church and a constant attendant upon its minis- 
trations. His judicial term, extending through 
twenty-six years of uninterrupted success, is an 
honor to the State, and his character as a man is 
well worthy the admiration of the whole people. 

The biography of Judge Scott as it appears 
herein is copied from volume i of the Encyclo- 
pedia of Biography of Illinois. 



FEW men are more prominent or more widely 
known in the enterprising city of Aurora 
than William George. He has been an impor- 
tant factor in business circles and his popularity 
is well deserved, as in him are embraced the 
characteristics of an unbending integrity, unabat- 
ing energy and industry that never flags. He is 
public-spirited and thoroughly interested in what- 
ever tends to promote the moral, intellectual and 
material welfare of Aurora. 

Mr. George was born in Aurora, September 
23, 1861, and is a son of Hon. Alonzo George, 
deceased, one of the most prominent and dis- 

tinguished residents of this city. His early child- 
hood days were spent in his parents' home, and 
he received the best possible educational ad- 
vantages that money could obtain or the commu- 
nity could provide. He entered the primarj- de- 
partment of the West Aurora schools, passed 
through the successive higher grades and was 
graduated at the West Aurora high school in the 
class of 1879. Subsequently he entered the State 
University of Iowa, at Iowa City, and upon com- 
pleting his studies there he attended the Union 
College of Law at Chicago, where he was grad- 
uated with honor in the class of 1885. 



Immediately returning to Aurora, he entered 
the law office of Hopkins, Aldrich & Thatcher, 
in which he remained until October, 1887, when 
he began the practice of his profession alone. On 
the first of Januan,-, 1894, he formed a partner- 
ship with F. D. Winslow, which continued till 
September 16, 1895, when the law firm of Hop- 
kins, Aldrich & Thatcher was dissolved and Mr. 
Nathan J. Aldrich united with Winslow & George, 
forming the firm of Aldrich, Winslow & 
George. His large financial interests prevent his 
giving much time to his law practice, which how- 
ever is very important and extensive. He en- 
gages in general practice, but pays special atten- 
tion to corporation law, for which he is particularly 
well qualified. In him are combined an intimate 
knowledge of fundamental and statute law, natu- 
ral sagacity and constant scrupulous care, which 
methods have made his professional career one of 
success. His thorough knowledge of corpora- 
tion law is recognized wherever he is known, and 
his profesisonal services and advice are in con- 
stant demand as he possesses rare powers of or- 
ganization. In carrying on the important work 
that his father began, he is perhaps best known 
in his native city. 

In 1891 he began taking charge of his fathers 
business as the second vice-president of the Old 
Second National Bank. At the time of his fath- 
er's retirement from the presidency, which he had 
held for nearly a quarter of a century, William 
George entered upon the duties of that important 
position. This was in January, 1895, and his suc- 
cessful management of its afifairs makes it a veni' 
profitable institution as well as one of the solid 
financial concerns of this section of the state. No 
special branch of business or any particular inter- 
est has any claim on this institution, and his 
policy is to cater to all regular legitimate inter- 
ests though it is essentially a bank for business 

men. The new president welcomes all depositors, 
though they have but a few dollars to deposit 
now and then, and is earnest in his endeavor to 
cultivate and encourage the spirit of economy 
and saving among the working men of Aurora. 
This safe and solid basis of transacting business 
raises the Old Second National Bank of Aurora 
above all fear of financial panic or depressions in 

In addition to his professional and financial 
interests, Mr. George is a director in the Aurora 
Cotton Mills, the Aurora Silver Plate Manufac- 
turing Company, director and treasurer in the 
North Aurora Mill Company, attorney and direc- 
tor in the Fox River Valley Building and Loan 
Association, director in the Hercules Ice Jilachine 
Company, director in the Aurora Pure Ice Company 
and president of the Aurora Lumber Company. 

He is a man of broad capabilities, as his varied 
and extensive business interests indicate. He is 
at all times approachable and patiently listens to 
whatever a caller may have to say, always cour- 
teous and at all times a gentleman in the truest and 
best sense of the term. He cares not for noto- 
riety, nor is there about him the least shadow of 
mock modesty. He is a gentleman of fine ad- 
dress and thorough culture, occupying a first 
place in society as well as in the commercial cir- 
cles of northern Illinois. Mr. George usually ad- 
vocates the principles of the Republican party, 
but is independent in his voting and cares noth- 
ing for political preferment. 

At all times Mr. George is devoted to the wel- 
fare and interests of his family, and it seems that 
he cannot do too much to promote the happiness 
of his wife and daughter. On the nth of Octo- 
ber, 1887, he was united in marriage with Miss 
Alice Maude Lounsbury, daughter of Rev. E. W. 
Lounsbury, D. D., of Dayton, Ohio. They have 
one child — Alice May. 

<,'-^*^l -v 

^•^ ''Ay^z^Ci^' 





ALFRED :\IILES JONES is a native of 
the Granite State, liaving been born at 
New Durham, New Hampshire, February 5, 
1837. His father, Alfred S. Jones, was a 
sturdy type of the New England farmer, whose 
wife Rebecca was a member of the old Miles 
family of Connecticut. Alfred M. was their 
eldest child. Ten years after our subject's 
birth, his pareaits moved westward and lo- 
cated at Hebron, McHenry county, Illinois, 
and resumed their farming operations. Al- 
fred remained with his parents till he was sixteen 
years old, then struck out for himself and went 
to the Michigan pineries, remained there for a 
time and then spent a year in rafting on the Mis- 
sissippi. He saved some money out of this 
venture and went to Rockford, Illinois, and at- 
tended for two winters the institute there, kept 
by H. P. Kimball, graduating in 1856. After 
this he returned to Hebron, working on his fath- 
er's farm in the summer and teaching school 
during the winter. 

After he had resided there for a short time his 
father disposed of his interests and moved to 
W'arren in Jo Daviess county and here, in 1857, 
our subject started in for himself in the book and 
jewelr}' business. In the following year th.e 
panic staggered the country, and Mr. Jones sold 
his stock of goods, which invoiced thirtv dollars, 
and, being dependent on his own exertions, was 
forced to seek his livelihood in another direction. 
He decided to go to the Pike's Peak country, 
then in the zenith of its fame, and in company 
with a friend, George HeafTord, left Warren and 
traveled by rail to St. Joseph, Missouri; at that 
point they crossed the river and met two Ger- 
mans in the town of Ehvood, who had two wheel- 
barrows. They bought one. and Mr. Jones, 
who was the stronger of the two, got a surcingle, 
put it over his shoulders, strapped the ends to 
the handles of the wheelbarrow, and thus wheel- 
ing it made the entire journey to their destination, 
— a trip that occupied twenty days. After the 
first day there Wr. Jones left his partner. He 
remained for a short time, but, being disap- 

pointed in the prospects, decided to return 
East, and set out on foot for Kearney, 
Nebraska, five hundred and fifty-five miles dis- 
tant, which distance he covered in ten consecu- 
tive days, passing everything on the road except 
the pony express! 

Upon arriving at Warren, Mr. Jones, after 
resting but a day from his fatiguing trip, went to 
work laying sidewalks, for one dollar and twenty- 
five cents a day. From that day to this he has 
ever been busy, actively engaged in work of 
some sort. He was then employed in the sale 
of farm niachinen,', and this he continued for 
about five years. Giving that up, he engaged 
in the law and real-estate business. 

Shortly after his return home he was appointed 
constable, later he held the position of deputy 
sherifif and coroner, and was for eight years chair- 
man of the Republican county central committee. 
He was elected to the lower house of the Illinois 
legislature and served during the sessions of 
1872-73-74. and in the latter session was his 
party's leader in the house. It was at this tin:e 
that he received the name of "Long" Jones, un- 
der which title he is known to almost ever^-bodv. 
It was given him to distinguish him from Mr. 
Jones, of Massac county, a member of the assem- 
bly at the same time; and as A. M. Jones is over 
six feet in height it stuck to him, and he has 
ever since been known as "Long" Jones. 

After his term of service in the legislature ex- 
pired he was appointed one of the Joliet peni- 
tentiary commissioners, and was for three years 
and six months secretary of the board. He was 
then appointed by President Hayes collector of 
internal revenue at Sterling, Illinois, and later 
President Garfield appointed him L^nited States 
marshal of the Northern District of Illinois, with 
headquarters at Chicago. He continued in this 
office until June 30, 1S85. During that time he was 
a member of the Republican State central com- 
mittee, and for twelve years of the fourteen that 
he was a member he filled the position of chair- 
man. One of the triumphs of which Mr. Jones 
and his friends are justifiably proud is that he 



was cliairman of the State central committee in 
the year 1878, that brought about the election 
of General John A. Logan to the United States 
Senate; and for this sen-ice he was presented by 
his admirers with a handsome silver ser\dce as a 
token of their appreciation. The last two times 
that General Logan was elected to the senate, 
Mr. Jones, who was his warm personal friend, 
had charge of the campaign, successfully accom- 
plishing, as he always did, wdiat he strove for. 

In 1892, at the Republican national conven- 
tion in JNlinneapolis, he had charge of President 
Harrison's forces, with the result, as is well re- 
membered, that that gentleman was renomi- 
nated to the highest office in the gift of the peo- 
ple. It was on that occasion that Mr. Jones was 
the recipient of a handsome cane from the mem- 
bers of the "low-water-mark" committee of 
which he was chairman. 

On the first day of July, 1S85, Mr. Jones took 
charge as manager of the noted Bethesda min- 
eral springs at Waukesha, which up to that time 
had not proved a paying investment. Lender his 
management it was soon "on its feet." Li 1888 
he became president of the company, as well as 
its manager. These offices he still holds, and 
the affairs of the company are in a most flour- 
ishing condition. I\Ir. Jones has been a grad- 
ual purchaser of the stock of the Bethesda com- 
pany, and now holds about seventy-five per cent, 
of its issue. He was instrumental in organizing 
the Waukesha Reach Electric Railway Company, 
which is capitalized for seventy-five thousand 
dollars, and he was elected president of tlie cor- 
poration at its organization. The company has 
constructed a line of electric railway extending 
from Waukesha to Pewaukee lake, a distance of 
five miles. After accepting the presidencv of 
tile above corporation he decided that, as his 
business enterprises were so extensive as to re- 
quire his home there, he would make that city 
his place of permanent residence; and accord- 
ingly, in the spring of 1894, not without regrets, 
he left his residence in Illinois and moved his 
family to Waukesna, wiiere he has planned a 
magnificent dwelling which he hopes to enter 
next year. The handsome Terrace Hotel, lo- 
cated just across the street from Bethesda Park, 
is owned by him. 

On October 13, 1857, 'Mr. Jones was united 
in matrimony with Miss Emeline A. Wright, a 
native of New York State, and they have two 
children: Alfred Wirt, secretary of the Bethesda; 
and Ernie, now ]\Irs. J. L. Robinson. 

Mr. Jones is a member of the Baptist Church 
and a liberal contributor to its support; and he 
is also a member of the Masonic fraternitv^ 

It seems appropriate at this point to say a word 
or tw'o regarding the Bethesda Spring. Its fame 
is so widespread that mention of it can with pro- 
priety be made even in a work devoted ex- 
clusively to biography, and especially so as the 
biography of its president would be incomplete 
without it. 

There is but one other spring in the world so 
well known as the Bethesda, and that is the Carls- 
Iiad of Bohemia. To Colonel Richard Dunbar 
is due the credit of the discovery of the definite 
therapeutic properties of the Bethesda Spring, 
although for years previous to 1868, the date of 
Colonel Dunbar's discovery, the Indians had 
drank of its waters with marked benefit. Colonel 
Dunbar, who was by occupation a railroad con- 
tractor, and had spent many years in South Amer- 
ica, was considered a hopeless invalid, sufTering 
from a supposed incurable case of diabetes. His 
wife's mother, Mrs. William Clarke, a resident 
of Waukeshn, was fatally ill at that village, and 
Colonel Dunbar and his wife were summoned 
to her bedside. The former was in a most de- 
spondent frame of mind, for the most noted 
physicians of the time had told him he had but 
a few months to live. His skin was like parch- 
ment, and no perspiration had come from its 
pores for months. On the 9th day of August, 
1868, he was taken out for a drive, and upon 
passing the spring the Colonel, who was always 
thirst}-, requested a cup of water, which was 
given him, — in fact he drank nine cupfuls. Al- 
most immediately he began to perspire. Upon 
arriving home he w-as put to bed and fell asleep, — 
the first sleep he had obtained for a long time. 
Upon awakening he called for more water, and 
he continued to drink it whenever thirsty. From 
this time his recovery was rapid, and he lived 
for a long time afterward, and purchased an in- 
terest in the spring that prolonged his life. 

In the fall of 1868 the water was first sold for 



medicinal purposes, and ever since that time it 
has been on the market. The business of bot- 
tHng and selling in large quantities was begun 
in 1878. It is now consumed in all parts of the 
United States and in many European and Cana- 
dian cities. During 1892 over one million bot- 
tles of the water were sold and the business is 
steadily increasing. The greatest care is taken 
that the consumers get the water in a pure and 
unadulterated state, and it is sold in bottles only, 
and bottled only at the springs with a sealed 
label over the cork. The supply is unlimited, 
and its efficacy is attested to, over their own sig- 
natures, by some of the most eminent physi- 
cians and citizens of our country, such as Vice- 
President Stevenson, ex-Secretary Rusk, ex-Sec- 
retary Foster, ex-Governor Foraker, Director 
General George R. Davis, President T. \\'. 
Palmer, United States Judge Jenkins, Dr. Slirady 
and others by the score. 

Bethesda Park, in which the spring is located, 
is the most beautiful spot in Waukesha, as well 
as the most popular with the thousands of vis- 
itors to that noted resort. A handsome pavilion 
has been erected over the spring, and this is 

thronged continuously with young and old to 
drink the sparkling waters. During the sum- 
mer season, band concerts form an attractive 
feature of enjoyment, while tennis courts, cro- 
quet gioun^ls, a row on Fox river, or a stroll 
among the grand trees of the park offer amuse- 
ment for those inclined to avail themselves thereof. 
All the attendants are uniformed in neat blue, 
with the word "Bethesda" in gilt letters on their 
caps, and an air of neatness and prosperit)' per- 
vades everything connected with Bethesda. 

Within a hundred miles of Chicago, and less 
tlian twenty from Milwaukee, residents of those 
cities are always present in large numbers, while 
as a resort for Southerners it already rivals the 
reputation held by Saratoga in the days before the 

Mr. Jones has been the leading spirit in the 
advancement of Bethesda. His has been the 
mind to conceive and direct and the hand to exe- 
cute all of its many improvements, with the re- 
sult that he has placed Bethesda water within the 
reach of all, and has made Bethesda Park one 
of the greatest and best known summer resorts 
in the countr\-. 


E\'ERYWHERE in our land are found men 
who have worked their own way from 
humble beginnings to leadership in the commerce, 
the great productive industries, the management 
of financial affairs, and in controlling the veins 
and arteries of the traffic and exchanges of the 
country. It is one of the glories of our nation 
that it is so. It should be the strongest incentive 
and encouragement to the youth of the country 
that it is so. 

Prominent among the self-made men of Illi- 
nois is the subject of this sketch, — a man hon- 
ored, respected and esteemed wherever known, 
and most of all where he is best known. James 
Millikin was bom in \\'ashington county, Penn- 
sylvania, August 2, 1830. His father, Abel Mil- 
likin, a prosperous farmer, was of Scotch-Amer- 
ican ancestry, his forefathers having emigrated 

from Scotland and settled in Pennsylvania in the 
middle of the eighteenth century. Other branches 
of the ]Millikin family settled in Elaine and in 
the .South, — Alillikin's Bend on the Mississippi 
river having obtained its name from some mem- 
ber of the family. Nancy (Van Dyke) Millikin, 
mother of our subject, was of Dutch ancestrj-. 
Her ancestors w-ere among the early Knicker- 
bocker settlers along the Hudson river. Her 
immediate progenitors were natives of Xew 

The boyhood days of James Millikin were 
uneventful. He attended the district school 
and later for some three years was a student 
in the Washington (Pennsylvania) College, an 
institution which at that time had few if any su- 
periors. There he was enabled to obtain a knowl- 
edge of certain subjects that have been a con- 



stant source of pleasure to him in later years 
and which have had a powerful influence in shap- 
ing his career. 

Several members of Mr. Millikin's family 
were practicing physicians,— three uncles and 
an elder brother being members of that profes- 
sion, — and although nothing positive had been 
decided upon, it was almost assured that when 
James should reach the proper age he should 
follow in the paths of his relatives and become 
a doctor of medicine. The study of medicine 
had but little attraction for him, and he deter- 
mined to exert himself in a different direction. In 
1848 he came West to Illinois, locating at first 
in Danville, \'ermillion county, where he engaged 
in the live-stuck business, purchasing, raising 
anil trading in stock of all kinds. In this, his 
first venture, he showed remarkable business 
adaptability, and transacted a large and lucra- 
tive business. He rented farms which he 
operated to raise live stock, and he extended 
his business in several directions. He was suc- 
cessful and soon found himself upon the road to 

The tide of immigration was then moving west- 
ward with great force, and to his observing mind 
were shown great possibilities for the increase 
of the value of farm lands. Consequently he be- 
gan to obtain possession of wikl lands, entering 
some and purchasing others until he owned 
large tracts of land in Illinois and still larger in 
southwestern Iowa. Much of this land cost him 
from one dollar to one dollar and twenty-five cents 
]icr acre. He entered the land on which the 
town of Bement is located. As the territory 
west of Danville became more thickly populated, 
new towns sprang into existence. Mr. Millikin 
decided that Decatur had better natural advan- 
tages than Danville, and in 1856 he journeyed 
thither and since then has made this city his 
home. In Decatur he continued to deal in lands, 
real estate and live stock, and soon established 
himself among the progressive men of the pro- 
gressive little city. 

In 1 860 he organized the private banking house 
of J. 'Millikin & Company, and at once entered 
upon a successful career as a banker. The few 
years that he had passed among the citizens of 
Decatur had demonstrated the fact that he was 

a man to be trusted, and when he established 
the bank his patronage was large from the start. 
For thirty-five years the banking house of J. jSIil- 
likin & Company has been in existence, and 
during that entire time the confidence of the 
public therein has never been shaken, and it has 
become one of the largest financial institutions 
in the State outside of Chicago, and probably 
the largest private banking establishment in 
Illinois. During all the years of the exist- 
ence of the bank of J- Millikin & Company 
Mr. Millikin has stood at the helm and con- 
trolled its course. His head and hands have 
guided the institution safely through all dan- 
gers, and in times of storm its safety has never 
been questioned, and the confidence imposed 
therein has never been abused and therefore has 
always been deserved. He has built several hand- 
some business houses, and is now erecting a mag- 
nificent bank building, one of the finest in the 
entire State. 

In addition to his banking establishment Mr. 
Millikin is president of the Union Iron Works 
Company, which he assisted in organizing about 
a quarter of a century since, and which has been 
a most successful corporation. Large and sat- 
isfactory dividends have always been paid, and 
its capital stock of sixty thousand dollars has 
been augmented by a surplus of one hundred and 
tvv'enty-five thousand dollars. He is also inter- 
ested in the Decatur Coal Company. 

Politically Mr. Milliken is a Republican, but 
has never desired to hold political positions of 
any kind. He has been a member of the Pres- 
byterian Church since boyhood, and he has ever 
endeavored to lead a consistent Christian life. 
He was married in 1858 to Anna B., daughter 
of the Reverend Samuel Aston, a Presbyterian 

In summing up the points of Mr. Millikin's 
career, one fact, that has not been previously 
mentioned herein, should not be overlooked, 
and that is the assistance he has rendered 
young men. He has given many young men the 
opportunity to advance in life, and several of 
thqi most successful of Decatur's citizens owe 
their prosperity to the assistance rendered them 
by Mr. Millikin. He has always been willing 
to devote his wealth and his energies to any feasi- 

^■'\~'iyU^ ■ 



ble undertaking that would increase the pros- 
perity of the citj' and add to the comfort of its 
inhabitants. His life has been a success. He 
has accumulated a large fortune and has used 
only such means as will bear the closest scrutiny. 
He has bestowed on worthy causes large sums 
of money, and uses his fortune to the advantage 
of the community as well as to his own profit. To 
sucll men as he is the development of the West 
due. He has for nearly forty years been an 
active factor in advancing the city of Decatur, 
and during that entire time has so conducted all 
of his affairs as to command the esteem, confi- 
dence and respect of all classes. Personally he 
is sociable, ever willing to accord to anvone the 

courtesy of an interview. Although a man of 
great wealth, he is unostentatious in a marked 
degree, and in this age, when anarchistic and 
socialistic doctrines are inflaming the masses, 
the demeanor and actions of such men as he 
do more to quench the fire of envy and malice 
than all other means combined. 

Mr. Millikin's actions have during his life 
beeii such as to distinctively entitle him to a 
place in this publication, and although his career 
has not been filled with thrilling incidents, prob- 
ably no biography published in this book can 
ser\'e as a better illustration to young men of 
the power of honesty and integrity in insuring 


AAIOXG the most loyal of Chicago's citizens 
are many who are numbered among the 
native sons of Illinois. From childhood they have 
been interested in the welfare of the State and 
are now largely devoting the best years of their 
manhood to its progress and advancement. The 
marvelous growth of Chicago has been one of 
the miracles of the age, and none the less phe- 
nomenal seems the advancement that has been 
made in science, art, literature and commercial 
activity. The names of those who have come 
down to us through historj' from remote ages 
are largely men who were devoted to their re- 
spective countries, and in this article we record a 
brief outline of the life of one whose interest in 
his adopted city is deep and earnest, springing 
from a true desire to promote all matters pertain- 
ing to its best advancement and progress. 

Born in Boone county, Illinois, on the 26th of 
October, 1846, Washington Porter traces his an- 
cestry back to an old English family, of whom 
record is found in the church at Marham, Nor- 
folk, England, in 1680. For several hundred 
years, therefore, the family was connected with 
Norfolk, and there lived James Porter, of Mar- 
ham Hall, and his wife, whose maiden name 
was Mary Winearls. Her father, William Win- 
earls, was a French gentleman who settled in 

Norfolk about 1700, and married into a family 
of that county. He was a man of fine literary 
attainments, a great connoisseur in art, and was 
induced to go to England by a wealthy Norfolk 
baron who had a remarkable art collection. James 
and Mary Porter, of Marham Hall, were the 
grandparents of Washington Porter and the 
father of James Winearls Porter and Thomas 
Winearls Porter, the former being the eldest and 
the latter the youngest son of the family. In the 
old church at Marham there are also tablets con- 
cerning the Winearls family which date back 
to the beginning of the eighteenth centurj-. About 
1830 Thomas W. Porter emigrated with liis family 
to America, locating in Buffalo, New York, 
where he engaged in merchandising. Eight years 
later he came to Illinois and purchased a farm 
in Boone county, upon which he made his home 
until called to his final rest at the age of seventy- 
nine years. His wife, who was in her maiden- 
hood Miss Charlotte Lane, died at tlie age of 
seventy-three. In the family were nine children, 
six sons and tliree daugiiters, all of whom are 
now living except Fred C, who died July 15, 
1885; Miss Anna, who died seven years previous 
to the demise of her parents; Elizabeth, who mar- 
ried S. L. Covey, lived at Belvidere, Illinois, and 
(lied .Vugust 27. 1895. 



Upon the old home farm under the parental 
roof, Washington Porter was reared, and in the 
freedom of the outdoor life developed a self-reli- 
ant spirit and force of character that has marked 
his entire career. He attended the schools of 
the neighborhood until sixteen years of age, -but 
could no longer contentedly remain at home, for 
the Civil war was now in progress, and all the 
enthusiasm and patriotism of the young man 
was aroused in behalf of his imperiled country. 
He joined Company B, Ninety-fifth Illinois In- 
fantry, and served as a private in the Army of 
the West, taking part in many hotly contested bat- 
tles, including those of Champion Hills, the siege 
of Vicksburg, and the engagements of the Red 
river expedition. A wound received in the 
shoulder from a minie ball at the battle of Gun- 
town, Mississippi, caused his retention in the 
hospital for a month, after which he was granted a 
sixty days' furlough, and upon his return to the 
South he did detached duty at Memphis, Ten- 
nessee, until his term expired, and in IMay, 1865, 
he was mustered out and returned home. 

He was not then twenty years of age. The 
following winter he attended school in Belvidere, 
after which he engaged in farming for three years, 
but not wishing to make that pursuit his life work 
he purchased a store in Belvidere. A year later 
there came an opportunity to sell at a handsome 
profit, and he did so. He then went to the West 
upon a prospecting tour, and when he returned to 
Illinois endeavored to organize a colony to locate 
in Kansas, but in this attempt he was unsuccess- 
ful. His foresight, however, in selecting a place 
of location is indicated by the fact that the cit>' 
of Newton is now located where he proposed to 
establish his colony. During this time he turned 
his attention to another business enterprise, em- 
barking in the California fruit trade in connection 
with his brother, F. C. Porter. They were the 
pioneers in this line of business and shipped the 
first full car of fruit in 1869, the year of the com- 
pletion of the trans-continental road. Thev had 
at the beginning but a small capital, but this was 
judiciously invested, and through careful manage- 
ment, good executive ability, straightforward deal- 
ing and enterprise they developed a business of 
extensive proportions; and as their business has 
grown they have enlarged their facilities and ex- 

tended their operations until now, in connection 
v.ith the main house in Chicago, they have branch 
houses in Omaha, Minneapolis and New York 
city, besides packing-houses in various towns and 
cities in California. On the 1st of January, 1885, 
the business was incorporated under the name 
of Porter Brothers Company, of which Washing- 
ton Porter has been president from the beginning. 
Their concern is the largest of the kind in the 
United States if not in the world, and they are the 
pioneers in establishing a business that has grown 
to be one ofthe important industries of the West, 
involving millions of dollars and furnishing em- 
pkiyment to thousands of men. In connection 
with other interests ]\Ir. Porter has invested to a 
considerable extent in city real estate, and is now 
the possessor of some of the most desirable and 
valuable property in Chicago. 

When it was proposed to hold in this country a 
World's Columbian Exposition as a celebration of 
the four hundredth anniversary of the discover^' of 
America, '\\t. Porter took a deep interest in the 
project and did all in his power for its furtherance. 
When the question of site came before the people 
he, with many of the most prominent men of the 
West, advocated Chicago on accotmt of its central 
location, its natural advantages and eminent fit- 
ness. He became one of the most valued mem- 
bers of the committee sent from this city to Wash- 
ington to urge the advantages and claims of the 
v.'estern metropolis, and has the credit of having 
done more effective work at that heated contest 
than almost any one else. He well deserves the 
thanks of all loyal Chicagoans, and his untiring 
labors in behalf of this city were the subject of 
frequent and honorable mention. He spent 
several months in the capital city at his own ex- 
pense, and never for a moment gave up the con- 
test for Chicago. He is a man of persuasive power 
and possesses that pleasant, genial manner which, 
combined with a strong and decisive mind, is 
bound to earn' weight and influence with it. No 
more suitable person could have been selected for 
the part to be performed. He had an extended 
acquaintance among the senators and members 
of Congress in this section of the country and on 
the Pacific slope, and secured their support for 
the Chicago site. 

A well-known and able congressman wrote 



concerning ]\Ir. Porter as follows: "Without 
detracting one jot from others on the com- 
mittee to secure the World's Fair, I can say with- 
out fear of contradiction that the claims of Chicago 
were presented by no one more ably and zealously 
than by ]\Ir. Porter. His genial manner, his true 
business way of talking, coupled with his great 
knowledge of the country and his love for Chicago 
made many converts. He enlisted me long be- 
fore the session commenced. His personal 
friend for years, I made his cause mine. Chicago 
owes him a debt of gratitude which I know 
she w-ill delight to repay. Too much honor 
cannot be given him." Various other com- 
mendatory things were written and said of 
him in connection with his labors in behalf of 

Mr. Porter was elected and served as a director 
throughout the World's Columbian Exposition, 
and was a member of the ways and means com- 
mittee. He served as chairman of the sub-com- 
mittee of the ways and means committee and sold 
the first souvenir half dollar issued to the firm of 
Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict, for the sum of 
$10,000, Mr. Porter personally superintending this 
sale. It was largely through his efforts that the 
financial affairs connected with the exposition 
were systematized and arranged so as not to bring 
heavy indebtedness upon the association. When 
the fair was fully opened and it was seen that the 
expenses were far greater than anticipated and far 
greater than necessity commanded, Mr. Porter 
originated the idea of lessening these, and accord- 
ingly the directory appointed a finance committee 
consisting practically of Mr. Porter, Air. Kerfoot 
and Air. Winston. Through the eiTorts of the 
committee the expenses were very materially re- 
duced, to the gratification and satisfaction of the 

stockholders and the entire communit}'. From 
the time the fair was first proposed until the clos- 
ing of its gates Mr. Porter did all in his power 
toward bringing about the wonderful success of 
the enterprise, — a success that excited the wonder 
and commanded the respect of the Old World and 
made the countries of Europe acknowledge that in 
the works of the New World tlie\- found a rival to 
their own skill and ingenuit}-. When the expo- 
sition was ended Mr. Porter proposed that the 
Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building be re- 
moved to the lake front, thus obviating the need 
of a large public hall for the purpose of holding 
national conventions, public meetings, and expo- 
sitions of various character. Although this was 
not done it showed the public spirit of Mr. Porter, 
and was another proof of his interest in tlie wel- 
fare of Chicago. 

Mr. Porter is a well informed man, possessed 
of broad general infomiation, and in his nature 
there is nothing narrow or contracted. He has 
a spirit that while devoted to his resident com- 
munity is liberal enough to recognize and ap- 
preciate advancement and progress in any other 
part of the world. He was popular as a young 
man, and in his later years has the esteem and 
confidence of all with whom public or private life 
have brought him in contact. He is a member 
of the Masonic fraternity and is also connected 
with several of the most prominent clubs of the 

Though we mention last, by no means the 
least important, event in his life took place in 
Chicago on the nth of June, 1891, when was 
celebrated his marriage to Miss Frajices Pauline 
Lee. Two children bless this union: Pauline C, 
born April 22, 1892; and Washington, Jr., bom on 
tlie 28th of December, 1893. 




FRENCH explorers visited Illinois in 1680, 
and the eighteenth century saw some settle- 
ments made in the State, while in the early part 
of the nineteenth century it was admitted into the 
Union ; but at this time the settlements had been 
largely made in the southern portion. It has 
been practically in the latter part of the century 
that the northern portion has been opened to the 
advance of civilization, and the cities of this di- 
vision are the product of the latter-day enterprise 
and progress. Ottawa, belonging to this class, 
is called in the Gazetteer "the seat of varied and 
useful activities ;" and among the prominent men 
who have helped to make it such stands the gen- 
tleman whose name heads this review. He has 
been identified with this region for more than 
thirty-seven years, and is to-day the representa- 
tive of sonic of its leading industries. 

Thomas Dean Catlin is a native of Clinti'n, 
Oneida county. New York, born March 12, 183S. 
His parents were Marcus and Philena (Dean) Cat- 
lin. His father was a professor of mathematics 
in Hamilton College, Clinton. He was of Eng- 
lish descent, and his death occurred in iS-jq. 
On the maternal side Mr. Catlin descends from 
an old historic family of the Empire State. His 
mother comes of a family that founded Deans- 
ville. New York. In 1795, on the site of that 
town, lived the Brotherton Indians, and in that 
year John Dean, a Quaker, went to the place as 
a missionary to labor with and for the red men. 
For a year he lived in a log house, and then 
erected what is now the wing of the residence 
owned by Charles Hovey. There he faithfully 
continued his work until life's labors were ended, 
and he passed peacefully away in 1820, at the 
advanced age of eighty-eight years. He had a 
son, Thomas Dean, who also was devoted to mis- 
sionary work among the Indians. He had been 
his father's assistant; and when the latter died he 
continued to labor toward civilizing the red men. 
He was a man of herculean proportions, and of 
great ability and sound judgment. He was not 
only Indian agent but was also counselor, spirit- 
ual guide and general lawgiver, and was largelv 

instrumental in transferring the Brotherton In- 
dians to a reservation at Green Bay, Wisconsin. 
He secured the appropriation of 64,000 acres 
from the Government, and also secured the pas- 
sage of a law through the New York legislature 
which enabled the Indians to sell their lands at 
full value. From 1830 to 1840 his time was en- 
tirely taken up with locating his dusky friends in 
their new home and adjusting business matters 
for them, and, wearied by this great toil, death 
came to end his arduous service in June, 1842, 
when he had reached the age of sixty-three year.s. 
He was scrupulously honest, and his public and 
private career alike were above reproach in every 
particular. He had the love and reverence of 
the Indians, and the confidence and highest re- 
gard of all with whom he came in contact. At 
the time when a petition was circulated for the 
establishment of a postofifice at another place in 
the vicinity, he went to Washington and secured 
the ofiice for Deansville instead. He became its 
first postmaster, and the office and the village 
were named in his honor. He had five children, 
and among this number was IMrs. Philena Catlin. 
Her son, Thomas Dean Catlin, acquired his 
education in Hamilton College, at Clinton, New 
York, being graduated at that institution in the 
class of 1857, at the early age of nineteen years. 
He belongs to the college society known as Sigma 
Phi. Upon the broad fields of the West, with 
its unlimited opportunities, he entered upon his 
business career. In 1858 he came to Ottawa, 
Illinois, to meet by appointment his uncle, A. H. 
Redfield, of Detroit, who was acting as Indian 
agent and was stationed at the head-waters of the 
^Missouri river. It was his intention to go to that 
region; but, his uncle having been detaitied for 
a time, he meanwhile sought and obtained a po- 
sition with the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific 
Railway Company, — first as a freight clerk, re- 
ceiving a salary of only $400 a year; but he soon 
afterward won promotion, and for five years 
served as agent, finally receiving $60 a month, — 
the highest salary he ever received from that cor- 




His connection with the estabhshment of tele- 
graphic communication in the West certainly 
makes him worthy of a place in this history. It 
is said that rapid transit and rapid comnnmica- 
tion are the most important factors in civilization. 
Mr. Catlin is a pioneer in this line of enterjjrise. 
In 1863 he became the secretary of the Illinois 
& IMississippi Telegraph Company, which had 
been established in 1849, one of the first in the 
West. This company owned telegraph patents 
for several of the Western States, controlling the 
business in this section of the country. It built 
various lines throughout the West, and in 1867 
leased its lines to the Western Union Telegraph 
Company, thus forming the connecting link be- 
tween the Atlantic and the Pacific. Mr. Catlin 
is still secretary of the company. 

Many and varied have been the business inter- 
ests with which he has been connected. H" is 
a man of broad capabilities and resources, and iiis 
keen discrimination, sound judgment and busi- 
ness sagacity enable him to carry fonvard to 
successful completion whatever he undertakes. 
He is an able financier, his ambition tempered 
witli a safe conservatism, and he is now at the 
head of one of the leading financial institutions 
in the State. About ten years ago he was elected 
vice-president of the National City Bank of Ot- 
tawa, and in June, 1891, after the death of E. C. 
Allen, its president, he was elected to the superior 
office, and has ever since acceptably and credit- 
ably filled that position. This bank is capital- 
ized for $100,000; it now has a surplus of $125,- 
000, and undivided profits $50,000, making a 
working capital of about $300,000. He is 
also president of the State Bank of Seneca. 

In 1867 ^Ir. Catlin organized the Ottawa 
Glass Company and they established one of ti.e 
pioneer industries of its kind west of Pittsburg, 
of which he was the secretary and treasurer. Busi- 

ness was carried on under that name until 1880, 
when the company sold its plant to the United 
Glass Company of New York, a corporation cap- 
italized for $1,250,000 and owning factories in 
various places. Of this company Mr. Catlin is 
the president. 

In 1866 Mr. Catlin was married to Miss Helen 
C. Plant, a resident of Utica, New York, and a 
member of one of the old and honored families 
of the Empire State, and connected with the 
Daughters of the Revolution. Their only child 
is James Plant Catlin. 

Mr. Catlin is connected with many of the pub- 
lic interests of Ottawa, which are calculated to 
promote the moral, educational and material wel- 
fare of the community. He is a member of the 
First Congregational Church, and is serving as 
one of its deacons. He was a member of the 
first board of trustees of the public library at Ot- 
tawa. He is president of the board of truste(;s 
of Ryburn IMemorial Hospital, and is also a mem- 
ber of the board of trustees of Hamilton College, 
Clinton, New York. Charitable and benevolent, 
he gives freely of his means to those in need of 
assistance, but gives always in a quiet, imosten- 
tatious way, seeking not the laudations of men. 
In his political views he is a stalwart supporter 
of the Republican party, and has served his city 
as alderman and a member of the board of edu- 

The record of \lr. Catlin is that of a man who 
by his own unaided efforts has worked his way 
upward to a position of affluence. His life has 
been one of industry and perseverance, and the 
systematic and honorable business methods 
which he has followed have won him the support 
and confidence of many. Without the aid of 
influence or wealth, he has risen to a position 
among the most prominent men of the State, 
and his native genius and acquired ability are 
stepping-stones on which he mounted. 



IN this age of colossal enteq^rise and marked 
intellectual energy, the prominent and suc- 
cessful men are those whose abilities, persistence 
and courage lead them into large undertakings 
and assume the responsibilities and labors of lead- 
ers in their respective vocations. Success is 
methodical and consecutive, and however nuuh 
we may indulge in fantastic theorizing as to its 
elements and causation in any isolated instance 
yet in the light of sober investigation we will find 
it to be but a result of the determined application 
of one's abilities and powers along the rigidly 
defined line of labor. America owes much of 
her progress and advancement to a position fore- 
most among the nations of the world to her news- 
papers, and in no line has the incidental broaden- 
ing out of the sphere of usefulness been more 
marked than in this same line of journalism. Chi- 
cago, the city marvelous, has enlisted in its news- 
paper field some of the strongest intellects in the 
nation — men of broad mental grasp, cosmopoli- 
tan ideas and notable business sagacity. 

Prominent among the men who have given the 
city prestige in this direction must be placed 
James W. Scott, the subject of this review. His 
identification with "the art preservative of all 
arts" was one both of inheritance and personal 
predilection, and though he intermittently turned 
his attention to enterprises of different nature, 
still, true to the instinct said to characterize every 
newspaper man, he inevitably returned to the 
work, strengthened and re-enforced by the ex- 
periences which were his. 

Jams Wilmot Scott was born in Walworth, 
Walworth county, Wisconsin, on the 26th of 
June, 1849, being the only child of David and 
Mary (Thompson) Scott. The untimely death 
of his mother occurred in 1861, at which time 
she had attained the age of thirty years, and two 
years later his father consummated a second mar- 
riage, being then united to Miss Maria Saxe. The 
ancestry of our subject was one of long identifi- 
cation with American interests, since the paternal 
I'neage traces back to the original representatives, 
of Scotch-Irish extraction, who emigrated to the 

New World in the year 1600, settling in Connecti- 
cut and Massachusetts, while on the maternal 
side the original American representatives came 
from England and identified themselves with the 
Colonies as early as 1579. The maternal grand- 
father of our subject was a lieutenant in the war 
of 1812, and the great-grandfather went forth to 
his country's defense in the war of the Revolu- 

David Wilmot Scott was born in Bainbridge, 
New York, and inhis early youth learned the print- 
er's trade in the office of the Chenango Telegraph 
at Norwich, New York. In 1849 he came west, 
locating at Janesville, Wisconsin, where he taught 
school for a time and was then connected with 
the Free Press until 1852, when he removed to 
Galena, Illinois, started a paper known as the 
Daily Jeffersonian, his associate in the enterprise 
being Dr. Charles H. Ray. In 1855 Dr. Ray 
came to Chicago to assume editorial charge of 
the Tribune, but Mr. Scott retained his residence 
in Galena until the hour of his death. He was 
in turn associated in the publication of the Daily 
Courier and the Galena Gazette, but finally im- 
paired health made it necessary for him to retire 
from active business, and he accordingly dis- 
posed of his newspaper interests. Some years 
later, however, he resumed his connection with 
journalism by becoming concerned with the In- 
dustrial Press at Galena. He was very greatly 
interested in horticulture and occupied a position 
of much prominence in various organizations 
whose object was the promotion of this important 
industry. He held the position of secretary of 
the National Association of Nurserymen and 
Florists at the time of his demise, having been 
one of the prime movers in effecting the organiza- 
tion of said association. For fifteen years he 
was the incumbent in the office of secretary of 
the Northern Illinois Horticultural Society, a pre- 
ferment from which, as in the case just noted, he 
was deposed by the hand of death. He was a 
man of strong individuality, great mental force 
and utmost rectitude in thought, word and deed. 
That his life was well ordered was shown in noth- 



ing more clearly than in the respect and confi- 
dence which were vouchsafed him b)' those to 
whom his career was as an open book with no 
turned-down pages. In his political adherency 
he was stanchly in line with the principles advo- 
cated by the Democratic party, to the cause of 
which he lent an active support. At the time of 
his death he held the office of postmaster of Ga- 
lena. David \\'^ilmot Scott was gathered to his 
fathers in i8S8, at the age of sixty years, and in 
his death there passed away a man who had ever 
stood four-square to every wind that blew. 

James \V. Scott, the immediate subject of this 
review, received preliminary educational disci- 
pline in the public schools of Galena, and this was 
supplemented by a partial course in Beloit Col- 
lege, Wisconsin. AMthin this time he had given 
himself to assisting in the newspaper office of his 
father, having thus been identified with journalism 
from his boyhood days — a fact of significance 
when considered in connection with the magnifi- 
cent success which was his in this line. At the 
age of nineteen years he severed the home ties and 
went to Norwich, New York, where he found 
employment as clerk in the office of clerk of the 
circuit court, over which his imcle presided. He 
retained this incumbency for one year, after which 
he went to New York city and sought a new field 
of endeavor and experience, entering the employ 
of Peter Henderson, who conducted an exten- 
sive florist establishment. Mr. Scott was thus 
employed for one year, his intention at the time 
having been to become a scientific florist. Within 
this time he retained a quasi-association with 
journalistic work, by contributing numerous arti- 
cles to the Hearth and Home and the American 
Agriculturist, said articles having to do with 
floriculture, to which line he was greatly devoted 
at the time. His natural taste and aptitude ulti- 
mately led him back to the printing business, and 
in 1871 he went to Washington, District of 
Columbia, where he "held a case" in the Govern- 
ment printing office, also serving as proof-reader 
on the Congressional Globe. 

In the fall of 1872 Mr. Scott went to ?Iunting- 
ton, Prince George county, Maryland, where he 
established a weekly paper called the Hunting- 
tonian. He continued the enterprise one year, 
and part of the time while conducting this paper 

he held a position in the railway mail scr\'ice. He 
then returned to Galena, Illinois, where in com- 
pany with his father he started the Industrial 
Press, which he sold out at the end of one year. 
CJur subject recognized a subjective capacity for 
the conducting of an undertaking of wider scope 
and he determined to seek a field whose limita- 
tions were not so narrowly circumscribed. He 
accordingly came to Chicago at that time (1875) 
and assumed control of the Daily National Hotel 
Reporter, his business associate being F". Willis 
Rice, and the enterprise being conducted under 
the firm name of Scott & Rice — an association 
which was maintained up to the time of the form- 
er's death. 

The nucleus of the great enterprise which 
brought to Mr. Scott both success and renown 
had its inception in May, 1881, when he, with 
others, established the Chicago Herald, which 
was conceded to have occupied from the start a 
foremost position not only among the great daily 
publications of the Garden City but of the entire 
Union. Upon the organization of the Herald 
Company. ^Ir. Scott was elected secretarj- and 
treasurer. In 1883 John R. Walsh purchased a 
major portion of the Herald stock and retained 
his association with the enterprise until March, 
1895, when our subject purchased the former's 
interest in the Herald and the Evening Post, which 
latter had been started in 1889. The ambition of 
^Ir Scott was not yet satisfied, and he now di- 
rected his energies to bringing about a consolida- 
tion of the Herald with the other Democratic 
morning daily, the Chicago Times, established 
many \ears previous by the late Wilbur F. Storey. 
This combination of the two great dailies was 
efTected March 4, 1895, with a result that the 
Times-Herald became one of the most magnifi- 
cent news publications the world has ever known, 
Mr. Scott serving as editor-in-chief and manager. 
The Herald Building, which was retained as the 
headquarters of the consolidated papers, is ac- 
credited with being the finest newspaper build- 
ing in the Union, both in architectural design 
and perfection of equipments. It would be a 
work of supererogation to attempt in this con- 
nection to enter into details concerning the his- 
tcn,' of the Herald or to note the specific points 
which have marked the growth of the enterprise 



and the brilliant accomplishment of the man who 
directed its destinies. These matters stand forth 
in their own exemplification and further comment 
in that direction is unnecessary. ]\Ir. Scott con- 
tinued to keep the paper at its high standard up 
to the time of his death, when it was sold. 

In his political proclivities jMr. Scott was a 
Ftalwart supporter of the Democratic party and 
its principles, and both personally and in his 
editorial utterances he wielded a potent influence 
in furthering the interest of its cause, his policy 
always being notable for the vigor, fearlessness 
and yet deliberative power which were eminently 
characteristic of the man. Enjoying a wide ac- 
quaintance and marked popularity in the city, 
Mr. Scott was prominently concerned in both bus- 
iness and social lines. At the time of the groat 
World's Columbian Exposition, which brought 
Chicago so conspicuously before the eyes of all 
nations, in 1892, Mr. Scott was chosen as presi- 
dent of the board of directors, but such was the 
exigency of his business that he was compelled 
to decline this signal honor. He did effective ser- 
vice, however, as a member of the board of direc- 
tors. For six years he held the office of presi- 
dent of the American Newspaper Association, 
was a member of the Associated Press, was presi- 
dent of the Chicago Press Club for three 3-ears, 
and was identified with many other clubs of varied 
snrts in Chicago and New York, — one in London 
and one in Paris — retaining a membership with 
Die Chicago Athletic Club, the Iroquois Club, the 
Union League, Chicago, Washington Park, Uni- 
versity and Sunset Clubs. At the time of his death 
he was president of the Fellowship Club, of which 
he was one of the organizers, as was he also of the 
Chicago Press Club. Among other associations 
of a social order with which he affiliated were the 
Argo, the Country and the Golf Clubs of this 
city. Many years ago he became a member of 
the Masonic order in New York, but never figured 
actively in that work. He was also an official in 
the Civic Federation. 

The marriage of James W. Scott to Miss Caro- 
line R. Greene was consummated April 10, 1873, 
at Naperville. Illinois, she being a daughter of 
Air. and Mrs. Daniel M. Greene, who were among 
the pioneer settlers in the northern part of this 
State, where they were recognized as people of 

a high degree of intellectuality and influence. To 
our subject and wife was bom one child, who 
died in infancy. Mrs. Scott is a woman of gentle 
refinement and of gracious presence, presiding 
with dignity and grace over a beautiful and hospi- 
table home. She is a prominent member of the 
\\'oman's Club, and is an officer in the Training 
School for Nurses, one of the noble institutions 
of the city. Her mother was a sister of John T. 
Trowbridge, the well known author and poet. 
Her father was a relative of the famous General 
Greene, and his ancestors participated in the war 
of the Revolution. In the midst of the manifold 
cares and responsibilities that devolved upon him, 
Mr. Scott was thoroughly domestic in his tastes, 
and a greater appreciation of the charms of home 
life that he constantly manifested is scarcely pos- 
sible. In April, 1895, he started on a tour through 
the East, accompanied by his wife. It was his 
intention to spend a few days in New York, then 
proceed to Cape May and afterward to Virginia 
Jjcach. The trip was to be one entirely of recre- 
ation. They arrived in New York on Friday 
evening and Mr. Scott was looking forward to 
a pleasant Easter Sunday. Saturday night he 
appeared to be in his usual health, but at ten 
o'clock Sunday morning physicians were called 
to his bedside, for disease had laid its hand upon 
him. That afternoon he passed away, his death 
being due to apoplexy. Thus ended the life of 
one of the most public-spirited, progressive citi- 
zens of the great metropolis of the West and one 
of her representative men. 

One who knew Mr. Scott long and intimately 
and was well able to judge of his character said: 
"He was the kindest-hearted man I ever knew, 
being never so busy but that he could find time 
to aid any one in trouble. He never said an)'thing 
unkind about other people, and was always con- 
siderate of the feelings of others. To the people 
in his employ he was always particularly good, 
tr\-ing to improve their condition, and was their 
true friend. His domestic life was something 
divine. His devotion to his wife was beautiful 
and his position toward the four motherless chil- 
dren of his wife's sister was kindness itself, sucli as 
we rarely find nowadays. Mr. Scott was exceed- 
ingly charitable — in fact his charity was unlimited. 
I never knew anything like it. He was always 

C //. /H'1^2T^^ 



helping the poor." In an editorial in the Times- 
Herald it was written: "To the wife, upon whom 
this shock comes with crushing weight, goes the 
heartfelt sympathy of all belonging to the statT 
of the Times-IIerald. A home life beautiful in 
the devotion of one to the other is shattered by 
this calamity. Tlie thousands who knew I\Ir. 
Scott so well, who at different times and places 
have had opportunity to note how the lovable side 
of his nature was always foremost, will need no 
assurance that in his own home he was a tender 
and an ever thoughtful husband. The watchful 
care and unremitting attentions of the wife, who 
now mourns his loss, strengthened him ever for 

that constant activity in the world of affairs which 
was his most shining trait. Xo journalist was 
ever more popular with his fellows. Those who 
were associated with him on the paper he made 
will miss from his accustomed place the genial 
face, the bright welcome, the sound counselor, 
the disinterested friend. The entire community 
which, young as he was, had fully learned to value 
the intellectual power and to prove the civic de- 
votion of him whose death is a blow to Chicago 
as it is a disaster to American journalism, will 
mourn for him with those who have been his 
professional associates. The world is better for 
his having lived in it." 


To no man is the gratitude of the agricultural 
world more certainly due than to Cyrus 
Hall McCormick, who gave to the farming in- 
dustry one of the most useful inventions that has 
ever promoted its interests. With the spirit of 
progress of the present age Mr. McCormick, by 
his persevering efforts, attained a pre-eminent 
position that excited the admiration of the world. 
The record of such a man is of general inter- 
est, inspiring and encouraging others by a knowl- 
edge of the characteristics that have marked his 
career. He ^\'as born on the 15th of Februar\', 
1809, at Walnut Grove, Rockbridge county, 
the valley of Virginia, not many miles distant 
form the Natural Bridge. The surroundings of 
his early life were picturesque in the extreme, 
the Blue Ridge towering above the valley to the 
east, the Alleghanies not far away on the west, and 
the valley itself presenting a panorama of fields 
of waving grain, interspersed with streams, hills 
and comfortable homes. His parents were of 
Scotch-Irish descent. His mother, Mar\' Ann 
Hall, was a native of Augusta county, and Rob- 
ert McCormick, his father, was bom in Rock- 
bridge county in 1780. He was an extensive 
and prosperous farmer, the owner of eighteen 
hundred acres of excellent land, and operated, 
upon his own estate in the patriarchal fashion of 
the large planters of the South, a flour-mill, a 

sawmill and a carpenter and blacksmith shop. 
He was endowed with mechanical talent and in- 
vented a hempbreaker, a threshing-macliine, and 
a tub-shaped bellows for the blacksmith sliop. 
The idea of constructing a reaping machine as 
a means of saving much of the heavy labor and 
time consumed in the harvest had engaged his 
attention at various times from 1808 to 1831. He 
built a clumsy machine in his own shop in which 
he sought to attain his object, with a row of 
upright cylinders, armed with sickle blades, ro- 
tating against a stationary cutting edge. Tlie 
severed stalks fell on leather straps which carried 
them to one side and threw them on the ground. 

Cyrus H. McConnick watched his father's ex- 
periments with boyish curiosity, and gained a 
love for the mechanic arts. He attended a coun- 
try school in winter, and in the open months, in 
the work of the farm, learned the importance of 
a machine to relieve the husbandman of his heav- 
iest toil in the har\'cst time. After the age of 
fifteen he constructed a hght grain cradle which 
enabled him to keep pace with the workmen in 
reaping. In 1831 he patented a hillside plow 
made to throw a furrow alternately to right and 
left, and in 1S33 another improved plow which 
he called "Self-sharpening." In 1831, after many 
years of disappointing experiment, Robert Mc- 
Cormick made anotlier trial with his old machine 



witliout success, and thereupon abandoned fur- 
ther efforts. Meanwhile Cyrus had resolved to 
make an attempt of his own, and was working 
out a new principle. His father sought to dis- 
suade him from tlie undertaking, but the young 
man determined to make tlie efifort. The diffi- 
culty of the problem inspired, rather than 
disheartened him. His father's work showed the 
errors to be avoided, and the problem was a 
deep one in the young man's mind. He felt that 
the grain must be cut in a body and not in wisps, 
as was intended by his father's upright cylinders. 
He finally devised a straight cutting blade, armed 
with a serrated edge, and placed projecting guard 
fingers to support the grain at the point of cut- 
ting. He Iniilt the machine with his own hands 
in the little hillside blacksmith shop on the farm, 
and after a thorough test it proved to be the first 
practical reaping machine ever constructed. It 
contained the straight vibrating cutting knife with 
serrated edge; the reel to bend the stalks of grain 
toward the ad\'ancing machine, the platform on 
which to receive the grain (fitted with fixed 
fingers, through which the cutter vibrated), and 
the divider to separate the stalks which were to 
be cut from those left standing. These essential 
elements in the reaper have never been and cannot 
be dispensed with, and exist after sixty years of 
improvement and invention in all the grain harv- 
esters of the world. There was one driving 
wheel, operating the gear-wheels and crank, and 
a platform to receive the cut grain, from which 
it was raked in sheaves, but there was no seat 
for either the raker or the driver. This pioneer 
machine, drawn by two horses, was tested in a 
field of oats in July, 1831, in the presence of 
neighboring farmers, to the astonishment of them 
all. Not only the family but also the farmers 
liclieved that the problem had lieen solved. 
It should be mentioned that Mr. McCormick had 
never seen or heard of any other experiments with 
a reaping machine except those of his father. 

The entire family rejoiced in the young man's 
success, and none more heartily than his father. 
The merits and defects of the machine were 
thoroughly discussed, and in 1832 the reaper, 
somewhat improved, was employed in cutting 
fifty acres of wheat, a work which was performed 
with so mudi facility that its success as a practi- 

cal machine was fully established. In 1834 the 
inventor patented his reaper, but the next year 
the machine was laid aside for a time in order that 
the McCormicks might engage in smelting iron 
ore, which was then a profitable business. The 
panic of 1837 ruined their iron industry — cost 
Cyrus even the farm his father had given him, 
and compelled him, to the great benefit of man- 
kind, to take up again the introduction and im- 
provement of the reaping machine. In the old 
blacksmith shop, therefore, Cyrus, aided by his 
father and his brothers, Leander and William, 
finally began to build machines for sale. The 
first one was sold for the harvest of 1840. In 
1842 they sold half a dozen; in 1843 seven; in 
1844 forty-four; and in 1845 a second patent was 
granted for valuable improvements. 

Mr. McCormick had the sagacity to see that 
his principal market would be in the great grain 
fields of the West, and that the blacksmith shop 
on the farm, remote from lines of transportation, 
was inadequate to the needs of manufacturing. 
In 1844 he sent a consignment of machines by 
wagon and canal to Richmond, and thence by 
water, by way of New Orleans and the rivers 
to Cincinnati. Having taken a horseback trip 
through Illinois, Missouri and Wisconsin for the 
purpose of introducing his reaper, and obtaining 
a number of orders, in the fall of the same year 
he turned these orders over to A. C. Brown, of 
Cincinnati, ^nth whom he arranged for the manu- 
facture of his machine for the western trade. In 
1846-7 some of his machines were manufactured 
at Brockport, New York, the makers paying a 
royalty on all they sold. In 1847 Mr. ]\IcCor- 
mick removed to Chicago, where he built new 
shops, and in the same year obtained a third 
patent for additional improvements. The sale in 
1847 amounted to about seven hundred machines; 
in 1848 to fifteen hundred. The original patent 
expired in 1848, and Mr. McCormick soon found 
himself competing with his own ideas as carried 
out by others. He had, however, made many 
improvements upon the original machine, which 
enabled him in spite of this to maintain his prec- 
edence over them all. He obtained additional 
patents in 1858. 

The shops in Chicago were planned for the 
manufacture of reapers and mowers upon a large 



scale. The success of these works has been bril- 
liant and unprecedented. From a small begin- 
ning they have since grown to immense propor- 
tions, supplying employment to two thousand 
men, disbursing millions of money for supplies, 
and producing latterly more than one hundred 
and fift)' thousand machines per year! Leander 
J. and William S. McCormick were given an 
interest in the business in 1858. The plant was 
burned in the great fire of 1871, and most men 
would have been discouraged, but i\Ir. McCor- 
mick decided to rebuild and on a larger scale than 
before. In 1879 the business was incorporated 
under the name of the McCormick Han'esting 
^lachine Company, the founder becoming presi- 
dent of the company. He retained the presi- 
dency and management until his death, at which 
time his son, Cyrus H. ^ilcCorniick, Jr., succeeded 

After he had insured the success of his in- 
vention in the United States. I\Ir. McCormick 
turned hi? attention to the grain countries abroad. 
To introduce his reaper to the attention of the 
old world, he exhibited it at the pioneer world's 
fair, which was held in London in 1851, and his 
invention redeemed the American exhibit from 
the charge of being commonplace. His machine 
was ridiculed by the London Times, but its work 
compelled that journal, after the public trials, to 
declare that this reaper would be worth more to 
the farmers of England than the whole cost of the 
fair. After public trials held by the exhibition 
authorities on jMechi's model farm and that of 
Philip Pusey, M. P., Mr. McCormick was awarded 
the Council Medal of the Exposition "for the 
most valuable article contributed to it" and for 
"the originality and value of the reaper;" while 
the journal of the Royal Agricultural Society re- 
ported it as "the most important addition to fann- 
ing machinery that has ever been invented since 
the threshing machine first took the place of the 
flail."' He received the grand prize at the Paris 
Exposition in 1855 for his reaper as furnishing 
"the type after which all others are made, as well 
as for the best operating machine in the field," 
and thereafter in Europe and America the highest 
praise was bestowed upon the reaper and its in- 

Had his invention been given first to the old 

world, the progress of the L^nited States would 
have been materially retarded, but the reaping 
machine was an American invention and it at 
once made the L^nited States the greatest grain- 
producing country in the world. In 1859 Hon. 
Reverdy Johnson announced that "the Mc- 
Cormick machine was then worth fifty-five mil- 
lion dollars per year to the people of the United 
States, which amount must increase tliroughout 
all time;" and William H. Seward about the same 
time declared that, "Owing to Mr. McCormick's 
invention the line of civilization moves westward 
thirty miles each year." 

In 1 86 1 the Commissioner of Patents, Mr. 
Holloway, refused an extension of the patent of 
1847 on the ground that "the reaper was of too 
great value to the public to be conti"olled by any 
individual!" But he said, "Cyrus H. McCormick 
is an inventor whose fame, while he is yet living, 
has spread throug-h the world. His genius has 
done honor to his own countrj' and has been 
the admiration of foreign nations; and he will 
live in the grateful recollection of mankind as 
long as the reaping machine is employed in gath- 
ering the harvest." The IMcCormick machine 
won the first prize at the London International 
Exposition in Lille, France, in 1863. During 
the Paris World's Exposition in 1867 the Em- 
peror Napoleon walked by the side of the reapers 
when the ^IcComiick machine was exhibited in 
a field trial under the supervision of the inventor 
hin.self, and was so impressed with its achieve- 
ments that he decorated Mr. McCormick with the 
Cross of the Legion of Honor. The reaper also 
gained the highest prize at the London Exposition 
in 1862, and the chief award at the Intcmational 
Field Trial in Lancashire. In 1863 it was 
awarded the gold medal at the Hamburg Expo- 
sition. Honors were showered upon the inven- 
tion. It won two international medals at \'icnna 
in 1873, and the highest prizes at the Centennial 
Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876. Medals were 
also won at Sydney in Australia in 1879. At the 
competitive trial of the Royal Agricultural So- 
cietv at Bristol, England, and the Paris Exposi- 
tion, both in 1878, the McCormick Wire Binder 
won the Grand Prize, and Mr. McComiick re- 
ceived from France the rank of an "Officer of 
the Legion of Honor," and was also elected a 



corresponding member of the Frencli Academy 
of Sciences, "as having done more for the cause 
of agriculture than any other living man." 

The sale of the McCormick machines is now 
world-wide and enormous. In all the grain 
countries of Europe, in Persia, India, Australia, 
in South Africa and South America, the whirr of 
its knives is heard in the grain field. It brought 
to its inventor fame and fortune, and to the agri- 
cultural interests of the world it gave an impetus 
such as was never given by any other invention or 

In 1858 Mr. McCormick was united in mar- 
riage with Miss Nettie Fowler, a daughter of Mel- 
zar Fowler, of Jefiferson county. New York. They 
have had seven children, five oi whom are living, 
namely: Cyrus H. McCormick, Jr., now presi- 
dent of the ^IcCormick Harvesting Machine 
Company; Mary \'irginia; Anita, widow of the 
late Emmons Blaine; Harold and Stanley. 

Mr. 3,IcCormick was a strong Presbyterian and 
his nature led him to generous benefactions. As 
early as 1859 he gave $100,000 to "The Theologi- 
cal Seminary of the Northw-est," upon the condi- 
tion that it be located in Chicago. The proposi- 
tion was accepted and he subsequently gave the 
institution further endowment and buildings. 
He also endowed a professorship at Washington 
& Lee University in Virginia, and contributed to 
the Union Theological Seminary at Hampden- 
.Sidney, Virginia, and the College in Hastings, 
Nebraska. In 1872 he purchased "The Interior,'" 
the principal Presbyterian newspaper in the 
Northwest, and by his advice and fostering care 
the paper soon became the leading American 
publication of its class. Mr. IMcCormick died 
i\Iay 13, 1884, in Chicago, leaving an honored 
name and a prosperous business to his family. 

Cvrus Hall McCormick, Jr., is the oldest child 
of the great inventor of the reaper. He was born 
May 16, 1859, in Washington, District of Colum- 
bia, where his parents were residing while his 
father was endeavoring to secure an extension to 
his patents on his reaper. When fourteen years 
old the young man entered the public schools of 
Chicago, and at eighteen was graduated at the 
high school, at the head of a class of sixty-five. 
He at once entered Princeton College and be- 
came a member of the class of 1879. In the 
autumn following he entered the business of the 
McCormick Harvesting Machine Company, serv- 
ing in several departments in order that he might 
obtain a knowledge of its various branches. On 
the death of his father in 1884, he was elected to 
succeed him as president of the company, and has 
continued in that position up to the present 
time. Under the present management the great 
manufacutring industry of the McCormick Com- 
pany has developed successfully and its out- 
put of har\'esting machines is the largest in the 

On the 5th of IMarch, 1889, Mr. McComiick 
was married, at Monterey, California, to Miss 
Harriet Bradley Hammond, a niece of Mrs. E. S. 
Stickney of Chicago. They have three children, 
two sons and a daughter. 

For several years Mr. McCormick has been 
a director of the IMerchants' Loan & Trust 
Company, of Chicago. Since June, 1889. he 
has been a member of the board of trustees 
of Princeton University; is also secretary of 
the board of trustees of the McCormick Theo- 
logical Seminary of the Presbyterian Church, 
and was for several years vice-president of 
the Young ]\Ien's Christian Association of 





was born in Lotten, Hanover, September 
I, 1822, and was the eldest of the six children of 
Joseph and Euphemia A. (Peter) Ricker, both 
natives of Hanover. The father of our subject 
was a farmer, and to this hardy occupation the 
young man was bred. His education was only 
such as could be obtained at the common schools 
of his native village during his earlier years, but 
later, in the school of experience, he acquired a 
vast knowledge of men and of affairs that has 
been of incalculable benefit to him throughout 
the later years of his life. 

Tn 1839 he accompanied his parents to Amer- 
ica, the journey across the Atlantic being made 
in a sailing vessel, and they reached the city of 
New Orleans in December of that year; but 
Quincy, Illinois, where they had relatives, was 
their destination, and they did not tarry in New 
Orleans but went directly by river to St. Louis, 
where they were obliged to remain till the open- 
ing of navigation the following spring before 
proceeding further, and thus did not arrive at 
Quincy until March 4, 1840. 

After reaching Quincy our subject spent the fol- 
lowing two years in the employ of John Woo<l, 
afterward governor of the State, and during part 
of that time attended a commercial school in order 
to become proficient in the language of his 
adopted country. He next entered the employ 
of T. G. F. Hunt, who kept a grocery store where 
the Hotel Newcomb now stands, receiving for 
his first year's salary one hundred dollars, out 
of which he was obliged to buy his clothes and 
pay his board. Mr. Hunt retired from business 
a couple of years later and Mr. Ricker then ob- 
tained a situation in the employ of Charles 
Holmes, a dry-goods merchant. Shortly after- 
ward Mr. Holmes removed his stock of goods 
to St. Louis and Mr. Ricker accompanied him; 
but as his father was opposed to his leaving 
Quincy he returned to that city and clerked in 
Albert Daneke's general store until 1849. 

During the time he held these various clerk- 

ships he had been prudent and economical and 
saved about three hundred dollars, — not a great 
amount, but enough to enable him to form a 
partnership with Leopold Amtzen in the dry- 
goods and grocery business. From the start 
this venture proved successful. A lot was pur- 
chased, a store building erected, and the mem- 
bers of the firm accumulated considerable means. 
This connection lasted until 1857, when the part- 
nership was dissolved, Mr. Amtzen purchasing 
the personal property and place of business, 
while the real estate, which consisted of various 
pieces of property, was divided. 

For a short time Mr. Ricker engaged in the 
produce business alone, but only until the spring 
of 1858, at Avihich time he was elected police mag- 
istrate. He at once entered upon the duties of 
his new office, and also engaged in the sale and 
purchase of foreign exchange, and acted as agent 
for some of the trans-Atlantic steamship com- 
panies; and in this manner was laid the founda- 
tion of the great banking house that he now 
controls. In 1862 he was re-elected police mag- 
istrate, and in that year made a trip to New York, 
where he made arrangements that enabled him 
to carry on his exchange and ticket business more 
profitably. His shrewdness and keen foresight 
served him in good stead, and his genial and af- 
fable manners brought him many customers. 
He also made a great deal of money by buying 
"stump-tail," or depreciated currency, issued by 
banks in Illinois , Missouri, Wisconsin, and some 
of the Eastern States. His prosperity continued, 
and his every venture was successful. Every- 
thing he touched seemed to turn into moncv un- 
der his skillful management. 

At this time John Wood & Company, bank- 
ers, were closing their affairs, and Mr. Ricker, 
after giving the matter careful thought, pur- 
chased the business, which he carried on in the 
firm's old quarters for a few months, until the 
lease it had held expired, and then transferred 
his office to a building he had purcliascd in i860, 
on Hampshire street between Fiftii and Sixth, 


biograpj/wal dictionary and portrait gallery of the 

the upper portion of wliicli he had previously oc- 
cupied as an office. For two or three years lie 
associated with himself Mr. Bernard H. F. Hoene, 
and upon his retirement in 1873 continued the 
business alone. 

Tn 1875 he began the erection of a Iiandsoine 
and commodious bankings house on Hampshire 
street, fronting on the public square, and to these 
new quarters he transferred his business in the 
latter part of October, 1876. Here he contin- 
ued ais a private banker imtil July i, 1881, when 
he organized the business under the national 
banking laws, as the Ricker National Bank, 
with a capital stock of two hundred thousand 
dollars. The same success crowned this new 
venture as had followed him in the past, and tlie 
Ricker National Bank, with a surj^lus of one 
hundred and eighty-five thousand dollars and an 
average deposit account of one million eight hun- 
dred thousand dollars, ranks to-day with the 
soundest of the country's monetary institutions. 
Mr. Ricker is the owner of a very large majority 
of the entire capital stock, and holds the office of 
vice-president. Edward Sohm is the president, 
though he takes no part in the management of 
the bank's, affairs ; and Mr. Ricker's son, George 
E., who under his father's tutelage has developed 
considerable financial ability, is the cashier. As 
an evidence how ably the business is conducted, 
and how satisfactory to the public, it may be 
stated that the deposits of a million and eight hun- 
dred thousand dollars are larger than any other 
bank in the State, national or private. Outside of 
the city of Chicago. 

For years Mr. Ricker devoted his entire time 
and concentrated all his energies toward the su- 
pervision of the active details of the business, and 
his was the heart to resolve, the understanding 
to direct, and the hand to execute, all of its vari- 
ous transactions. For the past two years, how- 
ever, he has delegated to his son George many 
of the duties formerly performed by him, and 
he now acts more in an advisory capacity than as 
an active participant. 

In addition to his banking interests Mr. Ricker 
is one of the largest holders of real estate in the 
city of Quincy, his holdings consisting princi- 
pally of improved business and residence prop- 
erty. Fie also has property interests outside of 
the State. In the development of the city of his 
home he has been an important factor, and is 
interested as a stockholder in some of Quincy's 
leading industrial corporations, among which 
may be named the Quincy Gas Light & Coke 
Company, of which he is a director and the vice- 
president; and the Menke & Grimm Planing 
Company, of which he is also a director and the 
treasurer. Since its organization he has been 
identified with the German Insurance Company 
of Quincy, ws a stockholder and director, and 
during all that time he has been treasurer of 
the company, with the exception of two years, 
when he filled the office of president. 

In political faith Mr. Ricker is an uncompro- 
mising Democrat, and was his party's nominee 
for State treasurer in 1886. He is a warm sup- 
porter of President Cleveland, and a believer in 
"sound money" as being the true source of pros- 
perity to the nation, even though he appreciates 
the fact that "free coinage" would be of greater 
benefit to himself personally, in enhancing prices 
of his various properties. He is, however, broad- 
minded enough to look beyond mere individual 

While making no ostentatious parade of his 
religious views he is a firm believer in the doc- 
trine of Christianity as taught by the Roman 
Catholic Church, of which he is a consistent 

Mr. Ricker was married in November, 1852, 
to Miss Gertrude Tenk, of Quincy. Five chil- 
dren born of this union are living: Euphemia, 
the wife of George Fisher; Frank, who married 
Miss Katie C. Redmond; Josephine, now Mrs. 
Henry Doerr; George E., previously mentioned 
as cashier of the Ricker National Bank, whose 
wife was formerly Miss Josephine Wahl; and 
Frances, who resides with 'her parents. 




THE records of the lives of our forefathers 
are of interest to the modern citizen, not 
alone for their historical value but also for the 
inspiration and example they afford; yet we need 
not look to the past. Although surroundings 
may differ the essential conditions of human life 
are ever the same, and a man can learn from the 
success of those around him if he will heed the 
obvious lessons contained in their history. 

Turn to the life record of Charles Fargo, study 
carefully the plans and methods he has followed, 
and you will learn of a managerial ability seldom 
equaled. A man of keen perception, of great 
sagacity, of unbounded enterprise, his power 
nevertheless lies to a great extent in tliat quality 
which enables him to successful!}' control men and 
afTairs. The great American Express Company, 
scarcely second ii: importance to the postoffice de- 
partment of this countr}', embraces a volume of 
business that has increased until its proportions 
are almost astonishing in their vastness. At the 
head of its entire Western department, which in- 
cludes all west of Buffalo, stands Mr. Fargo, one 
of the most prominent figures in the world of 

The Fargo name, or Ferigo, as it is sometimes 
spelled in the original tongue, springs from the 
sunny peninsula washed by the blue waters of the 
Mediterranean and the Adriatic seas. While 
Ital}- gave us the great discoverer of the Western 
Continent, she has given us comparatively few of 
our colonists; but among those few were the an- 
cestors of Mr. Fargo, who can without difficulty 
trace his lineage to the ancient seat of the enipire 
of Rome, the land of Garibaldi and Cavour. The 
American progenitors, of which Mr. Fargo is a 
direct descendant, made a home in Connecticut, 
where his grandfather lived, and his father, Will- 
iam C. Fargo, was born. When \\'illiam grew to 
manhood he became a corporal in the anny of the 
war of 1812, and was stationed at Mackinaw, 
Michigan. On his return he located in Onon- 
daga county. Now York, and married Aliss Tacey 

In their home at Waten-alo, of that countv, was 

born their son, Charles, on the 15th of April, 1831. 
Spending his boyhood at home and in the public 
schools of his native town, his adventurous spirit 
led him to begin an independent career at the early 
age of fifteen years. Going to Buffalo he be- 
came a clerk in a book-store and held the position 
for two }ears. In June, 185 1, when he was twent)' 
years of age, he began his Western career at De- 
troit, and as a clerk for the American Express 
Company entered on a long and prosperous ser- 
vice, Vvhich as extended over forty years. Those 
ante-bellum days of service in the clerkship were 
the days of small things, not only for young Fargo 
but also for the company itself. The American 
Express Company's growth has been like that 
of the nation itself, so that this long service must 
be interpreted by that fact. In the course of the 
next fifteen years Air. Fargo's genius for the man- 
agement of tlie business of a great common car- 
rier caused his rapid promotion, so that he be- 
came the superintendent of the division covered by 
the State of Michigan. 

In January, 1865, Mr. Fargo's brother was 
promoted to the great general management of the 
whole company, with offices at Xew York, and 
Charles was sent to Chicago to replace him in 
the assistant management of the department of 
the Northwest. This position he held for the 
next sixteen years, and during all that period of 
vast extension in the West keeping pace with the 
railroad development. In 18S3 he became man- 
ager of this division, which was now called the 
Western Department and included all west of the 
city of Buffalo. For over a decade of his manage- 
n:ent the growth of the country has led to a four- 
fold development of their business. ?Ie has led 
all the manifold ramifications that have spread it 
over forty-five thousand miles of railway all 
told, and added to its force until this department 
alone employs an amiy of nine thousand men. 
The power to keep pace with the stupendous 
growth of the West, the most nian-elous re- 
corded in histon', was in itself a mighty test of his 
generalship, and he has Ix^rno the test. Since 1875 
he has also been a director of the company, and 



since 1882 the second vice-president and a mem- 
l)er of the executive committee. His only son, 
Livingston Wells, who graduated at Williams Col- 
lege and spent a year in foreign travel as a pre- 
paration for it, has now become his fathers as- 
sistant general manager of the Western Depart- 
ment of this great company. 

Mr. Fargo's capacity as an organizer and execu- 
tive have by no means been exhausted in the 
marvelous strides that the American Express 
Company has made under his leadership in the 
West. For twelve years he has also been a di- 
rector in the Elgin National Watch Company and 
also in the Northwestern Horse Nail Manufactur- 
ing Company of Chicago. The leaders in battle 
are extolled in story and song, yet praise is no less 
due to the leader in commercial circles, and the 
generalship displayed is no less commendable than 
that of him who leads his followers forth, per- 
chance to victory, perchance to death. One places 
before those whom he controls the means of death, 
the other the means of life. 

During a period of nearly twenty-eight years' 
residence in the metropolis of the West, Mr. 
Fargo has been prominently identified with its 
various public interests. He is a member of Christ 
Church, Refoniied Episcopal, of which Bishop 
Charles Edward Cheney is the rector, and of the 
social clubs he has been an old member of the 
Commercial, the Chicago, the Calumet and the 
Washington Park, and charter member of some 
of them. 

Mr. Fargo is a Republican in his political con- 
victions, and is one of the broad-minded business 
men, organizers, who have made the name of 
Chicago a synonym of success. 

He was married in 1854 to Miss ^lary J. Brad- 
ford, the daughter of Harvey Bradford, of Coop- 
erstown, Otsego county. New York. The forty 
years of their married life has been blessed by the 
presence of one son, who has already been referred 
to as a prominent official of the American Ex- 
press Company; and three daughters, — Irene, 
Adelaide P. and Florence B. 



Or>ED LEWIS was born in Gallagherville, 
Chester county, Pennsylvania, April 25, 
1812. His father, William Lewis, was a descend- 
ant in the sixth generation from the progenitor 
of the American branch of the family who emi- 
grated from Wales in 1692 and settled among 
the followers of William Penn in the province 
(now State) of Pennsylvania. For several genera- 
tions his descendants have lived in peace and 
contenlment in the Quaker settlement in Chester 
county; and the old homestead in which William 
Lewis, father of our subject, was born in 1776, is 
still standing. Through his mother, Margaret 
Lewis, ?nr Cunningham, Lewis is connected with 
individual ancestors who served patriotically in the 
war of the Revolution. His maternal great- 
grandfather, Colonel Robert Smith, was a mem- 
ber of the committee of safety and for a long 
time was colonel of light horse dragoons 
which he organized in Chester county, Pennsyl- 
vania. He built Fort Billingsport, and had a 

sword presented to him by the convention for de- 
fending the fort at the time of its capture. 

The early life of Obed was uneventful. He at- 
tended country school for two winters previous 
to reaching twelve years of age, when his father 
died; from that time until he was sixteen he 
worked at farm work. He was then bound as an 
apprentice to a carriage-maker in New Holland, 
Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, and received 
as a remuneration twenty dollars annually in ad- 
diton to his board and washing. He then worked 
as a journeyman in Philadelphia, Camden and 
Wilmington, Delaware, in Danville, Virginia, 
and Milton, North Carolina. He then returned 
to Philadelphia and for three years worked at 
his trade. 

He was frugal and economical, and from his 
meagre earnings had accumulated a few hundred 
dollars. Being informed through Dr. Wallace, 
a physician of New Holland, who had purchased 
a drug store in Springfield, Illinois, and moved 




thither, that splendid opportunities were offered 
to practical young men, he determined to move 
westward. With eight companions, ^tr. Lewis 
arrived in Springfield, in May, 1838. He found 
employment at his trade in the service of Enos 
Hinkle. Before he had worked a year Mr. Hin- 
kle became financially involved and Mr. Lewis, 
associated with Henry Van Hoff, purchased the 
business. The partnership thus began continued 
until the death of Mr. Van Hoff, sixteen years 

When Mr. Lewis and his partner purchased the 
l>usiness the entire amount of capital invested was 
$800, and the output was comparatively small. 
Mr. Lewis was an indefatigable worker, and under 
his care and super\^ision the business rapidly in- 
creased, and in 1868 he decided to discontinue. 
Since then Mr. Lewis has given his time and atten- 
tion to real estate and banking interests. He has 
erected many houses in Springfield and is inter- 
ested in real estate. For eight years he was 
treasurer of the water-works company and for 
twenty-three years was a member of the board of 
trustees of Oak Ridge cemetery. He is now and 
has been for several years vice-president of the 
Marine State Bank. 

Politically Mr. Lewis is allied with the Demo- 
cratic party, and since the time of Andrew Jack- 
son, for whom he cast his first vote, he has been 
a devoted adherent of Democratic principles. He 
has been honored by his fellow citizens with posi- 
tions of honor and trust, and in all capacities 
has conducted his affairs in an honorable and 
worthy manner. In 1S62 he was elected a mem- 
ber of the cununon council and served in that 

body for eight years. During the years 1874-5 
he filled the mayor's chair and conducted the 
affairs of that position with ability and dignity. 

Mr. Lewis was united in marriage, on Septem- 
ber 23, 1851, to Miss Cordelia M. Ties, daughter 
of Washmgton lies. T^Trs. Lewis' family is num- 
bered among the early settlers of Illinois. She 
dieil on the 24th of December, i88q, survived by 
her husband and three children. The youngest, 
Mary, resides with her father; the eldest, Will- 
iam T., is engaged in lianking; and Kate is 
tlie wife of R. F. Herndoii, a merchant of Spring- 

Mr. Lewis has now reached his eighty-second 
year and can look backward over a life well spent, 
and in his ripe old age he can truthfully state that 
what he has done he has done well, and that 
his life has been a success; his life has been what 
he has made it. He started out in the business 
world as poor as the poorest of boys, and that he 
has succeeded is due solely to ability, steadfast 
purpose and indefatigable industry. 

He has long since rounded the Psalmist's span 
of three-score years and ten, and with his mental 
and physical vigor unimpaired overcoming the 
customary and usual infirmities and weaknesses of 
age by active participation in the living issues and 
events of the day. Surrounded at his home by 
a circle of friends who appreciate his true worth, 
and admired and esteemed by the citizens of the 
connnunity, his name will be honored for many 
generations as that of one of the most enterprising 
of the early settlers of Springfield — a man who 
has acted well his part and who has lived a 
worthy and honorable life. 

hp:nry t. noble, 

liorn May 3, 1829, at the village of Otis, 
Massachusets, and among the beautiful Berk- 
shire hills he grew to man's estate. His family 
was of New England stock, whose first Amer- 
ican ancestor, Thomas Noble, emigrated from 
England and settled in Boston prior to 1^)33, 
later removing to Springlii'ld and tlunce to 

Westfield in the same State, where his declining 
years were passed and where his death occurred. 
To one of our subject's temperament and am- 
bition the drowsy existence afforded in a small 
Massachusetts village was far from congenial, and 
he resolved to follow the tide of emigration that 
was flowing westward. lie broached the subject 
til his f;itlK'r,anil nffereil.nslu' was not yet of age. 



to buv his time, a proposition to which his father 
finally consented, and the young- man sold his life 
insurance and with the proceeds made the pur- 
chase. It was in 1850 that he came to Dixon. 
not possessed of many of the world's goods, 
hut rich in those rare possessions that only a 
liig-h cliaracter can give — integrity and industry. 
For the subsequent two years his time was fully 
employed in teaching and as a clerk in the land 
office. In 1852 he went South and purchased 
land warrants of soldiers who had fought in the 
Mexican war, and in carrying out this enterprise 
he visited the States of Missouri, Texas, Alabama 
and Kentucky, making the venture very profit- 
able. On his return to Illinois he engaged with 
his uncle, Silas Xoble. in the banking and real- 
estate business, a connection that continued until 

I'Vom boyhood he had always been greatly 
interested in national affairs, and kept himself 
well informed regarding the government of the 
country and the living issues of the day. As 
soon as old enough he took part in local politics, 
throwing the weight of his influence on the side 
of the party he considered in the right. He 
watched with interest and anxiety the events that 
led up to the civil war; and, when hostilities were 
conmienced and Lincoln issued his call for vol- 
unteers to aid in suppressing the rebellion, Henry 
T. Noble's name was the first on the muster roll 
in Lee county, and in April 17, 1861, five days 
after the firing on Fort Sumter, he was enlisted 
under his country's flag. Three days later he was 
chosen lieutenant of Company A, Thirteenth 
Illinois Infantrj', and on the 24th of the following 
month he became captain of his company. 
Throughout the entire period of the war, and 
until the fall of 1866 he was in active service. 
During that time he took part in many impor- 
tant engagements, and his value as a leader was 
duly recognized by his promotion from the rank 
of captain to be successively major, lieutenant- 
colonel and colonel of his regiment. His ad- 
vancements in rank resulted from his intrepid 
daring and coolness in the face of the enemv, 
and his skill in handling his troops in the heat of 
battle. The Thirteenth Illinois was the first reg- 
iment to cross the Mississippi into the hostile 
regions of the State of ^Missouri, and the greater 

part of the time for the following two years it 
was on duty in Jvlissouri and Arkansas, and did 
great execution among the rebels. Later it per- 
formed gallant ser\'ice in the Vicksburg cani- 
paign, participating in all the important battles 
fought in the vicinity of that city, and in its 
siege and capture. Colonel Xoble was appointed 
a member of General J. J. Reynolds' staff, and 
subsequently served on the stafif of General 
E. O. C. Ord. In the spring of 1865 he was 
appointed to the important office of chief quar- 
termaster of the Department of Arkansas, and 
continued as such until his honorable discharge 
from the army, October 5, 1866. ]Many favorable 
comments were made by his superior officers 
iipon his fitness for so responsible a position 
and upon the faithful manner in which he dis- 
charged the duties pertaining thereto. Quar- 
temiaster-General M. C. Aleiggs said of him in 
his official communication to the authorities at 
Washington: "Colonel Noble has performed 
the duties of quartermaster to the entire satis- 
faction of all concerned, and has won the confi- 
dence and esteem of all who know him." Gen- 
eral J. N. Crittenden, in a communication to 
the War Department, bearing date December 10, 
1866, says: "For the excellent order in which 
all books, papers, cash accounts, etc., have been 
kept, thanks are due to Colonel Noble's able man- 
agement of the duties devolving upon him, and 
to his untiring devotion to his work. His stand- 
ing as a man of pure and incorruptible character 
is liigh with all who know him, and I deem him 
capable of carrying out any and all plans in the 
quartermaster's department." 

Upon his retirement from the army Colonel 
Noble returned to his home in Dixon, and 
resumed his business career. He purchased an 
interest in the Grand Detour Plow Company, 
and from that time until his death was a leading 
spirit in the affairs of the company. 

During all these years he aided every prospect 
calculated to enhance the best interests of the city 
of his home, and labored early and late in what- 
ever direction he could, to accomplish wished-for 
results. Some of the city's most prominent man- 
ufacturing establishments owe the fact of their 
being located at Dixon to the indefatigable 
energy displayed by Colonel Noble. No task 



was too difficult for him to undertake, provid- 
ing its satisfactory completion promised another 
step forward for the citv. In many instances 
it was uphill work, yet he did not give up, 
hut persevered in the face of every discourage- 
ment, and never relaxed in his energy and his 

In the affairs of the Grand Army of the Repub- 
lic Colonel Noble took a deep interest. He was 
a member of Dixon Post, G. A. R., of the military 
order of the Loyal Legion, and March 31, 1873, 
he joined the Army of the Tennessee. He was also 
a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fel- 
lows. In politics he was ever a stanch and loyal 
Republican, and enjoyed a personal acquaintance 
and friendship with both Lincoln and Grant. He 
was twice a presidential elector on his party's 
ticket and in 1880, when a delegate to the Repub- 
lican national convention, did himself and his 
constituents honor as one of tlie immortal "306" 
that voted for Grant on every ballot. He was 
also a member of the commission appointed to 
locate the State Soldiers' Home, and used his 
influence, though ineffectually, in favor of Dixon. 
In 1890 he was chosen mayor of Dixon, and it 
was but a few weeks after his retirement from 
that office that his final illness occurred. An 
attack of pneumonia was intensified by a pre- 
vious illness — with la grippe — and in spite of the 
best of medical skill he passed away on the 15th 
day of April, 1891. 

Colonel Noble was twice married. His first 
wife, whose maiden name was Jane A. Herrick, 
died May 4, 1873. His second wife, who survives 
him, was formerly Miss Mary Augusta Hampton, 
a native of New York. The following estimate of 

Colonel Noble's character is from the pen of 
Hon B. F. Shaw, of Dixon, who was for many 
years his trusted and devoted friend: 

"As an enterprising business man and a patri- 
otic citizen, Colonel Noble was too well known to 
need a word from us. He but a few days sJncc 
closed a term as mayor of our city, and it is gen- 
erally conceded that Dixon never had a more 
painstaking and efficient chief magistrate. So 
earnest was he in protecting the public interest 
that even his warm friendships would not 
swer\'e him from looking after the interests of 
the city. He was positive and decided for the 
right, and no power could be brought to change 
him from a line of duty. To Colonel Noble 
more than to any other one citizen are we 
indebted for the prosperit)' Dixon now enjoys. 
His manifest liberality, executive ability and 
indomitable energy gave this people what they 
would not have had without him, and now that 
he is no more the people will soon learn that his 
loss is an irreparable one for this connnnnity. 
Having worked with him for days and weeks, 
at home and abroad, on behalf of Dixon, we 
know whereof we speak when we say Dixon 
never had a more loyal friend. 

"Colonel Noble's patriotism was riot confined 
to this city nor the State. It was as broad ami 
grand as the vast republic, and it was not con- 
fined to the State lines. Neither was his kindly 
heart bound by race or even limits of a love for 
his fellow mau, now that we recall the fact that 
he was the originator in our city of a society for 
the prevention of cruelty to animals, and was one 
of its most active members in protecting those 
who could not protect themselves." 



ONE of the busiest, most energetic and most lineage in an unbroken line to Colonel Henry 

enterprising men of Springfield, Illinois, is Ridgely, "Major of the Troop," who came to 

Charles Ridgely" He bears in his veins some of America and settled in Maryland about 165S. He 

the best blood of our early colonists, and is in married Elizabeth Howard. Their children were 

every way a splendiil tvpe of our liest American Henry, Charles and Sarah. 

citizenship IIenr>- Ridgely (.2) married Kathenne. eldest 

On the paternal side Mr. i^idgely traces his daughter of Colonel Nicholas C.reenbury. 


nroGRAPinCAL diction^art and portrait gallery of the 

Their children were Henry, Nicholas, Charles, 
Ann and Elizabeth. 

Hcnrv (3) married Elizabeth Warfield, and 
had issue as follows: Catherine, Ann, Green- 
berrv, Henry, Nicholas, Benjamin, Joshua, 
Charles Greenberry, Elizabeth, Thomas. Nich- 
olas Greenberry and Sarah. 

Greenberry (fourth generation) married Jane 
Stringer. Their children were; Greenberry, 
Henry, Richard, Frederick, Ann, Lydia, Henry 
(their first son of that name having died), Eliza- 
beth, Sarah and Nicholas. 

Greenberrj- (fifth generation) married Rachel 
Ryan and had the following children: Lloyd, 
Lot, Noah, Silas, Mary, Susan, Rhoda, Sarah, 
Ann, Greenberr\% Isaiah, James and Nicholas. 

Nicholas (sixth generation) married first Jane 
O. Vincent. Their children were: Mary Jane, 
Sarah E. Vincent, Sophia Niles, Redick McKee 
and Henry. His second wife was Jane Maria 
Huntington, who bore him issue as follows: 
Charles, subject of this article, Julia Pearson, 
William, Anna, Mary, Jane Maria, Henderson, 
Octavia and Randolph. 

A remarkable fact about this somewhat numer- 
ous family is worthy of mention, which is that 
for the long period of thirty-six years after the 
oldest and youngest of the children died, there 
was not a death to break the family ranks. Then 
(1893) Henrj- died, and the other twelve children 
still (1895) survive. 

The mother of Charles Ridgely was Jane Maria, 
nee Huntington, whose father was a nephew of 
Hon. Samuel Huntington, signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence and president of the first 
American Congress. The name of Huntington 
appears prominently, and always honorablv, on 
almost every page of our American history from 
the advent of the pioneer family of that name in 
1633 to the present day. They have been 
through the generations noted for splendid 
physique, courtly and gracious bearing, fine men- 
tal equipoise and unswerving integrity. 

Mr. Ridgely's mother descended in the mater- 
nal line from another family, which has for many, 
generations played a prominent part in our coun- 
try's history and development. Tlie Lothrops 
or Lathrops (both names having the same 
common origin) are all descended from Rev. John, 

the pioneer who came to America and established 
a church in Scituate, Massachusetts, as early as 
1634. The history of his championship of the 
cause of religious liberty, the persecution, impris- 
onment, etc., which he suffered in England, and 
which finally drove him to our Colonial shores, 
are matters familiar to all students of the early 
history of our country. His descendants have 
spread abroad in our land, and wherever found 
are people of position and consequence in the 

Charles Ridgely was born in Springfield, Illi- 
nois, January 17, 1836. After receiving the usual 
course at the public schools of his native town, 
he attended the Illinois College, at Jacksonville, 
but left the institution at the end of his sophomore 
year to accept a place in Clark's Exchange Bank 
in Springfield, of which institution his father was 
president. He entered the bank in ]\Iarch, 1852, 
as messenger. His promotion was rapid and he 
became cashier of the bank before attaining his 
majority. In 1855 the affairs of Clark's Ex- 
change Bank were wound up, and N. H. Ridgely 
organized a private bank, of which Charles 
Ridgely was cashier. 

In 1859 the private bank of N. H. Ridgely & 
Company was organized by N. H. and Charles 
Ridgely. In 1864 William Ridgely was ad- 
mitted to the firm. In 1866 the Ridgely Na- 
tional Bank was organized, and in 1891, after the 
expiration of the original charter, it was re- 
organized. Mr. Charles Ridgely has been vice- 
president of the Ridgely National Bank since its 

While Mr. Ridgely has thus been actively en- 
gaged as a banker for more than forty years, this 
has been but an incident in his business career. 
In 1854 the Springfield Gas Company was organ- 
ized by his father, and our subject was for a time 
secretar)', succeeding his brother, R. M. Ridgely, 
who was its first secretary; at the present time 
he is a director in the company. He is president 
of the Springfield Iron Company, which he or- 
ganized in 1871, with a capital of $600,000.' He 
is also a director of the Springfield Electric Light 
and Power Company. 

He was a director in the Springfield City Rail- 
road Company until it was sold out and organ- 
ized as an electric road. 



In 1848 his father and Colonel Thomas Mather 
had bought the Northern Cross Railroad, which 
they rebuilt between Springfield and Naples. This 
road afterward became a part of the Wabash, 
and in the winter of 1877-8, while Charles was 
abroad, he was elected a director of the Wabash 
system, in which capacity he served nine years, 
during the most interesting period of the history 
of the road, under the presidency of such men as 
James A. Rooseveldt, Cyrus W. Field, Solon 
Humphreys, Conmiodore Garrison and Jay 
Gould, and his connection with the road brought 
him into personal and familiar contact with this 
truly remarkable galaxy of men. 

Mr. Ridgely has been, and now is, largely inter- 
ested in the coal trade. Years ago he became 
president of the Ellsworth Coal Company, and 
later he and his associates bought it, increased 
its capacity and afterward merged it into the Con- 
solidated Coal Company of St. Louis, with a cap- 
ital stock of $5,000,000. He has been president 
of this company since its organization in 1886. 
They have acquired eighty-one different collieries, 
located mainly in the vicinity of St. Louis, and on 
nine different lines of railroad. They employ 
over 5,000 men and have an output of about 
3,000,000 tons of lump coal per year. 

He is the senior member of the firm of Charles 
and Franklin Ridgely, who own the Sangamo 
Stock Farm, located just outside the city limits of 
Springfield, and devoted mainly to breeding and 
rearing trotting horses. The head of the stud is 
Conductor by Electioneer, dam Sontag Mohawk. 
Seven of her colts are in the list. In all branches of 
business in which he engages, Mr. Ridgely becomes 
a leader, and altliough horse-raising is but an in- 
cident in his business life, the prominent position 
he has taken in that industry is evidenced by the 
fact that he has recently been elected president 
of the Illinois Horse Breeders' Association. 

He has always been deeply interested in the 
cause of education and was one of the organizers 
of the Public Library of Springfield, of which he 
is a director. He was for several years a member 
of the City School Board. He is a trustee of the 
Illinois College, and that institution has con- 
ferred on him the honorary degree of A. M., — an 
unusual proceeding. 

Soon after the outl)rcak of the civil war it was 

feared the Confederates would take possession of 
Cairo, and Swift's brigade of Illinois militia was 
ordered there from Chicago to prevent its cap- 
ture. One hundred thousand dollars was fur- 
nished the governor by the banks of Springfield 
with which to defray the expenses of this expedi- 
tion. Mr. Ridgely took an active part in raising 
these funds and was appointed paymaster general, 
of the State of Illinois,— virtually treasurer,— of 
the expedition, as the following document will 
show : 

Order No. 9. 

Gener.'VL Headquarters, 
Office of Commander-in-chief, 
Springfield, III., Apr. 18, 1S61. 
Charles Ridgc/v, 

Dear Sir: — You are hereby appointed Pavmas- 
ter General of the Illinois \''olunteer Militia until 
they are mustered into the ser\-ice of the United 
States. Yours respectfully 

Richard Yates. 


The above is a brief enumeration of some of 
the more important events in the career of Mr. 
Ridgely during his forty-three years of active 
business life. 

Notwithstanding this remarkable demand upon 
his energies, he finds time for social recreation 
and pleasure. He is a member of the Chicago 
Club, Mercantile Club of St. Louis and Sangamo 
Club of Springfield. 

One thing which we find in Mr. Ridgely 's es- 
thetic constitution, and which for so busv a man 
may be accounted unusual, is his great love of 
art. His contact with the busy world of com- 
merce and with men of affairs has not dulled the 
art instinct in his nature, which was largelv in- 
herited from his father; but his extensive travels 
over the world have rather tended to cultivate 
and broaden this faculty by affording observati<in 
of the world's masterpieces. Some years ago 
various local art societies in the State of Illinois 
formed an association and organized tlKMnscIvcs 
into the Central Illinois Art I'nion. Mr. Ridgelv 
was the first president of the society and held 
that position several years. The Union helii an- 
nual meetings, and its object was the discussion 
and promotion of the study of art. He has been 
abroad five times and traveled extciisivdy in 
most of the countries of Europe, and has spent 
many of the happiest hours of his life in the art 



galleries of the okl and new world. He states 
that there has not been -a year since 1870 in which 
he has traveled less than twenty thousand miles. 

The .stranger in walking through the city of 
Springfield is attracted by many admirable build- 
ings. One structure that draws the attention of 
those who admire artistic architecture is Christ 
church. A brief mention of this edifice is a neces- 
sary part of the biography of our subject. At 
the suggestion of his cousin, George Webster, of 
Armour & Company of Chicago, Mr. Ridgely 
joined with him in a plan to erect a memorial 
church to their mothers, who were sisters. Pur- 
suing that plan they built Christ church, which 
in everv respect displays the refined taste of its 
builders ami is a fitting nienuirial to two noble 

Mr. Ridgely was married in 1857 to Jane :\Iaria 
Barret, of Springfield, daughter of an old \'ir- 
ginia gentleman, James W. Barret. They have 
four children viz.: William Barret Ridgely, vice- 
president and genera] manager of the Spring- 
field Iron Company, who married Ella, a daughter 
of Senator Cullom. Edward Ridgely, cashier of 
The Ridgely National Bank, who married Fannie 

Clark, of Springfield ; Franklin Ridgely, manager 
of the Sangamo Stock Farm, whose wife was 
Hall\ Elliott, of Springfield; and Mary Lee, wfe 
of Judge William A. Vincent, of Chicago. 

Although only interested in politics as a citizen 
anxious for good goveniment. ^fr. Ridgely has 
made a careful study of political matters and none 
of the citizens of Illinois are better infomied 
upon national affairs. He has frequently been 
called upon to deliver addresses upon various 
subjects pertaining to politics, labor, societ)' and 
art, and he has in all instances displayed a deep- 
seated knowledge of the subject matter. Being 
a successful man of business, controlling, as he 
does, millions of dollars of capital, his ability to 
advise what is best for the general welfare should 
be and is greater than that of an individual whose 
scope is more limited. Mr. Ridgely has made 
good use of his opportunities. He is vigorous 
and well presei-vcd, with a remarkable faculty for 
the conduct and dispatch of business. 

Courteous, genial, well informed, alert and en- 
terprising, he stajids to-day one of the leading 
representative men of his State, — a man who is 
a power in his community. 


ONE of the most straightforward, energetic 
and successful business men who ever lived 
in Moline was the late Robert Kerr Swan, a 
native of Huntingdon county, Pennsylvania. 
He was born July 19, 1825; was reared on a farm 
and received an ordinary English education. 
^^'hen he was fourteen vears old the family moved 
to T'reble county, Ohio, v>-liere our subject 
remained until March, 1852, when he came to 
IVTolinc. He brought empt>' pockets, but a large 
stock of pluck and perseverance, sound sense, 
and industrious habits. lie commenced work 
here for Alonzo Nourse, as traveling salesman 
for fanning mills, meeting with success from the 
staat and making many valuable acquaintances. 
In 1854 he formed a partnership with Henrys 
W. Candec, and they commenced the manufacture 
of chain pumps and hay-rakes, and Mr. Swan 

went on tJie road as salesman He met with 
unexpected and very great success, and the firm 
found themselves on the road to fortune. Andrew 
Friberg joined them in 1865, and the firm of 
Candee, Swan & Company soon became broadly 
and favorably known. In 1866 Mr. Swan sug- 
gested to his partners the propriety of starting 
a shop for the manufacture of steel plows and 
cultivators. His associates, including George 
Stephens, who had joined the firm, seconded his 
plans, and in a short time the great manufactory 
at the corner of Main street and Rodman avenue 
was erected and ready for use. The establish- 
ment has since been enlarged three or four times, 
and the Moline Plow Company, which name the 
firm took in 1870. has had a wonderful success. 
IMr. Swan was chosen president of the company 
and held that position at the time of his death. 




May 25, 1878, his disease being crysi[)clas. No 
funeral that has ever occurred in Moline drew 
out such a muhitude of mourners. All the busi- 
ness houses were closed and the whole city 
turned out to bewail their great loss. At the time 
of his demise a Rock Island paper thus spoke of 
him : 

" Mr. Swan was known all over the North- 
west, from the source of the Ohio river to the 
mouth of the Columbia, and could count his 
friends by the thousand. As an indication of 
the esteem in which he was held, and of the inter- 
est that was taken in his case during his illness, 
it may be stated that telegrams inquiring about 
his condition were received from every quarter 
of the Northwest, and many a man on his way 
East or West stopped over a few hours in Moline 
to leam something of the condition of Mr. Swan. 
His life was full of incidents of great actions, in 
which he was the principal. The soldier boys 
who fell wounded on the field after the battle of 
Stone river will never forget his kindness to them. 
He was sent from Moline by the people to look 
after the dead and wounded who had gone from 
our midst to fight the battles of freedom. He 
arrived at the enemy's lines and was told that 
he could not go any farther, and probably there 
were few men in the country who would ha\'e 
attempted to disobey; but Mr. Swan went through 
the lines and cared for the wounded Moline boys 
who were lying on the battle-field waiting for 
death at the hands of a brutal rebel soldiery. He 
provided for their wants, and saw that they had 
as good treatment as could be obtained, and when 
he returned to Moline he brought home with him 
the body of Lieutenant Wellington Wood, one 
of proline's favorite sons, who fell in that bloody 
battle. There was nothing too hard for Mr. 
Swan to undertake, or too difficult for him to 
execute. He was one of those men who knew 
no such word as fail, and all his deeds were char- 
acterized by Christian virtue. He was for many 
years, and at the time of his death, a member 
of the Congregational Church, and gave liberally 
of his means to the Lord's cause- In politic^ 
he was a Republican of the stanchest kind, whose 
faith and allegiance never wavcrc<1- In Mr. 
Swan's death, Moline has been depriwd of one 
of its best, most useful and public ■spiritc<l citi- 

zens, and the \'( irtlnve-t has lost one of the most 
energetic Inisiness men it ever knew. The rich 
and poor alike will mourn his loss, for he was 
beloved by men of every walk in life." 

Rev. E. C. Barnard, his pastor, in his address 
at the funeral of Mr. Swan, after referring at 
length to his home life, his devotion to family, 
church, city, his interest in the men he employed, 
and his standing as a neighbor, said: " But this 
seme to-day has a larger and an invisible audi- 
ence reaching beyond home, factory, church, 
city. Scattered all over this land, from the 
Alleghanies to the Golden Gate and Pacific ocean, 
from the pines and snows of Lake Superior all 
through the great Mississippi valley to Florida 
and Texas, are thousands of men who knew and 
loved Mr. Swan. Few men have traveled so 
much and still fewer have his wonderful habit 
of becoming acquainted with strangers, and in a 
day or night, in business, or on a train or steamer 
making life-long friends. This scattered crowd 
would be a strange and characteristic one. It 
would have many of the first business men of the 
land, it would have scores of traveling men, 
it would have agents and employees, there 
would be hotel men and railroad men, men who 
conduct fairs and expositions, and young 
men who have had a kind hand given 
them, and a word of heartfelt and thought- 
ful advice. And not less honoring to him 
would be the mothers, widows, helpless ones, 
lie has found in any way or anywhere in his com- 
ings and goings, to whom he has given sympathy 
and help. Human trouble or appeal never foiuul 
in him an indifferent spectator. No matter who 
it was, or what it was, Mr. Swan knew only one 
way to do, and that was to act the good Samari- 
tan. A helpless woman at Salt Lake or .'Sacra- 
mento, a sorrowing mother at Cairo bringing a 
dead boy home from the war, a child poor or 
lost in Omaha, a man in the Rocky mountain 
region who had in business fell aniong thieves 
and been stripped, would set all his activities at 
work as soon as scenes of trouble would in his 
own home or city. 

" iVfr. .Swan was a man among men. No man 
or class designation was broad enough to char- 
acterize him. lie knew no limitations of sect, 
race or condition. He was always helping the 



needy, and always turning up just wlien and was Mercy Parsons, and whom he married at 

where lie was needed. 

"If a 'thing was to be done he talked of 
nothing but doing it. He did what others 
only think about doing; he was pre-eminently a 
man of action." 

Mr. Swan left a wife, whose maiden name 

Woodstock, Illinois, December 17, 1856, and 
four children, whose names are Lillie E., Rob- 
ert E., Clara B., and Edith L. In addition to 
a competency, he left his family the legacy of 
a good name, which is better than silver or 


MO.SE.S DILLON was born at Zanesville, 
Ohio, on the 19th day of September, 1845, 
being the youngest of the five children of Lloyd 
and Margaret (Culbcrtson) Dillon; the former 
was of Quaker ancestry. Lloyd Dillon and his 
father erected and operated the first iron-rolling 
mill west of the Alleghanies. 

In 1854 the family removed from Zanesville to 
Dixon, Illinois, where they resided for the ensuing 
four years, and where Moses obtained the rudi- 
ments of his education at the local schools. In 
1860 the family removed to Sterling, and our sub- 
ject continued his studies there, supplementing the 
instruction thus received by a year's course at the 
Rock Island high school. Returning to Sterling, 
he entered the employ of D. M. Crawford, a dry- 
goods merchant, on a small salary, and remained 
there until after the breaking out of the Rebellion, 
when he enlisted in Company A 140th Illinois 
Infantry, and with his regiment went to Dixon, 
where for a short time they were in camp, and 
Avere then transferred to Camp Butler, at Spring- 
field, where several weeks were spent in acquiring 
tactical knowledge. From Springfield the regi- 
ment was ordered to Memphis, Tennessee, where 
it caimped a few weeks, and was then sent out on 
the line of the Memphis & Charleston Railroad, 
where the summer was passed in guarding the 
railroad. Upon being relieved of this duty the 
regiment returned to Memphis, and then went to 
Chicago, where it remained but a short time, go- 
mg thence to St. Louis and out into Missouri to 
thwart tlie plans of General Price, who was c// 
roiiu- to capture that city. Price was driven from 
the State, and by the work of the troops St. Louis 
was saved, as is attested by Genera) Rosecrans. 

Returning to St. Louis, they then went back to 
Chicago and were mustered out of the service. 

After being mustered out Mr. Dillon again en- 
tered the service, and was detailed on special duty 
under Generals Sheridan and Morrow, in Texas, 
with the army of observation on the Rio Grande. 
This duty being performed he returned to Sterling 
and resumed civilian life, entering into a partner- 
ship with Charles Smith, and conducting a mer- 
chandise business under the firm name of Smith 
& Dillon, which was continued for ten years with 
great success. In 1875 Mr. Dillon purchased the 
interest of Judge Colder in the lumber and grain 
concern of Colder & Son, and has since devoted 
his time and attention to that business, which he 
has greatly enlarged and amplified. He has no 
partners, and his success has been great. His 
lumber yard, coal yard and elevators now cover 
three blocks of ground. Mr. Dillon is also secre- 
tary of the Dillon Milling Company of Rock Falls, 

Mr. Dillon is one of the prominent members of 
the Grand Army of the Republic, and in 1888 
was commander of Will Robinson Post, No. 174, 
of Sterling. During his incumbency of this office 
he originated the idea of erecting at Sterling a 
monument to the soldiers who fell in the Civil 
war. y\n association was organized, Mr. Dillon 
being elected president, and the sum of five thou- 
sand dollars was raised with which the monument 
was purchased. The dedication, over which Mr. 
Dillon presided, was one of the events in the city's 
history. Mr. Dillon served as a member of the 
stafT of the commander-in-chief when General 
Warner held that office. 

Our subject is equally active in the affairs of the 

^ /'/ 



Odd Fellows' fraternity. He was captain of Lin- 
coln Canton, No. 22, and promoted to the lieu- 
tenant-colonelcy of the Second Regiment, Patri- 
archs Militant. He is at the present time colonel 
on the staff of Lieutenant General John C. Un- 

A lover of travel he has journeyed over much 
of the Union, and has gathered a rare and valu- 
al)lc collection of curios during his various travels. 

Mr. Dillon is married and has five children, two 
sons and three daughters — two of the latter being 
married. The familv are attendants of the Presby- 

terian church, of which Mr. Dillon has for seven- 
teen years been a trustee. The family residence, 
"Hawthonie \'illa," situated on the western out- 
skirts of Sterling, is one of the beautiful homes 
of the city and a truly ideal spot. 

Air. Dillon's success in life he attributes to 
the influence of his mother, who was ever in- 
stilling in his mind the principles of honor and 
integrity. To this may be added his own in- 
domitable energy and the close and assidu- 
ous attention he has paid to the minute portions 
of his affairs. 



HISTORIC Bloomington has been the home 
and scene of labor of man\ men who have 
not only led lives that should serve as an example 
to those v/ho come after them but have also been 
of important service to their city and State 
through various avenues of usefulness. Among 
them must be named Allen Withers, who passed 
away in the early days of 1864, after a life of 
industry, and rich in those rare possessions 
which only a high character can give. For 
many years he labored with all the strength of 
a great nature and all the earnestness of a true 
heart for the bettering of the world about him; 
and when he was called to the rest and reward 
of the higher world his best monument was found 
in the love and respect of the community in which 
he lived for so many years. 

Mr. Withers was born January 21, 1807, on 
a farm in Jessamine county, Kentucky, about 
seven miles from the city of Nicholasvillc. He 
came of Welsh-Irish ancestry, and his life-work 
shows that he inherited all of the best qualities 
of those strong and hardy races. His early life 
was uneventful, being in no respect different from 
that of the average boy of that day, atid his op- 
portunities for education were very meager. Such 
as they were, however, he improved them; and, 
bemg naturally of a studious disiMsilion, he ac- 
quired a substantial education in the English 
branches of study. 

At an carlv age he showed a marked inclina- 

tion for commercial pursuits and a great love 
for travel ; and at the age of eighteen he journeyed 
through the States of Missouri and Indiana. — no 
small undertaking at that day. On this trip he 
transacted some business, but not a great 
deal, as his object was to obtain amusement and 
information and to visit friends who resided in 
those States. During the journey he acquired a 
large fund of information respecting men and af- 
fairs, and familiarized himself with the methods 
of the conmiercial world. 

Entering then upon his business career, he pur- 
chased horses and mules in Missouri and took 
them to Mexico, where he sold them; and yet at 
this time he was but a youth ! For two years he re- 
mained in that country, trading with the Mexi- 
cans and Indians, acquiring a knowledge of both 
the Spanish and Indian dialects that enabled him 
to converse fluently in either. He became ac- 
quainted with the Indian character and mode of 
life, becoming a great favorite with them; and 
it is to be regretted that his experiences in that 
distant land ha'fc not been preserved in perma- 
nent form, for they would undoubtedly prove a 
most interesting and valuable addition to pur 
knowledge of that peo])le. He suffered many 
hardships and privations, being frequentlyoblii^ed 
to subsist for weeks on sugar! Xotwithstaiiding 
.-ill this, he made but little money, as many of his 
liorses and mules went astray in the wild Mexi- 
can cciunlrv. 



In Augiist, 1S34, he came to Illinois-, to whicli 
State his father had removed two }, cars previ- 
ously, and located in IMcLean county. During 
the ensuing spring he entered the dry goods store 
of I\t. L. Covel as a clerk. Shortly afterward his 
father bought out this establishment, and with 
his sons' assistance conducted the business. 

(As a matter of historic interest it may here be 
mentioned that in 1837 our subject took the cen- 
sus of Bloomington, at wliich time the popula- 
tion amounted to one hundred and eighty 

In the fall of 1837 Mr. Withers' brother-in-law 
paid him a visit; and the former, desiring to make 
his sojourn pleasant, endeavored to furnish some 
cif the lu.xuries of civilization, and hunted over 
the countrv for two days trying to find some but- 
ter, succeeded in olitaining one pound of the 
precious substance! It is impossible to realize 
at the present time what discomforts were under- 
gone bv the pioneer settlers of the great West: 
and the above is but an instance of one in many. 

In 1837-8 Mr. Withers was unfortunate in 
business, that period being the noted "hard 
times" consequent upon the projection of so 
many public improvemets beyond the financial 
ability of the people, and in the spring of 1839 
moved to Waterloo, Clark county, Missouri, and 
a short time thereafter to Alexandria, on the Mis- 
sissippi river, a village that was laid out by ]\lr. 
Withers' brother and his brother-in-law, Dr. 
Mitchell. Here the Doctor conducted a store, 
in which Mr. Withers was received as a clerk. 
He built a two-story log house on some land 
given him by his brother-in-law, and his wife 
kept boarders, — at times as many as ten, — in or- 
der to keep his head above water in his struggle 
for success. After eighteen months of working 
and saving in Alexandria Mr. Withers was ena- 
bled to purchase eighty- acres of land in Waterloo, 
at twenty cents an acre, and there he built for 
himself a home, which he afterward sold for six 
hundred dollars. 

In 1847, ^^ his father's earnest request, he re- 
turned to Bloomington and entered the dry goods 
business with William H. Temple; but he did 
not continue in this line very long. Selling out, 
he engaged in the hardware trade for three years. 
Later he disposed of that business and rejoined 

Mr. Temple in the dr\- goods trade ; but not long 
afterward he again gave up this vocation and be- 
gan trading in stock and cultivating a fine farm 
of three hundred acres which he owned, situated 
about "three miles from Bloomington. Here he 
was successful, and had just purchased a charm- 
ing home in the city of Bloomington when he 
was seized with a congestive chill; and in spite 
of the best medical skill obtainable, and the ten- 
der ministrations of a loving and devoted wife, 
he passed away, on the 3d of ^larch, 1864, 
mourned by all who knew him, honored by all 
who love justice and integrity, and secure in a 
fame that is a part of the history of the city of 

The suddenness of the blow to ]\Irs. Withers — 
whose maiden name was Sarah B. Rice and whom 
he married May 2, 1835 — ^^'"^^ ^ most severe shock. 
For nearly thirty years she had been the sharer 
of his joys and sorrows, his successes and his 
trials. He had known her in early youth, and 
after their marriage she had, with all the fidelity 
of a true woman, accepted with her husband the 
liardships of a Western home. During all this 
time she had been his close companion; her 
sympathy nerved his arm in the discharge of his 
duties; her smile brightened his future prospects. 
It was no common loss she was called upon to 
bear. The home he had purchased she still oc- 
cupies, and here, surrounded by the hallowed 
recollections of him who has preceded her across 
the dark river, she cherishes and reveres his mem- 
ory with a love that time cannot efface. 

Airs. Withers donated the lot, and was a large 
money contributor, toward the erection of the 
\'\^ithers library in Bloomington, which stands as 
a memorial to her husband. 

In personal appearance Mr. Withers was a 
man of fine physique, six feet two inches in height 
and possessing more than an ordinary intellect. 
He was domestic in his tastes and habits and loved 
his home with a loyal devotion. A great reader 
and a close student, he was thouroughly familiar 
witli all tlie branches of study and was a man of 
V. ide and varied information. 

In his political principles he was a wami par- 
tisan, but his dignity, kindness and good feeling 
preserved for him the friendship of all parties. 
His popularity was shown very clearly when he 



was nominated, against his will, as a candidate 
for the legislature. The county ordinarily gave 
a Republican majority of six hundred votes, and 
]\Ir. Withers, as a Democrat, was defeated by 
the small majority of seven! 

He was a thoroughly self-made man, and at 
his death left large possessions, all of which he 
had acquired by his own exertions. Though he 
had met with misfortunes, he did not allow them 
to break him down, for he believed that defeat 
was but the step to something better. 

To the city of Bloomington he was a loyal 
friend and one of her foremost citizens. Modest 
in disposition, his influence was never inspired 
by a sense of personal ambition. There is noth- 
ing in the story of his life to show that he 
ever for a moment sought to compass a given 
end for the purpose of exalting or advancing 
himself. He championed measures and aided 
men, and accepted as his reward that thrill of 
delight which always accompany victories 

In daily life and action he was ever genial and 
affable. He never courted wealth. Intelligence 
and goodness, and these alone, were his tests of 
merit. Neither wealth nor power could make 
him oblivious to principles of right or duty. In 
the highest and best sense of the term he was 
ever and essentially a gentleman; and those of 
his old friends who survive bear witness to his 
more than ordinary kindness. He enjoyed the 
popularity which comes to those generous spirits 
who have a hearty shake of the hand for all those 
with whom they come in contact from day to 
day, and who seem to throw around them in con- 
sequence so much of the sunshine of life. 

It is but just and merited praise to say of .Mr. 
Withers that in the business world he ranked 
v.ith the ablest; as a citizen he was honorable, 
prompt and true to every engagement; as a man 
he held the honor and esteem of all classes of 
citizens, of all creeds and political proclivities; 
as a husband he was a model worthy of all imi- 
tation. Hewasamanof the times, broad-minded, 
public-spirited and progressive. His influence 
was great and always for the good. His sym- 
pathy, his benevolence, his kindly greetings, will 
long be remembered. His duties were performed 
with the greatest care, and throughout his life 
his personal honor and integrity were without 
blenn'sh. His home was lieautiful and exemplary. 
Ardent and constant in his affections, he was a 
most tenderly devoted husband. To him there 
was -truly "no place like home," and he found his 
greatest enjoyment in the companionship of his 

Allen Withers was one of Nature's noblemen, 
and the world is better for his having lived. 
Standing under the light and life of a character 
like this, and viewing the ground in which they 
had germinated and on which they grew, one 
cannot but feel that the best type of manhood are 
created and developed on this American soil, and 
that what one has done worthily another mav 

Viewed thus, the work of Allen Withers is not 
yet done, but out of the past his memory arises 
in grand proportions and stands as an example 
and incentive to the youth of the generation-- that 
are to come. 

"There was, there is, no gentler, kinder, man- 
lier man." 


IN studying the lives and character of prominent 
men, we are naturally led to inquire into the 
secret of their success and the motives that 
prompted their action. Success is a question of 
genius, as held by many; but is it not rather a 
matter of experience and sound judgment? for 
when we trace the career of those who stand high- 
est in pul)lic esteem, we find in nearly every case 

that tliere arc those who have risen gradually, 
fighting their way in the face of all opposition. 
Self-reliance, conscientiousness, energy, honesty 
— these are the traits of character that insure tlie 
highest emoluments and greatest success. To 
these may we attribute the success that has 
crowned the efforts of Dr. Price. 

Dr. Price began his education in Troy, Xcw 



York, and afterward attended a leading eastern 
medical college, at which he was graduated in 
1856, with the degree of Isl. D. He then took a 
course in pharmacy and chemistry and received 
the degree of Pharmaceutical Chemist. Wishing 
for the broader fields of the West with its unlim- 
ited opportunities, in 1861 he moved to Wauke- 
gan, Illinois, and began the practice of medicine, 
which he successfully followed, his patronage be- 
ing very extensive. He is a born student and 
everything he comes in contact with he investi- 
gates. He is a man of deep research, seeking 
for the essence and cause of things, and from early 
life the science of chemistry greatly attracted him, 
and tlie laboratory of his alma mater was one of 
his chief sources of delight. There he would 
experiment, delving deeply into the mysteries and 
ferreting out the secrets of nature. 

Dr. Price is probably best known as the pioneer 
i.ianufacturer of baking powder, and through his 
invention of what is called Dr. Price's Cream Bak- 
ing Powder. It is interesting to note that a desire 
to secure something edible for his mother, who 
was an invalid, led to his discovery. She 
was a dyspeptic and being unable to eat all kinds 
of food the Doctor began experimenting in order 
to secure something which would not be injurious 
to her, and his baking powder is the result. It 
was in 1853 that the first cream-of-tartar powder 
was ever made, but some years had elapsed be- 
fore he placed it on the market. He had no 
capital with which to manufacture his goods and 
in consequence went to Waukegan, Illinois, 
where during the five years of successful practice 
he accumulated sufficient capital with which to 
manufacture his powder. It was first made and 
sold by ounces, but to-day it is manufactured by 
tons, and in these few words lives the history of 
the success of what is now one of the most im- 
portant industries in the world. 

Dr. Price began manufacturing baking powder 
on Lake street in Chicago, near Market street, 
and there continued for two years, when the great 
fire of 1 87 1 destroyed his plant. Not discour- 
aged by this loss he again started in business at 
Nos. 47 and 49 Lake street, where he remained 
for two years, when the constantly increasing 
volume of liis trade demanded more commodious 
quarters and he removed to South Water 

street, occupying a very large building there, 
wdth commodious offices and a large labo- 
ratory and shipping rooms. The Price Bak- 
ing Powder Company became a landmark 
in the manufacturing district, just north of the 
river. In the meantime the Doctor was asso- 
ciated with a partner, but in February, 1S84, he 
bought his partner's interests and formed a joint 
stock company with a capital of $500,000, of 
which he was made president and treasurer and 
his son, R. C. Price, secretary. Thus from a 
small and insignificant beginning steadily grew 
and developed an industry that ranks among the 
first in size and importance in this country. In 
order to better facilitate his interests and furnish 
more direct communication with quarters from 
which his patronage came — and it came from all 
parts of the country — he established a branch of- 
fice for the East in New York city, in the West 
at San Francisco, and in the southern central 
portion at St. Louis, while the Chicago office sup- 
plies the Northern trade. In i8gi the sale of the 
baking powder alone amounted to more than 
$1,000,000. In addition to its manufacture Dr. 
Price had also begun the manufacture of flavoring 
extracts. Chemical investigation and experience 
and deep research along this line had given to the 
world in flavoring extracts that which is equal in 
quality to his baking powder, and this feature of 
his business has gradually assumed great promi- 
nence and added to his name new fame commen- 
surate with that conferred upon him when his first 
discovery became known. His manufactures are 
in millions of homes throughout the land. 

At length the Doctor concluded to sell the 
leaking powder business and give more of his at- 
teniion to the manufacture of the extracts. Ac- 
cordingly, in 1891, he sold his business, realizing 
tlie sum of $1,500,000, and the Price Flavoring 
Extract Company was organized, with Dr. Price 
as president, R. C. Price vice-president, and A. C. 
Fischer secretary. The fine offices and labora- 
tory of his company are located at the south- 
west corner of Illinois and Cass streets. 

Though the Doctor has now become a million- 
aire, he is yet a busy man and gives much of his 
personal attention to his manufacturing interests. 
LTntiring in whatever he undertakes he has been 
ceaseless in his efforts to succeed, and in his spe- 


(Pi. -L- 



cial lines he has led the manufacturers of the civil- 
ized world, and both his baking powder and ex- 
tracts are known wherever such commodities are 
used. In addition to his business along this line 
he is president of the Lincoln National Bank and 
the Pan-Confection Company. 

Dr. Price was married in March, 1855, to Miss 
Harriet White, the beautiful and estimable daugh- 
ter of Dr. R. J. White, of Buffalo, New Yo^k. 
They have five children. R. C, bom Januan.^ 
13, 1856, was educated in Beloit College and Har- 
vard University and is now vice-president of the 
Price Flavoring and Extract Company. Guerdon, 
who graduated from the Racine College and was 
his father's assistant in business, was accidentally 
shot and killed by a guide while on a hunting trip 
in November, 1891. Vincent L., born in 1872, 
is a graduate of Yale College and secretary of tht 
Pan-Confection Company. Ida, who graduated 
from Kemper Hall and is now one of the literarj' 
writers of the W'oman's Club, married A. C. 
Fischer, secretary of the Price Flavoring Com- 
pau)-. Enmia, who graduated from a young 
ladies' seminary in Buffalo, New York, is the wile 
01 J. F. Hollingsworth. Airs. Price is a promi- 
nent and influential member of the Art Institute 
and possesses artistic ability of a high order. The 
liome of the Doctor and his estimable wife is 

marked Ijy evidences of cultured and refined taste, 
and that the family find great pleasure in the 
world of literature is shown by the fine lil^rary, 
containing three thousand standard works. Both 
the Doctor and Mrs. Price are liberal supporters 
of the Episcopal Church. He is also an es- 
teemed member of Washington Park Cub and 
tlie Union League Club. 

In manner Dr. Price is social and genial. He is 
the center of a circle of friends who honor and es- 
teem him for his many manly virtues and genuine 
worth. He is gen.erous almost to a fault and is 
ever willing to assist and aid those less fortunate 
in life, and to the poor and needy he lends a help- 
ing hand. His prosperity cannot be attributed 
to a combination of lucky circumstances, but has 
risen from energy, enteqjrise, integrity and intel- 
lectual effort well directed. His business has 
ever been conducted on the strictest principles of 
honest\\ The business of the world is becoming 
more and more concentrated in the hands of the 
master minds of commerce, and a business now- 
adays is nothing if not gigantic. Among the ex- 
tensive industries of the world is that which was 
established by Dr. Price, and the owner is a wortliy 
representative of that tj'pe of American character, 
that progressive spirit, which promote public 
good in advancing mdividual prosperitj-. 



est son of Darius and Martha (Rogers) Ben- 
jamin, was born at Chatham Centre, Columbia 
county. New York, June 29, 1833. His father was 
a private in the war of 1812, and his grandfather, 
Fbenezer Benjamin, was a captain in the Revolu- 
tionary war. His father and his maternal grand- 
father, Timothy Rogers, were of English, while 
his maternal grandmother, Sarah (Moore) Rogers, 
was of Welsh extraction. His ancestors on both 
sides lived in Connecticut in the Colonial times. 
Reuben worked on his father's farm until he was 
fourteen years old, attended Kinderhook Acad- 
emy, New York, two years, and then entered 
Amlierst College, Massachusetts, and was gradu- 

ated in 1853 with the third honor of his class. He 
was principal of Hopkins .Academy, at Hadley, 
Massachusetts, one year, attended the law school 
of Harvard University one year, and was tutor in 
Amherst College in 1855-6. In April, 1856, he 
came to Bloomington, Ijlincis, and in the follow- 
ing September, upon the examination certificate 
of Abraham Lincohi, was licensed to practice law. 
Shortly after his admission to the bar he became 
a partner with General A. Gridley and Colonel 
J. H. Wickizer, and remained with them as long 
as they continued to practice law. In 1863 he 
formed a jjartnership with Thomas F. Tipton, 
afterward circuit judge and member of Congress; 
and since then, at different times, he has been 



associated as partner with Jonathan H. Rowell, 
member of Congress for several terms, and Law- 
rence Weldon, one of the judges of the United 
States court of claims. In 1869 he was elected a 
delegate to the convention that framed the State 
constitution of 1870, and served on the important 
committees of bill of rights, municipal corpora- 
tions, State institutions, and schedule. The bill 
of lights (Article II), as drafted by him, was 
adopted by the full committee and the conven- 
tion with but a single change. He introduced 
and caused to be incorporated into that article 
the far-reaching provision that "no law * * * 
making any irrevocable grant of special privileges 
or immunities shall be passed." His remarks in 
the convention in support of a provision for the 
legislative regulation of the charges of railroad 
corporations and the prevention of unjust dis- 
crimination and extortion were highly compli- 
mented by his co-laborers, and copied in full by 
the leadng papers of the State. (Debates of Con- 
stitutional Convention \^ol. 2, p. 1641.) 

He was one of the counsel for the people in 
the celebrated Lexington case (Chicago & Alton 
Railroad companyv. People, 67 111., 11), a case in- 
volving the question as to the right of railroad 
corporations to charge more for a less than for a 
greater distance on the same line and in the same 
direction. He was subsequently employed as 
special counsel for the State board of railroad and 
warehouse commissioners, and assisted the at- 
torney general in the prosecution of the warehouse 
case (.Munn v. People, 69 111., 80), which was taken 
to the supreme court of the L^nited States, and, 
being there affirmed (Munn v. Illinois 94 U. S., 
113), became tlie leading case in the series fa- 
miliarly known in 1876 as the "Granger Cases." 
These cases established the constitutional power 
of the legislature to regulate railroad and ware- 
house charges and thereby protect the public 
against imposition. In a later case (Ruggles v. 
People, 91 111., 256), decided in 1878. the supreme 
court of this State declared broadly that the legis- 
lature has the power to fix the maximum rates of 
charges by corporations or individuals exercising 
a calling or business public in its character, or in 
which the public have an interest to be protected 
against extortion or oppression. In commenting 
on this case the Western Jurist says: "It is prob- 

able that the people of the State are indebted for 
the results of this agitation as given in the above 
decision to Hon. R. AI. Benjamin, of Blooming- 
ton in a greater degree than to any other single 
individual. As a member of the constitutional 
convention, he made the clearest and most con- 
vincing argument in favor of the rights of the 
people which was delivered in that body, and as 
special counsel for the people in the cases of the 
Chicago & Alton Railroad Company v. People, 
and Munn v. People, has very materially con- 
tributed in establishing the principle contended 
for by him before the convention and established 
in the above cases." 

The "Granger Cases" have 'been repeatedly 
followed by the supreme court of the United 
States: Budd v. New York (1891), 143 \J. S., 517; 
Brass v. North Dakota (1893), 153 U. S., 391. 

In 1873 j\Ir. Benjamin was elected without op- 
position to the office of county judge of McLean 
county. He was re-elected in 1877 and also in 
1882. His judicial aptitude, the soundness of his 
decisions and the quiet ease with which he dis- 
patched business won and held the respect and 
confidence of the bar and of the people. He pre- 
ferred not to be a candidate again for the office 
and accordingly retired from the bench at the 
close of his third term, in December, 1886. 
Shortly afterward he resumed his law practice in 
partnership with Mr. John J. ■Nlorrissey. 

Upon the organization of the law department 
of the Illinois Wesleyan LTniversity (known as the 
Bloomington Law School), in 1874, Judge Ben- 
jamin was appointed dean of the law^ facultv'. He 
is still connected with the law school, having 
charge of the subjects of real property and crim- 
inal law. He has published the following works: 
"Students' Guide to Elementary Law," "Principles 
of the Law of Contract" and "Principles of the 
Law of Sale," which are used in several of the 
leading law schools of the countrv'. 

Mr. Benjamin was married at Chatham, New 
York, September 15. 1856, to Miss Laura, daugh- 
ter of Mr. David G. W'oodin, w'ho for many years 
was county superintendent of schools of Colum- 
bia count}'. New York. 

Probably the part that Judge Benjamin took 
in the constitutional convention had a more di- 
rectly beneficial effect upon the citizens of Illinois 



than any other of his acts; and the arguments he 
brought to bear before that body, in behalf of the 
people to prevent railroad corjDorations from im- 
justly discriminating against any section of the 
State or against any citizen, displayed such a 
deep knowledge of corporation law, and have 
had such an important bearing upon the con- 
struction of law affecting corporations through- 
out the nation, that we herewith reproduce in full 
the speech to which reference has previously been 
made (Debates of Constitutional Convention, Vol. 
2, p. 1641): 

Mr. Chairman: — Corporations, and especially 
railroad corporations, have within the last feu- 
years assumed and exercised poweis incompatible 
with the public welfare; and perhaps there is 
no danger so much to be apprehended, and if 
possible guarded against by the people of this 
State as that which has its source in the construc- 
tion placed by the courts upon what are called 
legislative, or charter, contracts. In theory, rail- 
road corporations are created for the public good. 
In practice, they become oppressive by being 
allowed, under the claim of charter contracts, to 
fix their rates of toll for the transportation of per- 
sons and property. 

Whenever the public interests demand the con- 
struction of a railroad, the legislature, without any 
hesitancy, authorizes the corporation to take 
private property — the very homestead — for that 
purpose. Whenever the same public interests re- 
quire a limitation of the rates of railroad charges 
the plea is set up that the legislature has no power, 
whatever, to act upon the matter. Tlie principle 
of public benefit, when invoked in aid of a railroad, 
is all-powerful. The same principle, when ap- 
pealed to for the protection of the people against 
imposition and extortion, has hitherto been held 
to be utterly powerless. The interest of individu- 
als must yield to that of the public. The interest 
of the public lias been declared to be subordinate 
to that of railroad corporations. And when we 
ask for the reason of this distinction between in- 
dividual rights and corporate rights — when we ask 
why it is that public interests, although paramount 
to individual interests, must succumb to corporate 
interests — we are told that the legislature has 
made contracts whereby it has abdicated in favor 
of corporations the governmental powers in- 
trusted to it by the sovereign people. I say gov- 
ernmental powers, because in the absence of a 
charter contract, the power of the legislature to 
regulate and limit the tolls which the owners of 
a railroad may lawfully take, is nntiuestionable. 

The statutes of the several States afford num- 
berless inslances of legislative limitation of the 

tolls of ferry, bridge, plank-road, and turnpike 
companies. The ordinances of the larger cities of 
this country limit the charges of hack, omnibus 
and dray lines. The statutes of our own State 
not only provide for the condemnation of private 
property for the sites of gristmills Ijut also limit 
the amount of tolls to be taken for grinding at 
these mills. In some of the States, the charges of 
innkeepers and the fees of professional men, and 
in nearly all of the States the rates of interest 
which money-lenders and bank corporations may 
lawfully take, are regulated and limited by legis- 
lative enactment. The power to make these laws, 
and a multitude of others of like character, rests 
on the right and duty of the legislature to protect 
the people by statutory regulations against impo- 
sition and extortion. 

Upon authority and principle it may be safely 
asserted that, in the absence of charter contracts 
to the contrar}-, tiie legislature may from time to 
time regulate and limit the tolls which railroad 
companies may lawfully take, in the same manner 
as the legislature may limit the tolls to be taken by 
ferr}', bridge, plank-road and turnpike companies; 
in the same manner as municipal authorities may 
regulate and limit the charges of hack, omnibus 
and dray lines; in the same manner as the tolls at 
gristmills, the charges of innkeepers, the fees of 
professional men, and interest on loaned money 
may be regulated and limited. These are govern- 
mental powers; and by the term "governmental." 
I here mean not judicial but legislative powers. 
To declare what the law is, or has been, is a ju- 
dicial power; to declare what the law shall be, is 
legislative. The law is applied by the judicial de- 
partment, and made by the legislative. It is both 
the right and the duty of the legislature not to 
await the action of the judiciary, where the com- 
mon law has furnished no adequate remedies for 
existing evils, but to take the initiative and place 
limitations upon tolls and charges, and fees and 
interest, whenever such limitations are essential 
to the public good; providetl, always, that the leg- 
islature has not bartered away, absolutely beyond 
recall, to extortioners, the governmental powers 
whereby it might otherwise protect the people 
against their impositions. And this brings us di- 
rectly to the question, whether or not the govern- 
mental powers entrusted to the legislature, to be 
exercised for the public good, as occasion may 
re<|uire, are the subject matter of contract, of mere 
bargain and sale. 

The following provision was incorporated in 
the constitution of 1818, and retained in that of 

The ixnvers of the government of the State of 
Illinois shall be divided into three distinct depart- 
ments, and each of them be confided to a separate 



Jjocly of magistracy, to-wit: those which are legis- 
lative to one; those which are executive to an- 
other; aiid those which are judicial to another. — 
Constitution of 1848, article 2, section i. 

I maintain that under this constitutional pro- 
vision, which has been in force ever since this State 
was organized, the legislature has had no power 
as a party to make a contract, the effect of which 
would be to control or embarrass its goveni- 
mental powers and duties. To hold otherwise is 
to affirm that the legislature may abdicate the 
authority and relieve itself of the responsibility 
conferred and imposed upon this department of 
the government by the sovereign people of the 

"The people of the State of Illinois, grateful to 
Almighty God for civil, political and religious 
liberty confided" — that is the word — confided to 
the general assembly those powers of the gov- 
ernment of the State, which are legislative — for 
what purpose? "In order to promote the general 
welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to 
themselves and their posterity." At the same time 
they declared in the bill of rights that "all pov>-er 
is inherent in the people, and all free governments 
are founded on their authority and instituted for 
their peace, safety and happiness." The legisla- 
ture of a State is in no just sense the sovereign of 
the State, for sovereignty is the parent, not the 
offspring, of government. The sovereignty be- 
longs to the people of the State in their original 
character as an independent community. All po- 
litical power is inherent — remains in the people. 
In the language of Chief Justice Taney: 

"The powers of sovereignty confided to the leg- 
islative body of a State are undoubtedly a trust 
connnitted to them, to be executed to the best of 
their judgment for the public good; and no one 
legislature can, by its own act, disarm their suc- 
cessors of any of the powers or rights of sov- 
ereignty confided by the people to the legislative 
body unless they are authorized to do so by the 
constitution vmder which they are elected. * * * 
And in every controversy on this subject, the 
question must depend on the constitution of the 
State, and the extent of the power thereby con- 
ferred on the legislative body." — Ohio Life Insur- 
ance and Trust Companv v. Dcbolt, 16 Howard, 

The power to regulate the reciprocal rights and 
duties of common carriers and private citizens 
who may desire to travel upon highways con- 
structed for the public use, is, as we liave seen, a 
govermnental power — one of the attributes of 
sovereignty confided to the legislature to be ex- 
ercised for the public good. And where is the 
provision of our State constitution which author- 
izes one legislature to disarm a succeeding legis- 

lature of this power, the proper exercise of which 
we have been taught by sad experience is so es- 
sential to the protection of the traveling public? 

In another case. Justice Woodbury says: 

"One of the highest attrilnites and duties of a 
legislature is to regulate public matters with all 
public bodies, no less than the community, from 
time to time, in the manner which the public wel- 
fare may appear to demand. It can neither de- 
volve these duties permanently on other public 
bodies, nor permanently suspend or abandon them 
itself, without being usually regarded as unfaith- 
ful, and, indeed, attempting what is wholly beyond 
its constitutional competency." — East Hartford v. 
Hartford Bridge Company, 10 Howard, 534. 

Now, whether railroad corporations are to be 
regarded as quasi-public bodies, or as private 
bodies, forming a portion of the community, I 
maintain that the regulation of rates of toll for 
the conveyance of persons and property upon rail- 
roads — the public highways — as the public wel- 
fare may demand, is a legislative duty, the per- 
manent suspension or abandonment of which is 
wholly beyond the constitutional competency of 
the legislature. Moreover, a grant by a public 
agent bound in the most solemn manner not to 
throw away the governmental interest confided 
to it, is different from a grant by an individual who 
is master of the subject. The corporation which 
accepts from the legislature exemption from gov- 
ernmental control, knowing that it is dealing with 
an agent bound by duty not to impair a public 
right, does so at its peril. Nay, more; the cor- 
poration which accepts from the legislature a 
grant of any essential attribute of sovereignty, 
should be treated both in morals and in law as a 
party to a fraud upon the inherent rights of the 

• The same constitutional provision confides leg- 
islative powers to one body, executive powers to 
another, and judicial powers to another. If leg- 
islative powers may be disposed of by contract, 
why may not executive and judicial powers be 
sold? VVe all recognize the principle that execu- 
tive and judicial powers are entrusted to the gov- 
ernor and the judges to be exercised by them 
while in oflice, and then turned over unimpaired 
to their successors. I believe that the day is not 
far distant when the courts of this country will 
settle down on the firm fundamental principle that 
no department of government, be it legislative, ex- 
ecutive, or judicial, can abandon, diminish or bar- 
gain away, for any consideration, or upon 3ny 
pretense whatever, the governmental powers en- 
trusted to it by the sovereign people, to be ex- 
ercised for the promotion of the general welfare. 

When the people of this State, in 1818, and 
again in 1848, confided to the general assembly 



the legislative powers of this State, was it contem- 
plated that the agents entrusted with these gov- 
ernmental powers should sell any portion of them 
to other organizations, or parcel them out by con- 
tract to private corporations? It is a well-settled 
principle that where a trust is confided to any 
class of persons, the trustees cannot transfer that 
trust to others. "What trust, what confidence is 
more sacred, more responsible than the power to 
make the laws of a free people? The power is not 
only delegated to the two branches of the legisla- 
ture, but there is an obligation — a duty imposed 
upon them to make all such laws as are necessary 
and proper for the interests of the people, and 
good order of the body politic." 

The language of our State Constitution, reason, 
and sound policy, all concur in bringing us to the 
conclusion that the law-making power being en- 
trusted to the legislature by the constitution, to 
be exercised as occasion may require, for the pro- 
motion of the general welfare, cannot be per- 
manently transferred to any other body. If the 
courts will fall back upon this principle, we need 
not feel alarmed at the growth and power of cor- 
porations. They are dangerous to the people only 
as they are allowed, under the pretense of a bar- 
gain, to appropriate to their own purposes the 
governmental powers confided to the legislature. 
"The great object of an incorporation," says 
Chief Justice Marsliall, "is to bestow the char- 
acter and properties of individuality on a col- 
lective and changing body of men." — Providence 
Bank v. Billings, 4 Peters, 562. 

The creation of private corporations — the be- 
stowal of the attributes of individuality upon these 
ideal creatures, — the placing them, as to legal 
rights, on the same footingwith natural persons, — 
are proper subjects of legislative action. And we 
readily concede that these ideal creatures — private 
corporations — cannot be arbitrarily destroyed by 
the legislature, and that the rights which they may 
possess by virtue of their individuality or exist- 
ence are protected by the same constitution, which 
is the Magna Charta of the whole people. I'.ut in 
the languag-e of Justice Daniel : 

"The opinion seems to have obtained that the 
right of property in a chartered conjoration was 
more sacred and intangible than the same right 
could possibly be in the person of the citizen; an 
opinion which must be without any grounds to 
rest upon until it can be demonstrated either that 
the ideal creature is more than a person, or the 
corporeal being is less." — West River Bridge 
Comi)any v. Dix, 6 Howard, 533. 

The legislature may irrevocably dispose of the 
lands and pul)lic buildings and other property of 
the State. These are the proper subjects of con- 
tract and sale. But a legislative contract to sur- 

render forever to a private corporation any por- 
tion of the governmental powers of this State is, 
in my opinion, unconstitutional and void. It is 
unconstitutional, because the constitutional pro- 
vision, which has been in force here ever since we 
have had a State organization, confides — intrusts 
— these powers to the legislature to be exercised 
for the promotion of the general welfare, not to 
be bartered away. It is void, because it is a con- 
tract in violation of public duty, and without a 
competent subject matter. The legislature can- 
not deal — cannot traffic — with a sovereign right 
as private property. Says Justice Daniel: 

"I never can believe in that, to mymind suicidal, 
doctrine, which confers upon one legislature, the 
creatures and limited agents of the sovereign 
people, the power, by a breach of duty and by 
transcending the commission with which they are 
clothed, to bind forever and irrevocably their crea- 
tor, for whose benefit and by whose authority 
alone they are delegated to act, to consequences 
however mischievous or destructive." — Ohio Life 
Insurance and Trust Company v. Debolt, 16 How- 
ard, 443. , ^ , 

And, right here let me ask, From what one 
source have the people of this State suffered more 
mischievous consequences than from the free ex- 
ercise of the assumed right, on the part of the leg- 
islature, to sell out to railroad corporations the 
power of fiximg and exacting from the com- 
munity rates of toll without Umitation? In resist- 
ing the usurpations of these wealthy and powerful 
corporations, we have turned our attention too 
much to that clause of the constitution of the 
United Slates which provides that no State shall 
pass any law impairing the obligation of contracts, 
and have not paid sufificient attention to that sec- 
tion of our State constitution which confides, and 
only confides, the legislative powers of the gov- 
erninent to the general assembly, and to that sec- 
tion of the bill of rights which declares that "all 
power is inherent in the people." We must not 
forget that a legislative act or charter may con- 
tain unconstitutional provisions. The real cpies- 
tion is not one of vested rights under a contract, 
but one of constitutional power to make the con- 
tract. The legislature cannot change the consti- 
tution, or make a new constitution, and yet it 
would be doing just this if it could limit the gov- 
ernmental powers of a future legislature. And, 
therefore, I maintain that coriiorations are sub- 
ject to governmental jiowers the same as individu- 
als—that tiie charges of railway corporations can 
be regulateil and limited by legislative enactment, 
the same as the tolls of ferry, bridge, plank-road 
and turn])ike companies; the same as the charges 
of hack, onniibus ajid dray lines; the same as the 
tolls of millers, tlie charges of innkeepers, the fees 


ninanAPinCAL DicrioxARv and ponrnAir oallbrt of tiim 

of professional men, and interest on loaned money. 
The powers to make these regulations and limita- 
tions are, unquestionably, legislative, governmen- 
tal powers, and neither these nor any other leg- 
islative powers of a governmental nature can be 
irrevocably disposed of by contract to any in- 
dividual or corporation. There are and can be 
no vested rights of governmental power in any 
individual or corporation except those conferred 
by the constitution. 

Will any gentleman take the position that the 
legislature can endow any individual or corpora- 
tion with a vested right to commit crime, or per- 
petrate fraud, or practice imposition upon the 
public? I think not. One legislature cannot, by 
contract or otherwise, prohibit succeeding legis- 
latures from enacting laws for the prevention and 
punishment of crime, fraud and imposition. But 
railroad corporations declare that they have 
bought from the legislature the power to estab- 
lish and exact the exorbitant charges they are now 
every day extorting from the people. Under the 
claim of vested rights they bid defiance to — I was 
about to say — the government ; but according to 
the conceit of these corporations, there is no gov- 
ernment that can control and regulate and 
limit their demands. Each claims to be, in this 
respect, a government unto itself — a sovereignty 
within a sovereignty. 

The people sooner or later will break away from 
the theory that a railroad, or any private corpora- 
tion, can have a vested right in any governmental 
power. Let the next legislature enact substan- 
tially the railway laws of England, regulating and 
limiting the rates of freight and passenger tariffs, 
and I firmly believe that the courts would hold 
that such re-assertion of governmental control 
over railroad rates is not an interference with 
vested rights. 

The time was when city and other municipal 
corporations claimed that, by virtue of their char- 
ters, they held vested rights in governmental pow- 
ers. Even now, the legislature cannot confiscate 
the private property of a municipal corporation, 
or change the uses of its private funds accjuired 
under the public faith. Rut the courts have long 

since held that the legislature cannot transfer to a 
municipal corporation irrevocable, vested rights 
in governmental powers. And, for one, I am 
ready to take the broad position that it is not, and 
never has been, in the power of the legislature of 
this State to bind its governmental capacities, by 
any arrangements or stipulations, with either pub- 
lic or private corporations, so as to disable itself 
from enacting any laws that may be deemed es- 
sential for the public good. The sovereign people, 
and the sovereign people alone, by the adoption 
of constitutional provisions, can restrict and bind 
the governmental capacities of the legislature. 

After Judge Benjamin had ceased speaking, it 
was apparent that his argument pleased the ma- 
jority of his colleagues, several of whom rose to 
their feet and sanctioned what he said in no un- 
certain terms. The following endorsements are 
copied from the reports: 

(Mr. Ross) — Mr. Chairman: I cheerfully sub- 
scribe to the views of the gentleman from McLean 
(Mr. Benjamin). I think the convention and the 
people of the State owe him a debt of gratitude. 
It has the true ring of the doctrine that should be 
inculcated by all our statesmen. 

(Mr. Bromwell) — Mr. Chairman: I am very 
much gratified to see the manner in which this dis- 
cussion starts in this convention. There have 
been doubts expressed whether this convention, 
upon coming to this subject, would take the 
proper stand to secure the rights of the people 
which have been so long trifled with, and trampletl 
under foot, by the inter[)retations of the law in 
this State; and I agree with the gentleman from 
Fulton (Mr. Ross), that the community at large 
owe the gentleman from McLean (Mr. Benjamin) 
thanks for the masterly manner in which he has 
demonstrated the right and the power of the 
people, inhering in, ever living, and ever present, 
to command in the name of and for the people, 
the creatures which they have put on foot, the 
corporations which they have organized, in re- 
spect to the terms upon which they shall enjoy 
those invaluable franchises which they are law- 
full\' permitted to enjoy. 





THERE is no element which has entered into 
our composite national fabric that has 
been of more practical strength, value and utility 
than that furnished by the sturdy, persevering and 
honorable sons of Germany; and in the progress 
of our Union this element has played an im- 
portant part. Intensely practical, and ever hav- 
ing a clear comprehension of the ethics of life, 
the Gernijin contingent has wielded a powerful 
influence, and this service can not be held in 
light estimation by those who appreciate true civ- 
ilization and true advancement. 

The subject of this review comes from staunch 
German stock, and he was born in Rockenhausen, 
Rhenish Bavaria, Germany, on the 24th of June, 
1840, being the son of Urban and Mary (Spross) 
Becker. His father was a man of strong men- 
tality, and in the line of his profession, that of an 
architect and builder, was possessed of more than 
ordinary ability. Urban and Mary Becker be- 
came the parents of twelve children, of whom 
three are now living. 

In 1851, when our subject was a lad of eleven 
years, his parents emigrated from their native land 
to America, and soon after their arrival came to 
Belleville, where they remained until death sum- 
moned them into eternal rest. They were peo- 
ple of such sterling worth of character that they 
gained the esteem and friendship of all with whom 
they came in contact, and they were people of 
prominence in the community where they passed 
so many years and where they contributed in no 
small measure to the progress and substantial 
prosperity of the locality. The father died in 
1874, his widow surviving him until 1881. 

Our subject received his preliminary educa- 
tional discipline in the common schools, and at 
the age of fifteen years he entered the Harrison 
Machine Works, in Belleville, for the purpose of 
learning the trade of molder. He became an ex- 
pert workman in this line and continued to de- 
vote his attention thereto until he attained his 
majority. At this time his nature, which was 
essentially loyal and patriotic, was roused to ac- 
tive protest as the Union was threatened bv foes 

from within its borders and the cloud of civil war 
obscured the national horizon. Accordingly he 
enlisted for ser\Mce in the Federal army, as a mem- 
ber of Company B, Twelfth Missouri Infantry. 
On the 8th of March, 1862, he received a severe 
wound in the right thigh, and this injury eventu- 
ally necessitated the amputation of his leg at a 
point above the knee. Thus maimed for life as 
a result of his zealous and unflinching patriotism, 
there remained nothing for him to do on the 
stirring field of battle, and he accordingly re- 
turned to his home. For a short time he at- 
tended school, and then accepted once more a 
position with the Harrison Machine Works, be- 
coming a member of the office corps, inasmuch 
as his infirmity rendered it impossible for him to 
resume his former line of work. He retained this 
position for some time, but he was destined for 
higher honors, as his capabilities and unswerving 
honesty of purpose became known. Prior to the 
beginning of his official career he liad conducted 
a hotel in West Belleville, severing his connection 
therewith in 1866. He was then elected sheriff 
and collector of taxes of the county for a term of 
two years, and proved a most capable incumbent 
in that important and exacting office. After his 
term as sherilif and collector had expired he be- 
came associated with Mr. Erhardt in the brewing 
business and sold his interest to ]\Ir. Erhardt in 

In 1872 Mr. Becker was elected circuit clerk 
and recorder of deeds, being the only successful 
candidate on the Republican ticket at that elec- 
tion, — a fact which conclusively gave evidence of 
his popularity and of the confidence reposed in 
him by his fellow townsmen. Again in 1876 was 
he elected to this double office, as his own suc- 
cessor, and on this occasion his party was de- 
feated by 1,187 votes, while he ran up to his credit 
at the polls the notable majority of 800 votes, — 
a circumstance whose significance is evident. He 
has been a most active and effective worker in 
the behalf of the Republican party, and has held 
marked precedence in the councils of its leaders 
in the Slate, having been for six years the in- 



cumbent as chairman of the Republican county 
central committee. In 1888 there came to ^Ir. 
Becker a distinguished recognition, in his elec- 
tion to the responsible office as State treasurer. 
In this capacity he served with such signal abilit}- 
and efficiency that his administration of the finan- 
cial affairs of the State conserved public interests 
and reflected to his credit. 

Mr. Becker has maintained a lively interest in 
the advancement of the- industrial and popular 
interests of the city of his home, and has con- 
tributed largely to its progress and substantial 
upbuilding. He is president of the Pump and 
Skein Works, and the Belleville Stove Works, and 
has other financial interests of importance. 

A man of genial and social nature and one who 
is most appreciative of the amenities which go to 
make up the sum of human happiness, he has 
identified himself with several German social and 
musical societies, of which he is an honored mem- 

ber. For the past quarter of a century he has 
been one of the prominent members of the Phil- 
harmonic Society, whose influence in arousing 
and maintaining an interest in the study of the 
higher forms of musical composition has been 
very potent. 

On the 23d of January, 1864, was consum- 
mated the marriage of Mr. Becker to Miss Louisa 
Fleischbein, of Belleville, and they became the 
parents of six children, all of whom are living 
except one, Fred. The surviving children are by 
name as follows: Bertha, Casimir, Gustave, Ar- 
thur and Ray. 

A man of strong individuality and indubitable 
probity, one who has attained to a due measure 
of success in the affairs of life, and whose influ- 
ence has ever been .exerted in the direction of the 
good, the true and the beautiful, this honored vet- 
eran of our late war assuredly demands represen- 
tation in this volume. 


AS the river whose deep and steady current, 
winding among fair landscapes, past blos- 
soming fields and through busy towns, blessing 
millions of people, and enhancing the wealth of 
nations, aflords little of that wild and romantic 
scenery which startles the traveler or delights the 
artist; so those lives which contribute most toward 
the improvement of a State and the well-being of 
a people are seldom the ones which furnish the 
most brilliant passages for the pen of the historian 
or biographer. 

There is, in the anxious and laborious struggle 
for an honorable competence and a solid career 
of the business or professional man fighting the 
even,--day battle of life, but little to attract the 
idle reader in search of a sensational chapter; but 
for a mind thoroughly awake to the reality and 
neaning of human existence, there are noble and 
immortal lessons in the life of the man, who, with- 
out other means than a clear head, a strong arm, 
and a true heart, conquers adversity, and toiling 
on through the work-a-day years of a long career 
finds that he has won not onlv wealth but also 

something far greater and higher, — the deserved 
respect and esteem of those with whom his years 
of active life placed him in contact. 

Such a man, and one of the leading citizens of 
Moline, is John Maxfield Gould, who was bom at 
Piermont, New Hampshire, February 24, 1822, 
being the eldest of nine children of Amos and 
Nancy (Bartlett) Gould, the former a native of 
Alassachusetts, the latter of New Hampshire. 

Amos Gould was by trade a tanner, but later be- 
came a farmer. Our subject passed his early boy- 
hood at his native town, attending the district 
school in the winter seasons, and assisting on the 
farm summers. The knowledge he obtained was 
later supplemented by a one year's course at each 
of the academies of Canaan and Lyme. L^pon 
leaving the latter institution he taught for three 
v.inters in the district school, and continued to 
help on the farm the remainder of the year. ' For 
a short time he clerked in a general store, where 
he gained a practical knowledge of business that 
was destined to prove of great benefit in later 




The monotony of life in a New Ensjland village 
became irksome to young Gould, and he longed 
to go to that Western country of which he had 
heard so much, and where he believed the possi- 
bilities of success were so much greater than 
where he then was. Capital he had none, with the 
exception of sixty-four dollars saved from his 
salary, but he was young, full of energy, and am- 
bitious, and felt that the West was the field where- 
in he should labor. He accordingly set out, in 
1844, for the country whose praises he had heard 
extolled, but he had no fixed purpose as to his 
destination, except that he would stop at Chicago, 
the entrepot for that section. For four weeks he 
remained in Chicago, eagerly searching for em- 
ployment, but obtaining none, notAvithstanding 
the fact that he had excellent recommendations. 
By chance he learned that the firm of Dana & 
Throop had purchased a stock of goods in New 
York, which were to be disposed of at Grand De- 
tour, and he solicited and obtained a clerkship 
with this firm, at a salary of twelve and one-half 
dollars a month and board, for the first year. He 
continued with Dana & Throop as a clerk for 
three years, his compensation being raised the 
second year to one hundred and seventy -five dol- 
lars and board per annum, and to two hundred and 
fifty dollars and board the third. The fourth year 
he was made a member of the firm, and drew one 
fourth of the profits. About this time the plow 
manufactory concern of Andrus & Deere, of 
Grand Detour, was dissolved, and one of its mem- 
bers, Mr. John Deere, in company with a Wr. 
Tate — both practical mechanics — came to Mo- 
line and organized the finn of Deere & Tate, for 
the manufacture of plows. Air. Deere's family re- 
mained at Grand Detour, where he frequently 
came to \^sit them. On these occasions he nearly 
always met Mr. Gould, to whom he talked freely 
regarding this new venture, and from whom he 
received many hints of practical value. Upon 
one of these visits he sent especially for Mr. Gould 
and told him that Mr. Tate and himself wished 
him to become a member of their firm and look 
after its financial matters. Mr. Gould replied that 
he had no money with which to purchase an in- 
terest; whereupon Mr. Deere said he would fur- 
nish the capital — Mr. Gould to pay interest there- 
on, with which a third interest could be obtained. 

Taking time to consider this propositon he sought 
Mr. Tliroop, and frankly told him of Mr. Deere's 
offer, and asked his advice. Much as he disliked 
the idea of parting with one who had been so sat- 
isfactory a partner, Mr. Throop nevertheless re- 
plied that he thought it was a better opportunity 
than would ever present itself at Grand Detour, 
and that he ought to embrace it. Mr. Gould ac- 
cordingly came to Moline, and, after looking the 
ground over, entered into an agreement whicii re- 
sulted in the formation of the firm of Deere, Tate 
& Gould, and which has since become the great 
Deere Plow Company. 

Mr. Gould entered at once upon his new ven- 
ture, and opened and kept the first set of double- 
entry books in Rock Island county. These books 
were a source of much curiosity to merchants of 
Moline and adjacent towns. The connection 
with Messrs. Deere & Tate continued for four 
years, when Mr. Deere purchased the interests of 
the others, who retired from the finn. 

Our subject had frequently urged the estab- 
lishment of a woodenware factory at Moline, but 
it did not meet with a favorable reception until 
he talked with a Connecticut Yankee named D. 
C. Dimock, who had for several years been en- 
gaged in the furniture-manufacturing business. 
That gentleman became quite interested in the 
idea, and made a trip to the East, where he secured 
information, and arranged with a practical wood- 
enware man who was to come to Moline if wanted. 

Upon his return to Moline, he reported the re- 
sult of his observ^ations to Mr. Gould, with the re- 
sult that a partnership was fonned in 1852 under 
tlie firm name of Dimock & Gould. Land op 
the island was leased from the Government and 
a factors' erected, whicli was operated with great 
profit. On the 6th of October, 1856, the plant 
was destroyed by fire, with no insurance, but in 
its place a new factory was at once built, and 
was in operation by Tanuan' i. 1857. 

The business was continued most successfully 
until 1867, at which time the Government desired 
to use the land Dimock & Gould occupied, and 
the firm was obliged to move, which it did. 
Their sawing had previously been done at a saw- 
mill adjacent to their factory on the island, and 
their removal necessitated the making of new ar- 
rangements. They accordingly built a sawmill 



of their own, and thus entered the himber busi- 
ness, as they were obhged to manufacture lumber 
in addition to that used for woodenware. In 
Tune, 1875, their sawmill was struck by hghtning 
and destroyed. This time, however, it was well 
insured, and they at once rebuilt, the plant being 
larger and more complete than ever. 

In 1868 the finn was incorporated, Mr. Dimock 
being president and Mr. Gould vice-president. 
On the death of Mr. Dimock, in 1886, Mr. Gould 
became president, which office he still holds. In 
1890 the woodenware branch of the business was 
sold to a syndicate of woodenware men, who re- 
moved the machinery, and since then Dimock, 
Gould & Company's entire business has been 
that of lumbering and manufacturing of paper 
pails. The company owns extensive tracts of 
pine land in Wisconsin, and the output of their 
mill averages about one hundred and twenty-five 
thousand feet a day. The concern is one of the 
strong lumber companies of the Mississippi val- 

In 1857, when there were no banking facilities 
in Moline, our subject, in company with Mr. 
Dimock and Mr. C. P. Ryder, of Connecticut, 
organized the banking house of Gould, Dimock 
& Company, which Mr. Gould managed entirely 
until 1863, when it was incorporated under the 
national banking act as the First National Bank 
of Moline. For four _\ears, or until 1867, Mr. 
Gould was cashier of this institution, and then 
the increased business at the mill, which had just 
been moved from the island, made it necessary 
for him to devote his time to its afifairs. He there- 
upon resigned as cashier, and was elected presi- 
dent, in which executive capacity he has con- 
tinued both successively and successfully ever 
since. The bank's capital stock is $150,000, with 
a surplus of $33,500, and an average deposit ac- 

count of $200,000, — less now than formerly on 
account of the organization of the People's Sav- 
ings Bank, which naturally drew a considerable 
amount of the deposits. Of the latter named 
institution i\Ir. Gould is a stockholder. He is 
also secretary of the JNIoline Water Power Com- 

Mr. Gould is a strong Republican, but has held 
but one elective office, — that of county judge 
from 1853 to 1857, — and he in no wise sought for 
that, nor did he work to be elected. At that time 
the county judges, in addition to the probate busi- 
ness, performed the duties now performed by the 
supervisors, and it is a well attested fact that when 
our subject entered upon his judicial duties, county 
orders were worth but fifty cents on the dollar. 
When he left the office they were worth par, and 
have remained so ever since. For thirty-tliree 
years continuously he has been township trustee 
of the Moline school district, succeeding himself 
at each successive election. 

From 1857 to 1861 our subject was postmaster 
of the city of Moline, and from 1876 to 1892 he 
was a commissioner of the State board of chari- 
ties by appointment of the governor. In 1876 he 
was a director and the treasurer of the St. Louis, 
Rock Island & Chicago Railroad Company, 
now a part of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 

On the 9th day of August, 1850, Mr. Gould 
was united in marriage to Miss Hannah M. 
Dimock, a native of Willington, Connecticut, and 
sister of Mr. D. C. Dimock. Of this union have 
been born five children, three of whom are now 
living, Frank W., treasurer of Dimock, Gould & 
Company; Fred G., of the office corps of that com- 
pany ; and Grace E., the wife of Sullivan M. Hill, 
treasurer of the Moline Plow Conipany. Mr. 
Gould and his wife attend the Baptist Church. 





Xew England origin, and comes of a long- 
lived race, both of his grandfathers having lived to 
be over eighty years of age, while his father was a 
most active man up to the time of his death, 
which resulted from an attack of pneumonia, when 
he was in his seventy-eighth year. 

Calvin Ainsworth, the father of our subject, 
was a native of New Hampshire, and his wife, 
who, prior to her marriage, was jMisjs Laura 
Lynde, was a member of an old Massachusetts 
family. The former was for fifty years a gen- 
eral merchant in Williamstown, \'ermont, and 
was a man who, for those days, was quite well off 
in this world's goods. He was a man of much 
prominence, and for a number of years was pres- 
ident of a bank at Northfield, ^'ermont. 

Henry A. Ainsworth was bom in Williamstown, 
on the 28th day of September, 1833, and passed 
his boyhood in that village. He attended the 
local district school and two of the neighboring 
academies. He left school at the age of eighteen, 
and in 1853 started out for himself, going west- 
ward and locating at Geneseo, Illinois, where he 
er'gaged in general merchandising on his own ac- 
count. His business prospered, and after con- 
tinuing until late in the '60s he disposed of it. 
But he was of too active a temperament to remain 
long idle, and when an opportunit\" presented 
itself of obtaining an interest in the manufactur- 
ing establishment of Williams & White, of ]Mo- 
line, he accepted it and moved to the latter cit>- 
in July, 1870. According to an agreement en- 
tered into with Mr. Ainsworth by Williams & 
White, the business was incorporated at the be- 
giiming of 1871, Mr. Ainsworth being elected sec- 
retary of the company, whose capital stock was 
fifty thousand dollars. He continued as secre- 
tary until seven years ago, when having pur- 
chased the interests of other stockholders, he be- 
came the owner of over three-quarters of the 
entire capital stock. He then became president 
of the corporation, and has since continued as 

Williams, White & Company are manufacturers 

of special tools, such as steam hammers and the 
like, and their product finds a market in every 
State in the Union, while several shipments have 
been made to foreign countries. The business 
has developed under the personal supervision of 
Mr. Ainsworth during the quarter of a century 
that he has been connected with it, and it has 
grown to its present magnitude as much through 
his efforts as from any other cause, if not more. 
Every day finds him at his desk, where he labors 
with a zeal that knows no cessation. 

For several years Mr. Ainsworth has been a 
stockholder in the Moline National and Moline 
State Savings Banks, and served at the same time 
as vice president of both of those sound financial 
institutions. The stockholders of the National 
Bank, however, appreciating his abilit)- as a finan- 
cier, and his general conservatism, elected him a 
year or so ago to the presidency of that bank, a 
position he fills with an ability that has won un- 
qualified commendation. Upon his election to 
the presidency of the National Bank, he resigned 
the vice presidency of the savings bank, of which, 
however, he still has a voice in the management 
as a director. The capital stock of the Moline 
National Bank is one hundred thousand dollars, 
with a surplus of twenty thousand dollars, and has 
an average deposit account of about one hundred 
and seventy-five thousand dollars. ^^r. .Ains- 
worth is also a stockholder in the well known 
lumber firm of Dimock. Gijuld & Company, of 

In politics Mr. Ainsworth is a Republican, and 
has filled a number of offices of honor and trust. 
He was a trustee of the village of Geneseo during 
his residence there, and was for six years a mem- 
ber of the State Board of Equalization. From 
1882 until 1886 he was State senator from Moline, 
and later was appointed by Governor Fifer as 
president of the State Bureau of Labor Statistics, 
which office he resigned when Mr. .-Mtgcld be- 
came Governor. 

He is a prominent member of the Congrega- 
tional Church, and has always been one of the 
largest contributors toward its su])port. Though 



essentially a busy man, he has nevertheless found 
time to travel and has been in nearly all sections 
of this country. 

On the 28th day of July, 1858, he married Miss 
Sarah Andrews, of Ashland, Ohio, sister of Mr. 
Andrews who was then president of Kenyon Col- 

lege. Her death occurred on the 26th of Decem- 
ber, 1891. She is survived by two children, Harry, 
who is secretary of Williams & White Company 
and a young man of more than average ability ; 
and a daughter, Mary, who now presides over her 
father's home. 


THE history of a State, as well as that of a 
nation, is chiefly the chronicles of the lives 
and deeds of those who have conferred honor and 
dignity upon society. 

Tlie world judges tiie character of a community 
b\- those of its representative citizens, and yields 
its tributes of admiration and respect for the 
gemus or learning or virtues of those whose 
works and actions constitute the record of a 
State's prosperity and pride ; and it is this record 
that ofifers for our consideration the history of 
men, who in their characters for probity and be- 
nevolence, and the kindly virtues, as well as for 
integrity in the affairs of life, are ever affording 
to the young worthy examples for their regard 
and emulation. Therefore it is proper that a just 
celebrity should be given to those men who are 
distinguished in their day and generation, that 
the living may enjoy the approbation of their 
contemporaries, as well as that of a grateful pos- 

Joseph Gibson English, president of the First 
National Bank of Danville, is one of the oldest, 
if not the oldest, banker in the Stale. He was 
born in Ohio county, Indiana, near the village of 
The Rising Sun, December 17, 1820. Through 
his father, Charles English, a native of New 
Haven, he traces his ancestry through several 
generations to the early settlement of Connecti- 
cut. His mother, who prior to her marriage was 
Miss Ann Wright, was of English nativity. The 
father of Charles English moved to Nova Scotia. 
and from there his children returned to the Unite i 
States and settled in various localities. Charles 
located in Ohio county, Indiana, where he pur- 
sued the combined occupations of blacksmith- 
ing and carpentering. In iSjy he removed with 

his family to the Wabash valley and made his 
home at Perrysville. The early life of Joseph 
was the usual quiet, uneventful one which the 
people of that locality led at that period, and his 
early education only such as could be obtained 
at the puncheon-floored log schoolhouse of the 
neighborhood. His parents were poor, and from 
the time he was fourteen j'ears of age he earned 
his own livelihood. At that time he became an 
employee of the firm of Taylor & Linton, gen- 
eral merchants of Lafayette, Indiana. For five 
years he served a sort of an apprenticeship with 
that firm, receiving for his labor his board and 
clothing. In those days the duties of a boy in 
a general store were onerous, and the proper 
fulfillment of the labor incident to his position 
necessitated his close attention from daybreak 
until bedtime. On market days, which occurred 
thrice weekly, he arose between three and four 
o'clock in the morning, to sweep the store and 
prepare it for the reception of the Dunkard cus- 
tomers, who utilized the early morning hours to 
make their purchases. As the boy grew in age 
and experience he made himself more and more 
useful to his employers, and incidentally obtained 
a knowledge of the mercantile business, which 
has been of incalculable benefit to him through- 
out his career. 

Upon the expiration of five years his employ- 
ers failed and he then ol)tained a position as clerk 
in a general store at his home in Perrysville, at 
a salary of forty dollars per month. His early 
experience had instilled in his mind the value 
of economy, and from the outset he annually 
saved a portion of his earnings. At the expira- 
tion of three years he had accumulated about four 
hundred dollars, ancl lu- then married ]\Iiss Mary 

*t.. I, 

.f^K^^i 9/ii_^^ 



Hicks, a native of Perrysville, and a descendant 
of New England ancestors. In 1844 ^^^- English 
entered the mercantile business as a partner of 
his father-in-law, George Hicks. The firm of Hicks 
& English conducted a profitable business in 
dry goods, groceries, produce, grain, etc. Mer- 
chandise was then purchased and sold on a credit 
of twelve months, and, before railroads l^ecame 
the highways to the seaboard, produce found its 
way by the Ohio and Mississippi rivers and their 
tributaries to New Orleans, where it was exported. 
Hicks & English shipped their wheat, corn, pork, 
etc., on flatboats to New Orleans, and Mr. English 
pulled an oar on several of these journeys. 

In 1853 he disposed of his interest in Perrys- 
ville and located in Danville, Illinois, where he 
formed a partnership with John I.. Tincher. and 
under the name of Tincher & English oper- 
ated a general store with marked success until 
1856, when the firm became the assignees of the 
Stock Security Bank, a "wild-cat" institution, 
which was forced into bankruptcy in the early 
days of the panic of 1856-7. They then sold their 
mercantile business and devoted themselves en- 
tirely to the duties that devolved upon them by 
virtue of the assignment. Through their con- 
nection therewith they gradually began transact- 
ing a brokerage and exchange business, and 
virtually conducted a private banking establish- 
ment. In February, 1863, immediately after the 
passage of the bill that authorized the estabUsh- 
ment of national banks, they were one of the 
earliest applicants for a charter to organize such 
an institution. The bank was organized with a 
capitalization of fifty thousand dollars; Mr. Eng- 
lish was at that time chosen president and has 
served in that capacity continuously since. In 
1872, after the death of M. Tincher, the capital 
stock was increased to one hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars, and at the present time (May, 
1895) its surplus is one hundred and forty tliou- 
sand dollars. The bank's deposits average over 
six hundred thousand dollars and its ofificers are : 
President, Joseph G. English; cashier, Charles 
L. Englisli; assistant cashier, L. D. Gass; and 
second assistant cashier, J. C. English. 

As a financier Mr. English ranks widi the 
ablest, and for more than a third of a century has 
been an earnest and constructive force in admin- 

istering the affairs of the strong and widely- 
known institution of which he is the head and 
over whose destinies he has presided. 

During all tlie troublous times and through 
all the financial whirlwinds the First National 
Bank of Danville was unscathed, for its founda- 
tions were laid upon the rocks of integrity and 
the principles of sound and conservative bank- 
ing. While Mr. English has made banking the 
main feature of his life work, he has also been 
one of the heaviest dealers in real estate in his 
section. He has dealt largely in farm lands and 
has platted several additions to the city of Dan- 
ville. He has also been interested in many en- 
terprises which were organized for the purpose 
of adding to the importance of Danville as a 
commercial center, and has devoted much of his 
time and means toward aiding all sound projects 
calculated to enhance the prosperity of the city 
of his home. For the past twenty years he has 
been a member of the board of directors of the 
Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad. 

Although Mr. English has twice been elected 
mayor of his city, and in 1872 was chosen a mem- 
ber of the first board of equalization of the 
State, yet it nuist not be assumed that he is 
in any sense a politician, — political condi- 
tionship or conquest are for him without charm. 
The peaceful, quiet walks of business life, un- 
disturbed by outside causes, are far more to his 
liking, and here has been the true sphere of his 
usefulness. Nevertheless he has always taken 
a deep interest as a citizen in political affairs. 
From the time of his majority until 1862 he af- 
filiated with the Democratic party, but when the 
Democratic State convention, in the latter year. 
insertctl a "peace" plank in its platform, he re- 
nounced his allegiance thereto and joined the 
ranks of the -Republicans. He was a strong Union 
man during the Rebellion, and in 1863 had charge 
of the subscription list for filling the quota of 
men for the army from Dainille township. 

Since 1856 Mr. English has been a member of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, and has been 
active in the various departments of church work. 
He is at present a member of the board of trus- 
tees, and for fifteen years occupied the position 
of superintendent of the Sunday-school. In 1872 
he was selected by the lay delegates of the lUi- 



nois conference as a delegate to the general con- 
ference of the church, which was held in Brook- 
lyn in that year, and has served once since that 
time in a similar capacity. He was also for 
many years a trustee of the Wesleyan Univer- 
sity at Bloomington. 

In 1864 ^Ir. English's wife, to whom he was 
married in 1844, as previously mentioned, passed 
away. She was the mother of seven children. 
Their names in order of birth are: George; Charles 
L. ; Harriet, who died in July, 1893, was the wife 
of William D. Lindsey; Irene J., now Mrs. George 
W. Partlow, of Danville ; John T. ; Annie Martha, 
the deceased v.ife of Tabor Mathews, of Jack- 
sonville; and Edv^ard. 

In 1865 Mr. English married Maria L. Part- 
low. She died in August, 1886. They were the 
parents of two children: J. C, and Otis Hardy, 
who died in infancy. 

Mr. English is a man to whom the most en- 
vious can scarcely grudge success, so well has 
he earned it, so admirably does he use it, so en- 
tirely does he lack pride of purse. He is kind, 
unaffected and approachable, and every comer 
has a claim upon his courteous attention. Tliere 
lias been nothing sensational in his career, every 
step has been thoughtfully and deliberately made, 
and every advance has been at the cost of hard 
and self-denying labor. Born to lead, his great 

experience makes him a safe counselor and guide. 
He stands to-day in his mature years a strong 
man, strong in the consciousness of well-spent 
years, strong to plan and perform, strong in his 
credit and good name, and a worthy example for 
young men to pattern after. 

The institution that he founded, and at whose 
head he has been for so many years, will stand 
long after he has passed from the scene of his 
earthly labors, — a monument to his energy and 
a visible proof of what he was able to accomplish 
in a long and active career. Mr. English has 
rounded the psalmist's span of three-score years 
and ten with mental and physical vigor unim- 
paired, overcoming the ordinary and usual cares 
and weaknesses of age by active interest and par- 
ticipation in the living issues and affairs of the 
day. Surrounded at his home by those who 
without regard to party affiliations are his 
warm personal friends, and favorably known to 
hosts of men who have transacted business with 
him during the past half century, his career is 
one that he can look back upon with just and 
pardonable pride. And in the years to come his 
name will be found enrolled foremost and lus- 
trous on the annals of Danville, — a city wherein 
he has labored so long, so faitlifully and so 
well, a city that has been enriched by that la- 
bor as well as by his character and his example. 


prominent citizen of Sterling, was born in 
the eastern part of Lancaster county, Pennsyl- 
vania, on the 13th day of January, 1828. He is 
of Scotch-Irish descent. His first ancestor on 
his father's side in this country emigrated to Lan- 
caster, Pennsylvania, in 1710, and the entire fam- 
ily with the exception of our subject have since 
been farmers. Thomas A. is the eldest son of the 
six sons and four daughters of William and Mary 
Ann (Thomas) Gait, both natives of the Keystone 
State. Our subject's maternal grandfather was 
a distinguished citizen of that commonwealth, and 
at one time was president of the Bank of Mont- 

gomery County, who lived to the ripe age of 
ninety-six years. 

After Thomas was ten years of age he assisted 
on the farm during the summer months and at- 
tended school during the winters. Thus his life 
was occupied until he was fourteen years of age, 
at which time his father died and he was forced 
cut into the world to make his own living. As 
the eldest son he had the responsibility of caring 
for the younger children, and so well did he 'look 
after their welfare that he was enabled to give 
them all the blessing he denied himself, — a good 
sound education. He was rich in a stout heart 
and willing hands, and in an ambition that perse- 



vered in tlie face of every discouragement and 
never permitted the flagging of his energy or his 

Wlien seventeen years of age he walked into 
the village of Strasbnrg, with no other earthly 
f>ossession than the clothes he wore and a few 
small articles of necessity tied in a handkerchief 
which he cairied in his hand. Applying at the 
village store he obtained a situation that paid the 
(to him) the magnificent sum of fifty dollars a year. 
He now had the opportunity to show his ability, 
and he improved it. He soon made himself so 
useful that he became almost indispensable to his 
employer, and was so courteous and obliging 
that the majority of the customers insisted that 
he should wait upon them. The result was that 
he soon acquired an interest in the business, and 
ultimately became its sole proprietor. 

While thus engaged his brother-in-law, who 
was in business in Philadelphia, urged him to 
come to that city and locate; but he refused to do 
so. Later he visited his sister in Sterling, Illinois, 
and became so impressed with the possibilities of 
success in that section of the country that he de- 
cided to make that city his home. He accord- 
ingly disposed of his store at Strasburg and re- 
moved to Sterling, which at that time was only a 
small but promising village. 

Owing to his push and energy he prospered in 
-Sterling from the start, and soon became a leading 
spirit in a number of enterprises which aided 
greatly in developing that part of the country, 
and at the same time brought wealth to the pro- 

Perhaps the one venture in which Mr. Gait took 
the greatest inteiest was in a manufactory of ag- 
ricultural implements, which he drifted into in 
1855, employing then but t^vo workmen. Since 
that time it has increased in size imtil now it is 
the Keystone Manufacturing Company of Ster- 
ling and Rock Falls, one of the largest agricul- 
tural implement factories in the United .Stales, 
with a capital .stock of half a million dollars and 
a pay-roll that has reached as high as twenty-five 
thousand dollars a month ! Ever since its humble 
beginning Mr. Gait has been the chief owner of 
tlie concern, and since its incorporation has been 
president of the company. His son, E. Le Roy 
Gait, who has inheriteil froni his father a high 

degree of business sagacity, is treasurer of the 
corporation. During all the years of its exist- 
ence Mr. Gait has been active in promoting its 
welfare, and for forty years his has been the heart 
to resolve, the brain to direct, and the hand to 
execute all of the varied and detailed minutiae 
of its affairs. To his vigorous will and splendid 
ability its prosperity may be ascribed. 

Mr. Gait is also connected with a number of 
other manufacturing establishments in this lo- 
cality, being a stockholder and director of the 
Sterling Alanufacturing Company, manufactur- 
ers of farm machinery; of the Charter Gas En- 
gine Company, makers of the well-known gas 
engine of that name, and of the Rock Falls Man- 
ufacturing Company, manufacturers of burial 
caskets. He is also the sole owner in the Eu- 
reka Company, which turns out a fine line of 
carriages and other vehicles, and in the Eureka 
T'"urniture Company. The private bank of Thomas 
A. Gait & Son, at Sterling, with a branch at Rock 
Falls, known as Gait's bank, and a strong and 
safe institution, ably and conservatively managed, 
belongs to Mr. Gait, and in the field of finance, 
as well as in that of commerce, he has shown 
more than ordinary ability. Most men, wth the 
multiplicity of business cares that Mr. Gait has, 
would be unable to give each and all of them 
proper attention, and yet Mr. Gait not only does 
that, but carries in his head the most minute de- 
tails of their afifairs, while his knowledge of the 
business of each is such that he directs their op- 
erations with seemingly less annoyance than 
many men show in managing the affairs of 
one company of less magnitude than any one of 

To give an idea of Mr. Gait's wonderful mem- 
ory we relate an instance that occurred a short 
time ago. While speaking of the village of Stras- 
burg with a gentleman, Mr. Gait made a rough 
draft to represent its main streets, and then with 
his pencil marked off and named the occupant 
of each dwelling thereon as it was when he left 
there fifty years before. The gentleman who saw 
him do this was so amazed that he wrote to Stras- 
burg to see whether it were correct, and found 
that it was not only a correct list of those who 
occupied the buildings at the time, but also that 
not a persim named, with but one exception, was 


BwanAPincAL dictionary and portrait gallery op the 

now living, — thus showing that Mr. Gait's mem- 
ory alone made the feat possible. 

While Mr. Gait has made for himself a vast 
fortune, he has at the same time added wonder- 
fully to the wealth of Sterling and Rock Falls, 
and has always been mindful of their interests. 
He has done a great deal of building, and some 
of the best and finest business blocks in Sterling 
give evidence of his public spirit. 

In political belief Mr. Gait is a strong Repub- 
lican. He served as mayor of his city for one 
term, but though repeatedly urged to allow the 
use of his name in conection with other offices, 
he has invariably refused, preferring to attend to 
his own affairs and leave the self-seeking to oth- 
ers. During President Harrison's administra- 
tion he was appointed a member of the commis- 
sion who were to treat with certain tribes of In- 
dians in California. The tender of the appoint- 
ment came by telegraph, but Mr. Gait refused 
to accept it, feeling that he had too many of his 
own private matters on hand to give it the at- 

tention it properly required. He takes a citi- 
zen's interest in good government, but political 
conductorship or conquest are for him without 
charm. The peaceful, quiet walks of business life 
are more to his liking, and here he has ever been 
successful, and here has been the true sphere of 
his usefulness. 

Mr. Gait has been twice married. His first 
wife, to whom he was united in Connecticut in 
1850, was Miss Sallie Julina Jones. Of this union 
were born two children, both of whom died in 
infancy. Mrs. Gait died at Strasburg in 1853. 
In 1856 Mr. Gait married Miss Catherine An- 
thony, a sister of Judge Elliott Anthony, of Chi- 
cago. Three children of this marriage are dead. 
One son, Elliott Le Roy, and four daughters are 
living. Mr. Gait's son was married to ]\Iiss An- 
nie Carter, of Worcester, JNIassachusetts. Her 
death occurred in December, 1894, and came 
as a personal sorrow to a large circle of friends 
and acquaintances. She is survived by four 



THE glory of our republic is in the perpetua- 
tion of individuality and in the according of 
the utmost scope for individual accomplishment. 
Fostered under the most auspicious of surround- 
ings that can encompass one wlio has the v^'ill to 
dare and to do, our nation has almost spontane- 
ously produced men of finest mental calibre, of 
tnie virile strength and vigorous purpose. The 
cradle has not ever been one of pampered lu.xury, 
but the modest couch of infancy has often rocked 
future greatness. American biography thus be- 
comes, perhaps, one of more perfect individuality, 
in the general as well as the specific case, than 
does that of any other nation of the globe. Of 
America is the self-made man a product, and the 
record of accomplishments in this individual sense 
is the record which the true and loyal American 
holds in deepest regard and highest honor. In 
tracing the career of the subject of this review we 
are enabled to gain a recognition of this sort of a 
record, for he is a man of broadest intellectuality 
and one who has attained to distinguished honors. 

For this reason there is particular interest attach- 
ing to the points which mark his progress in life, 
and this sketch is amply justified. 

Thomas F. Tipton, the present incumbent as 
circuit judge of the eleventh judicial circuit of Illi- 
nois, was born near Harrisburg, Franklin county, 
Ohio, on the 29th of August, 1833. The Tiptons 
have been residents of America since the pre- 
Revolutionary period, and the representatives of 
the family as disseminated throughout the Union 
all trace their genealogical record back to the 
State of Maryland. The grandfather of our sub- 
ject, Sylvester Tipton, removed from ]\Iaryland to 
what is now central Ohio, about the year 1790, 
this section being at that time part of the North- 
western Territor)'. Here he followed the vocation 
of schoolteaching until he was nearly eighty years 
of age. He reared a family of eight children — 
four sons and four daughters. His youngest son, 
Hiram, was the father of the immediate subject of 
this review. 

Hiram Tipton was born in 1802, and devoted his 



life to agricultural pursuits. In 1827 he was united 
in marriage to Deborah Ogden, a daughter of Al- 
bert Ogden, of Fayette county, Ohio. After his 
marriage he remained in Franklin county until 
1837, when he removed to Pickaway county, 
Ohio, and there remained until the fall of 1844, 
when he left the Buckeye State and took up his 
abode in McLean county, Illinois, where he died 
on the 20th of JMarch, 1845, leaving his widow 
and three small children, namely: Thomas F., 
subject of this sketch; John, now a resident of 
Saybrook, Illinois; and Jane, who is the wife of 
William S. Tutde, who died September, 26, 1885, 
He also was a resident of Saybrook, where his 
widow still resides. 

Thomas F. Tipton began his individual efforts 
in life at the early age of twelve years, living with 
his uncle, John Ogden, and devoting his time dur- 
ing the summer months to work on the farm, 
while in the winters he was enabled to attend the 
district schools. He continued in this routine un- 
til he had attained the age of sixteen years, after 
which he attended school for two 3'ears at Lex- 
ington, where he pursued his studies under the 
effective tutorage of Colonel William N. Color. 
After putting his acquirements to practical test by 
teaching school for a year, he made ready to pre- 
pare himself for that profession which his ambition 
had led him to adopt as his vocation in life. He 
entered the law ofifice of H. N. Keightley, a promi- 
nenit attorney of Knoxville, Illinois, and was 
licensed to practice law on the 6th of June, 1854, 
being then in his twenty-first year. He opened 
an office in Lexington, this State, and at once en- 
tered vigorously upon the practice of his profes- 
sion, retaining his residence in Lexington for a 
period of seven years and gaining no little pres- 
tige by reason of his ability and determined efforts. 
In January, 1862, he removed to Bloomington, 
and in the spring of the following year he here 
formed a professional association with Judge 
R. M. Benjamin, one of the framers of the State 
constitution of 1870. In 1868 Hon. Lawrence Wel- 
don, now one of the judges of the United States 
court of claims, became a member of the firm, 
which gained recognition as one of the ablest le- 
gal associations in central Illinois. 

In 1866 Mr. Tipton was appointed by Gov- 
ernor Oglesby as State's attorney of the old eighth 

judicial district, which incumbency he retained for 
two years. The firm of Weldon, Tipton & Ben- 
jamin continued until August, 1870, at which 
time our subject was elected circuit judge of the 
eighth circuit, which then comprised the counties 
of McLean, Logan and DeWitt, and he accord- 
ingly retired from the firm. In 1873 the circuit 
was changed, and the new eighth comprised the 
counties of AIcLean and Ford. He was elected 
judge of the new circuit, and his tenure in that 
office continued until 1877. In the fall of the pre- 
ceding year he had been elected, as a Republican, 
to the Forty-fifth Congress, and his resignation 
of the office of circuit judge was tendered on the 
1st of March, 1877. His service in the halls of 
Congress was characterized by that sterling wis- 
dom and practical judgment which he had shown 
so perfectly in his professional career, and was of 
that discriminating and faithful order which not 
only gained to him the endorsement of his con- 
stituents, but which gained him recognition as 
an honest representative and a true statesman. 

Soon after the adoption of the State constitu- 
tion, in 1870, a case was brought before Juilge 
Tipton which involved the question as to the right 
of railroad corporations to discriminate against 
localities in the charging more for a less than a 
greater distance for transportation on tlie same 
line and in the same division. His decision in 
that case fully sustained the position of the people 
and asserted tlie constitutional powers of the leg- 
islature to control tlie charges of railroad corpora- 
tions and to prevent extortions and unjust dis- 
criminations. Tliis was the first of a series of 
cases diat came before the courts of Illinois, and 
all were watched with absorbhig interest, not only 
by the people of the State but by the whole 
countr)-, until the constitutional powers of the 
legislature to regulate railroad and warehouse 
charges, and to thereby protect the public against 
imposition, were finally established by the su- 
preme court of die L'nited States, in what are 
known as the Granger cases. 

After Jutlge Tipton returned from Congress he 
was again actively concerned in the practice of 
his profession luitil 1891, when he was again 
elected one of the circuit judges for what is now 
the eleventh judicial circuit, composed of the coun- 
tits of McLean, Livingston. Kankakee, Iroquois 



and Ford, and he is still serving in this important 
office, for which he is so eminently qualified by 
both natural ability and long experience in the 
judicial functions. 

Judge Tipton is a man of broad intellectual cul- 
ture, and has ever maintained a lively interest in 
the higher forms of literature, his private library 
being one of exceptionally comprehensive and se- 
lect order, as touching the purely literan' pro- 
ductions, while his law library is considered as 
one of the best private collections in the State. 
While practicing at the bar he proposed and se- 
cured the organization of the Bloomington Law 
Library Association, which has full sets of all the 
State and Federal reports, besides most of »he 
English reports. His serA'ices in this regard are 
not to be held in light estimation, for they have se- 
cured to Bloomington an accession which will be 
of lasting value and constant benefit. 

The marriage of Judge Tipton to Mary J. 

Strayer was consummated in Bloomington, in the 
year 1856. JMrs. Tipton is a native of Logan 
county, Ohio, being the daughter of Nicholas 
Strayer, whose demise occurred prior to her mar- 

To Judge and Mrs. Tipton seven children 
have been bom, two of which number died in in- 
fancy. Harry V. died March 31, 1887, at the age 
of twenty-seven years. Belle E. is the wife of 

E. E. Van Schoick, of Hastings, Nebraska. Helen 

F. is the wife of William R. Bair, of Blooming- 
ton; and Laura B. and Thomas W. still abide 
beneath the parental roof. 

Judge Tipton is a maji of distinctive ability and 
his character is one which is above a shadow of 
reproach. He has been faithful to the high offices 
in which he has been called to serve, and is 
widely known and respected by all who have 
been at all familiar with his honorable and useful 


AAIONG the earnest men whose depth of 
character and strict adherence to principle 
excite the admiration of his contemporaries Mr. 
Coe is prominent. Banking institutions are the 
heart of the commercial body indicating the 
healthfulness of trade, and the bank that follows 
a safe, conservative business policy does more 
to establish public confidence in times of wide- 
spread financial depression than anything else. 
Such a course has the Royal Trust Company 
Bank followed under the able management of 
its president, the subject of this sketch. 

For forty-two years has he been one of the most 
active business men of the West. Chicago has be- 
come the commercial center of the New World, — 
a result produced by the united efforts of many 
able men, but probably no single individual has 
done more for the development of the city than 
Mr. Coe, yet in a quiet, unostentatious way. 

Albert L. Coe was born in Talmage, Ohio, 
about thirty-five miles southeast of the city of 
Cleveland, and is a son of Rev. David Lyman 
and Polly (Hayes) Coe. The latter was a daugh- 

ter of Colonel Richard Hayes, who with his fam- 
ily left Hartford, Connecticut, in the spring of 
1804 and led a colony of emigrants to Ohio, 
where in the then far West they secured homes. 
Thev settled in Hartford, Trumbull 'county, 
naming that town, together with a number of 
surrounding villages, after the various places in 
New England whence they had come. When 
the war of 1812 broke out that neighborhood 
was then but sparsely settled, yet Colonel Hayes 
managed to recruit a regiment of infantry for 
service. When the war was over he returned 
home and became a prosperous merchant, own- 
ing a large store, mills, stage line and other in- 
dustries, so that at the time of his death, in 1840, 
he left quite a large fortune. Rev. David Lyman 
Coe was a graduate of Williams College, Mas- 
sachusetts, and soon after completing that course 
he removed to the Western Reserve, the date of 
his settlement there being 1818. His death oc- 
curred in 1837, and in 1839 Mrs. Coe became 
the wife of Dr. Orestes Kent Hawley. 

Albert L. Coe acciuired his early education in 




the district schools, then spent two years in an 
academy at Painesville, Ohio, and further pur- 
sued his studies in Grand River Institute, at Aus- 
tinburg, Ashtabula county, leaving there at the 
age of seventeen to enter upon an active business 
career. There were some exciting days in his 
early boyhood, — the years which preceded the 
Civil war, — for his stepfather, Dr. Hawley, was 
a noted abolitionist, and their home was one of 
the stations on the famous Underground Rail- 
road. Many a load of runaway slaves has Mr. 
Coe driven to various points on Lake Erie, that 
they might secure further transportation on their 
way to the North, to Canada and to freedom. 
These trips often had to be made in the night, 
for the pro-slavery men were not reserved in 
threatening how violence should be inflicted on 
those who aided the oppressed negro. Mr. Coe 
was between the ages of nine and fourteen years 
when he engaged in this humane work, but 
though so young he was a good horseman and 
possessed unusual energy and fearlessness for a 
boy of his age. Near his home lived Joshua R. 
Giddings and Benjamin F. Wade, two prominent 
abolition workers who were friends of the fam- 
ily; and it is not strange, therefore, that the young 
man imbibed a love of liberty and hatred of per- 
secution which have colored his whole life. 

When about eighteen years of age Mr. Coe 
determined to leave his old home, and in 1853 
became a resident of Chicago, since which time 
he has been prominently connected with the 
business interests of the city. In February, 1854, 
he engaged in the coal business, under the firm 
name of T. R. Clarke & Company, the firm con- 
sisting of Thomas R. Clarke, Benjamin Carpen- 
ter (the father of George B. Carpenter, of this 
city) and Albert L. Coe. Three years later Mr. 
Clarke retired and the firm name was changed to 
Coe & Carpenter, which was continued until 
after the breaking out of the Civil war. 

Fort Sumter was fired upon and the months 
went by until September, 1861, during which 
time it was proven that the war was to be no holi- 
day afifair. Roused by a spirit of patriotism that 
he never thought of resisting, even though his 
business suffered, Mr. Coe offered his services 
to the government and became a private of the 
Fift\-firft Illinois Infantrv, which was raised in 

Chicago. Before leaving the recruiting camp, 
however, he was commissioned second lieuten- 
ant, and soon afterward entered the field as first 
lieutenant, serving most of the time with the 
Army of the Cumberland. He was with the 
commands of Generals Pope, Rosecrans. Sheri- 
dan, Thomas, Grant and Sherman, and did de- 
tached service at the headquarters of the First 
Brigade, Fourteenth Army Corps, and also of 
the Second Division of the same corps. He par- 
ticipated in the capture of Island No. 10, took 
part in the battles of Pittsburg Landing, Mission 
Ridge and the Atlanta campaign, and with 
Sherman went on that ever memorable "march 
to the sea"; then with the victorious army from 
Savannah through the Carolinas to Washing- 
ton, where he took part in the grand review, 
while "wave after wave of bayonet-crested blue"' 
swept through the streets of the city that they 
had preserved as the capital of an undivided na- 
tion. Mr. Coe left the service with a captain's 
commission. .After four years of faithful and 
meritorious service he was mustered out, in Xi>- 
vember, 1865, at Springfield, Illinois. 

When Mr. Coe was again at liberty to take up 
the pursuits of peace he entered the real estate 
business, and in January, 1868, the well-known 
firm of Mead & Coe was established and has 
since carried on operations. No real estate firm 
is better known or has a higher reputation, and 
the volume of business which they now do is 
very large, having embraced some of the most 
extensive transactions in realty in the city. Mr. 
Coe aided in the organization of the Royal Trust 
Company Bank, which is capitalized at $500,000, 
and of which he has been president from the be- 
ginning. James B. Wilbur is now vice-president 
and Charles S. Dickinson cashier, and its board 
of directors embraces some of the most promi- 
nent and substantial business men of the city. 

While a member of the army Mr. Coe was 
united in marriage, in March, 1864, with Miss 
Charlotte E. AVoodward, daughter of Joseph 
Woodward, a prominent merchant of Mansfield, 
Connecticut. For a number of years he has 
been a member and a trustee of the Young Men's 
Christian Association, of Chicago, and served 
as vice-president of the board. He was for five 
vears treasurer of iho City Missionar>- Society, 



and is still a member of its directorate. He is 
also a director and active member of the Citi- 
zens' League, and has been a director of the 
Auditorium Association since the year of its es- 
tablishment. One of the organizers of the Union 
League Club, he has been one of its most active 
and efficient members, serving as director or 
officer for ten years, and previous to 1891 he was 
vice-president for a number of years. As an in- 
terest in military affairs has been maintained since 
leaving the army, he aided in the organization 
and became a member of the Illinois National 
Guards, while from 1875 until 1880 he served as 
major on the stafif of General A. C. Ducat, and 
was on duty during the riots in this city in 1877. 

He also belongs to George H. Thomas Post, G. 
A. R., and to the Loyal Legion. His soldierly 
bearing is still noticeable, and in manner he is 
courteous and pleasant, winning friends by his 
genial disposition and honorable character, which 
cfinnnands the respect of all. He is public-spir- 
ited in an eminent degree, and through forty-two 
years has given his support to whatever is calcu- 
lated to promote the general welfare. In all the 
relations of life, whether as banker, real estate 
man, soldier, society official or private citizen, 
he has always been faithful and true, and in his 
life work, eventful and varied as it has been, no 
shadow of wrong or suspicion of evil doing dark- 
ens his honored pathway. 


THOMAS D. RANDALL is the pioneer 
commission merchant of Chicago, and prob- 
ably no man is more familiar with the history 
of this city during almost half a century. He 
established a business here that has passed 
through financial panics and fire and yet has 
steadily grown and increased until it to-day is 
one of the most extensive of the West. His 
history is largely that of the development of the 
commission business in Chicago. He began 
operations in this line in 1852. 

Mr. Randall was born on the 14th of August, 
1834, near Providence, Rhode Island, and is a 
son of Richard and Betsy (Wilcox) Randall. His 
father was bom in the same city, January 9, 1802, 
was a machinist by trade and died in Chicago in 
1878. His wife was bom in the town of West 
Greenwich, Rhode Island, in 181 1, and died in 
her native State in 1848. The Randalls were 
among the first settlers of New England. 

The gentleman whose name heads this review 
spent his early childhood days in the East, but 
failing health caused him to seek the more in- 
vigorating climate of the West in 1850, and he 
came to Chicago, then a little town bearing no 
resemblance to the metropolis of to-day. It had 
much the appearance of any Western town that 
has grown with rapidity, the improvements which 

had hitherto been made having been designed 
more for utility than for ornament. The place 
was not altogether prepossessing, and during his 
visit to his uncle here he did not come to the con- 
clusion that he wished to make Chicago his future 
home and retumed to Rhode Island. His taste 
of Western life, however, with its freedom, its 
enterprise and progressiveness unfitted him for 
a residence in his native State, and in 1851 he 
again came to Chicago, where he engaged in the 
cigar business. The following year he did the 
first conmiission business transacted in the city, 
and disposing of his cigar store embarked in the 
produce business in the old State street market, 
a structure that stood in the middle of State street 
between Randolph and Lake. His first sale was 
conducted on the following method: A farmer 
from Kankakee came to the city to sell a wagon 
load of tomatoes; not wishing to spend his time 
in going about the streets and disposing of them 
to any chance customer, Mr. Randall agreed to 
sell the vegetable for twenty-five per cent, of the 
gross sales, and for two years handled the farmer's 
tomatoes on that basis, when a reduction in com- 
mission was made and eventually the margin was 
reduced to ten per cent. Thus was established 
the pioneer commission business which has grown 
to such extensive and important proportions. 


Mr. Randall continued to carry on operations 
in the old quarters of the market until it was torn 
down, when he removed to the Garrett 
block, which occupied tlie present site of 
Central Music Hall. Chicago was then be- 
coming a commercial center, but bore little 
resemblance to the city of to-day. The center of 
the commission trade — South Water street — was 
improved with a few shaky wooden elevators, 
bordering on the river, while on the south side 
were saloons and boarding-houses. Some years 
elapsed before it was transformed into the busy 
center of trade known at the present time. In 
the meantime a commission business district was 
established on Kinzie street near the Northwest- 
ern depot, whence the first railroad was built about 
1850 out toward Galena, thus afTording railroad 
facilities. Early in the '60s Mr. Randall removed to 
South Water street, being among the first to locate 
there, and his business was continued with good 
success until the fire of 1871, which is almost un- 
paralleled in the history of the world. Undeterred 
by his loss he soon again began business in 
temporar}- quarters, which he found at the comer 
of Twenty-second and State streets in the Broad- 
way market. He remained there until the fol- 
lowing spring, after which he spent about a year 
on jNIichigan avenue, south of Hubbard court, 
and the next spring removed to 118 South Water 

About 1875 considerable dissatisfaction was 
expressed among commission merchants in that 
locality who believed that the rents charged them 
were too exorbitant. Accordingly, about twenty- 
five removed to Jackson street near Fifth avenue, 
Mr. Randall among the number. Although he 
did a good business there the location was not as 
advantageous as the other had been, and he re- 
turned to South Water street, where he has since 
continued. Business is now conducted under the 
firm name of T. D. Randall & Company, and the 
building now occupied is 30x160 feet, four stories 
in height and a basement under the whole. He 
at first paid a rent of $1,200, which has been in- 
creased to $4,500, but the increase in his business 
has also been proportionate and they are enjoying 
a very extensive trade. Tlie firm does not confine 
its business alone to South Water street, but has 
a grain and hay department, which furnishes em- 

ployment to a dozen men, and also has U\o Board 
of Trade memberships. The business on South 
Water street is now largely conducted by Mr. 
Randall's sons, thus enabling him to lay aside 
business cares to a considerable extent. Since 
establishing the business, Mr. Randall has re- 
ceived shipment continually from one shipper in 
Alichigan and another in Illinois. The former 
has supplied game for the past forty years. Com- 
ing to the West as he did a young man without 
capital, Mr. Randall deserves great credit for his 
success in life. He has made the most of his 
opportunities and by carefully watching the 
markets and by straightforward, honorable deal- 
ing has secured the public confidence and the 
public patronage. He has accumulated a hand- 
some property, and his life illustrates what can be 
accomplished through industry, perseverance, 
good management and a detennination to suc- 

In 1855 Mr. Randall wedded Miss Ann Lith- 
gow, of Chicago, daughter of George and 
Charlotte Lithgow. Her father died in Chicago 
about 1849, ^"J lier mother, now having reached 
the advanced age of eighty-two years, finds a 
pleasant home with Airs. Randall. To our sub- 
ject and his wife have been born eleven children, 
nine of whom are living, namely: Bessie A., now 
the wife of George S. Bridge, who is manager 
of the hay and grain business of the firm of 
Randall & Company; George W., who manages 
the store on South Water street, and gives his 
personal attention to the disposition of the prod- 
uce; A. L. ; Ida C, now Mrs. Ferrell; Charles 
H., who attends to the correspondence of the 
large house of Randall &; Company; Clarence 
A., who is the efficient cashier for tliis firm; 
Hector L., in the hay and grain department; Eli 
G., in the produce department; and Truman D., 
who is attending school; John R. and Thomas W. 
are deceased. The family has a very pleasant 
home at 2624 Calumet avenue, where hospitality 
reigns supreme and good cheer abounds. 

In the primary organization of the World's 
I'air Association he was a member of the finance 
connnittee until the directors were elected. 

In his political connections, Mr. Randall is 
a Reiniblican, warmly advocating tlic principles 
of his party; and socially he is a Masnn, iiaving 



attained to the Knight Templar degree as a mem- 
ber of Apollo Commandery. He is also a valued 
and esteemed member of the Washington Park 
Club, of the Citizens' Association and of the Citi- 
zens' League, and also holds a membership in the 
Art Institute and the Field Columbian Museum. 
He is a pleasant, genial gentleman, who 
through the long years of his residence in Chi- 
cago has made a host of warm friends. He finds 
in travel a source of recreation and pleasure, and 
his business trips have made him particularly 
familiar with his own country. He has visited 
every fruit-growing or produce-shipping locality 
of note in the L'nited States, and has also made 

tours through portions of South America and 
Mexico. His trade extends over all parts of 
the country. As the founder of what has become 
one of the most important lines of trade in the 
West he deserves special credit. His success has 
beer, the result of honest, persistent effort in the 
line of honorable and manly dealing. His aims 
have always been to attain to the best and he has 
carried fonvard to successful completion whatever 
he has undertaken. His life has marked a steady 
growth, and now he is in possession of an ample 
competence, and more than all has that content- 
ment that comes from a consciousness of having 
lix'od for a noble purpose. 


MERTOX YALE CADY was born in New- 
port, Herkimer county, New York, May 
20, 1840. His father, Ira L. Cady, who was by 
profession a bank-lock expert, was a native of 
Connecticut, and married Clotilda, daughter of 
Linus Yale, the inventor of the famous Yale lock. 
From his mother's family our subject gets the 
name of Yale. 

Merton passed his youth in the village of New- 
port, receiving there such rudiments of education 
as were obtainable at the time, and later became a 
student at the Cooper Institute, Cooperstown, 
New York. Leaving that institution at the age 
of seventeen he went to New York city, where 
he passed the subsequent five years in learning 
a trade, — that of iron architecture. Being pos- 
sessed of a natural genius for mechanics, — a 
characteristic which was undoubtedly inherited 
from his grandfather, — he spent a number of 
years in various pursuits, finally becoming as his 
father had been, a bank-lock expert, differing, 
however, from his parent, in that he thoroughly 
understood all the mechanical details of his 
calling, while his father had but a supervisory 
knowledge. For five years he followed his pro- 
fession in New York city, or until the great fire 
in Chicago in 1871, at which time he removed to 
the latter city and continued in the same occupa- 
tion until 1877, when he moved to Moline, and 

took up his profession of architecture. Later he 
added interior decorating to his business, and has 
continued in such lines ever since. He has done 
work upon the principal buildings of ^loline, 
notably the John Deere and postofiice buidings, 
and has, by talking and working for innovations 
and improvements in various directions, been the 
means of giving employment to more artisans 
than any other man in the city, — excepting of 
course the great manufacturing establishments. 
Thoroughly a lover of art, as it relates to his pro- 
fession, he has done a great deal of work for 
which no recompense was obtained, it being to 
him a labor of love. His reward being iii the frui- 
tion of his plans, rather than in any pecuniary 
benefit arisingtherefrom. Mr. Cady was one of the 
board of judges of the World's Columbian Ex- 
position in 1893, a position for which he was well 

In politics ]\Ir. Cady is a Republican, but polit- 
ical conditionship or conquest for him are with- 
out charm. 

Personally, he is of a genial and urbane disposi- 
tion, and for his friends and intimates has a frank, 
warm and loyal attachment, as warmly and loyally 
reciprocated. His life has been spent in doing 
practical good rather than in pursuit of name and 
fame, and the peaceful, quiet walks of life, un- 
disturbed by outside causes, are more to his liking 



than public position of any sort. In the highest 
and best sense of the term he is ever and essen- 
tially a gentleman, while at his own home 
he is especially considerate and hospitable, and 
all who meet him there will bear witness to 
his much more than ordinary courtesy and 

In 1865 Mr. Cady was united in marriage to 
Miss Alice Deere, daughter of the late Hon. John 
Deere, of Moline. Mr. and Mrs. Cady have two 
children,— John D.and Miss Alice M. Their home, 
the former residence of Hon. John Deere and 

the outgrowth of his various ideas, which became 
the property of Mrs. Cady upon the death of her 
father in iSSj^s one of the handsomest in 
Moline or the adjacent cities of Rock Island and 
Davenport. Situated as it is upon the summit 
of the bluff overlooking the Mississippi, it com- 
mands a view of unsurpassed beauty of scenery 
that one is loth to leave. As a hostess and enter- 
tainer Mrs. Cady enjoys a reputation that ex- 
tends far beyond the limits of the city of her home, 
and her name is a synonym for kindness and hos- 


THE world instinctively pays deference to the 
man whose success has been worthily 
achieved, who has attained wealth by honorable 
business methods, acquired the highest reputation 
in his chosen calling by merit, and whose social 
prominence is not the less the result of an irre- 
proachable life than of recognized natural gifts. 
We pay the highest tribute to the heroes who on 
bloody batde-fields win victories and display a 
valor that is the admiration of the world. Why 
should the tribute be withheld from those who 
wage the bloodless battles of civil life, who are 
conquerors in the world of business? Greater 
than in almost any line of work is the responsi- 
bility that rests upon the physician. The issues 
of life and death are in his hands. A false pre- 
scription, an unskilled operation may take from 
man that which he prizes above all else — life. 
The physician's power must be his own: not by 
purchase, by gift or by influence can he gain it. 
He must commence at the very beginning, learn 
the very rudiments of medicine amd surgery, con- 
tinually add to his knowledge by close study and 
earnest application and gain reputation by merit. 
If he would gain the highest prominence it must 
come as the result of superior skill, knowledge and 
ability, and these qualifications are possessed in 
an eminent degree by Dr. Hamilton. He is known 
throughout the country as one of the most emi- 
nent members of the profession in the United 
States, and his opinions are recognized as au- 

thority throughout a great portion of America. 

The life history of such a man is always of 
profit as well as interest. He was born in Jersey 
county, Illinois, December i, 1847, and is the eld- 
est in a family of nine children, whose parents 
were Benjamin B. and Mary (Chandler) Hamil- 
ton. He descends from an ancient an honored 
Scottish family, whose memoirs and deeds are re- 
corded on numerous pages of Scotch history. 
The original American ancestor, James Hamil- 
ton, with other members of the family, was taken 
prisoner at the battle of Dunbar, Scotland, and 
sent in captivity to America on the brig Jolin and 
Sarah, which sailed for this countr\' in 1652. 
James Hamilton located in Worcester, Massachu- 
setts, and his descendants are now quite widely 
scattered over the States of the Union. 

The great-grandfather of the Doctor, Xathaniel 
Hamilton, was one of the heroes of the Revolu- 
tion, ser\'ing under the daring Ethan Allen, ^^'he1l 
the war was over he settled at Point Ilarmcr, in 
Ohio, now the city of Marietta. His son, Thomas 
McCluer, was drafted for service in the Indian 
wars, but in his stead the father went. After the 
batde of Tippecanoe he ser\-ed in the Ohio legis- 
lature and was a very prominent and influential 

Thomas M. Hamilton's early years were largely 
passed in Ohio, and in 1818 he removed with his 
family to Monroe county, Illinois — the year of the 
admission of the State into the Union. He mar- 



ried a daughter of Captain Benjamin Brown, 
wlio served througbout the Revolutionary war 
and was captain in Washington's body guards. 
He was a descendant of William Brown, one of 
the original proprietors of the town of Leicester, 
Massachusetts. The Brown family was also well 
represented by valiant soldiers battling for their 
countrj^'s freedom, four brothers participating in 
thebattleofBunkerHill, where one was wounded. 
Captain John Brown, father of Benjamin Brown, 
had also participated in the French and Indian 
war and commanded a company at Lewisburg. 
Thus from sturdy, honored ancestry is the Doctor 
sprung, and in the affairs of a nation which his 
ancestors helped to found he has been alike promi- 
nent in the line of his profession. 

The Hamilton family removed from Monroe 
county, Illinois, to Greene county, this State, in 
1830, there joining Dr. Silas Hamilton, a younger 
brother of Nathaniel, who founded the first free 
school in the State of Illinois. He had formerly 
lived in Mississippi, where he practiced medicine 
for a few years. He had owned a number of ne- 
groes and gave to all of them their freedom ex- 
cept onie boy, George Washington, who had come 
with him to Illinois, where he was reared and at- 
tended the free school which the Doctor founded. 
After the Doctors death he lived with the latter's 
brother. Subsequently he became well-to-do, and 
in his will he left money for the erection of a mon- 
ument to the memory of his benefactor and also 
to educate negroes. At this writing, in 1895, there 
is now a student in Rush Medical College whose 
tuition is paid from this fund. 

Benjamin B. Hamilton, father of the Doctor, 
acquired his elementary education in that school, 
and later at Shurtleff College. He became one of 
the leaders in the anti-slavery movement, and in 
1835 was the secretary of the Anti-Slavery Society 
of which William Palmer, father of Senator 
Palmer, was president, and of which Elihu 
Palmer was also a member. The organiza- 
tion was known as the Lofton's Prairie Anti- 
Slavery Society, and held regular meetings 
until long after the death of Elijah Lovejoy. The 
old records— papers of great interest and value- 
are now in possession of the Doctor. Thus, like 
his ancestors, Benjamin Hamilton worked for the 
good of his country, and by all who knew him 

he was held in the highest respect for his fidelity to 
principle. He wedded Mary Chandler, w^hose great- 
grandfather was also in the army of Ethan Allen, 
and was descended from Captain John Chandler, 
who was a Colonial sheriff of Worcester 
county, Massachusetts, receiving his commis- 
sion from the town. Benjamin Hamilton died 
in October, 1894, at the age of seventy-two years, 
but his wife is still living, and now makes her 
home in Upper Alton, Illinois. He was licensed 
as a minister of the Baptist Church in 1839, was 
regularly ordained in 1844, and preached in Jer- 
sey, Greene and Scott counties up to the time of 
his death. He had a remarkable memory for per- 
sons and events, and wrote much on church and 
historical matters. He also served with distinction 
in the late Civil war, as chaplain of the Sixty- 
first Regiment of Illinois Infantrv, from 1862 until 

In the State which is yet his home Dr. Hamil- 
ton was reared, acquiring his early education in 
the Hamilton school, after which he ob- 
tained a classical education under the instruc- 
tion of Professor John Grant, a famous Latin 
teacher of Ediniburg, Scotland. A man of his 
mental caliber naturally prepared himself for pro- 
fessional life, and his choice led him to take up 
the study of medicine, which he began in 1863, 
in the ofifice of Dr. Joseph O. Hamilton. In 1864 
he enlisted as a private in Company G, Sixty-first 
Illinois Infantry, but being a minor was never 
mustered in. In 1867 he entered Rush Medical 
College, of Chicago, at whicli he was graduated 
in February, 1869, and from March of that year 
until 1874 he engaged in general practice. At 
the latter date, having passed the army examining 
board, he received the appointment of assistant 
surgeon and first lieutenant of the United States 
Army, and served at the barracks in St. Louis, 
and in the department of the Columbia at Fort 
Colville, Washington, which position he resigned 
in 1876. In September of that year he entered 
the United States marine hospital service, as 
assistant surgeon, and was ordered to Boston, 
where, in June, 1877, he was promoted to the rank 
of surgeon. His fitness for responsible position, 
his superior merit and skill were thus recognized, 
and in April, 1879, he was again promoted, being 
then made supervising surgeon-general to succeed 



General John M. Wood worth, who died on the 
loth of Alarch of that year. General Hamilton 
immediately began the reorganization of the 
service, and Congress finally passed a law placing 
the corps upon practically the same footing as the 
medical corps of the army and navy. During his 
incumbency of the office he succeeded in having 
the national quarantine acts passed, and success- 
fully managed the campaign against two epi- 
demics of yellow fever. In 1888 he personally 
took charge of the construction and establishment 
of the first camp for the reception of yellow fever 
refugees ever established. This was known as 
Camp Perry and was located on St. Mary's river. 
In June, 1891, the house of representatives hav- 
ing for the second time failed to pass the senate 
bill providing for the equalization of the salary 
of the office with that of the surgeon-general of 
the army and the surgeon-general of the navy, 
Dr. Hamilton resigned his commission of surgeon- 
general and once fnore returned to the ranks of 
the service. 

In comiection with his other work the Doctor 
has served as professor of surgery in the Uni- 
versity of Georgetown, which conferred upon him 
the degree of LL.D. in 1889, and was also surgeon 
of the Providence Hospital, where he attended the 
charity surgical ward for eight years. On return- 
ing to Chicago he was made professor of the prin- 
ciples of surgery and clinical surgery in Rush 
Medical College and surgeon in the Presbyterian 
Hospital ; also professor of surgery in the Chicago 
Polyclinic. He holds a weekly surgical clinic at the 
college and one at the polyclinic. In 1887 he was 
secretary general of the Ninth International Medi- 
cal Congress, which convened in Washington, 
and in 1890 was sent as delegate by this Govern- 
ment to the International Medical Congress held 
in Berlin, where he made the response on behalf 
of the .American delegates to the address of wel- 
come. He was also detailed l>y Secretary Win- 
dom to inspect and report upon European hos- 
pitals, and the immigration service. In 1892 he 
was ordered to New York on account of the 
threatened introduction of cholera, and estab- 
lished the large quarantine on Sandy Hook known 
as Camp Low. The Doctor is the editor of the 
Journal of the American Medical Association, a 
paper that is regarded as authority on all matters 

connected with the science and practice of med- 
icine and surgery. Its high standing made it 
necessary to have one of the most able men of 
the medical fraternity at its head, and the wide 
acquaintance and past e.xperience of Dr. Ham- 
ilton at once recommended him to the position 
which he now so ably fills. The standard of the 
paper has been raised still higher under his man- 
agement until it is now without a superior in that 
line of literature in this countn,-. The Doctors 
researches have been extensive, and he is 
the possessor of a very fine library of over 
ten thousand volumes, the greater part of 
which are works on surgery, some being e.xceed- 
ingly rare and of great value, probably the largest 
private library on surgical subjects in the United 
States. This library now includes not only his 
own collection but also the entire librar>- of the 
late Dr. Frank Hastings Hamilton, of New York, 
who died in 1885, one of the most noted surgeons 
of his time. 

With general literature in English and French, 
Dr. Hamilton is also familiar — an accomplish- 
ment which he finds exceedingly valuable and 
utilizes on the lecture stand. 

With various societies, professional and social. 
Dr. Hamilton is connected — a valued and highly 
esteemed member. In 1869 he joined Jerse>-ville 
Lodge, No. 394, F. & A. M., and in 1872 became a 
chapter ]\Iason, but is now dimitted from both. 
He was also a member of CarroUton Con-mand- 
ery from 1874 until 1888, when he joined Wash- 
ington Commandery, No. i, and in 1891 joined 
Albert Pike Consistory, Scottish rite, of Washing- 
ton, District of Columbia. He took quite an act- 
ive part in Masonic affairs, and was also an act- 
ive worker in the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows until business cares became too press- 
ing to permit of further attention to them. He 
also belongs to the Loyal Legion and is a mem- 
ber of the Army and Navy Club of Washington, 
the Capitol Press Club of the same city, the Chi- 
cago Press Clul). the Chicago Club, the L'nion 
League Clubandthe Marquette Club. Since 1870 
he has i)een a member of the Illinois State Medical 
Society, and is now its secretary; is also a 
member of the American Medical As.sociation; 
the District of Columl)ia Medical Society, tlic 
^fedicil .Association of the District of C(>luml)ia, 



the National Association of Military Surgeons, 
the British Aleclical Association; is an honor- 
ary member of the Kentucky and West \ ir- 
ginia State Medical Societies, the Medico-Le- 
gal Society of Chicago, and an honorary mem- 
ber of Societe Francaise d'Hygiene, of Paris, 

Doctor Hamilton was united in marriage with 
j\Iiss Mary L. Frost, and they have two children — 
Ralph Alexander and Blanche. Mrs. Hamilton 
is a lady of rare intelligence, of culture and refine- 
ment, and a most charming hostess in their pleas- 
ant Washington home, which is noted for its 

liospitality. She is a granddaughter of Judge 
Richard R. Lowe. The Doctor is a social, 
genial gentleman, interested in all that pertains 
to the welfare of the metropolis of his native State, 
is charitable and benevolent, and worthy demands 
of the needy are seldom made in vain. He has a 
large circle of warm friends, and his friendship is 
best prized by those who know him best. In his 
professional capacity Dr. Hamilton is known 
throughout the country, his reputation extending 
far beyond the limits of his .State, an honor to the 
profession by wliicli he has been especially dis- 



IT is pleasing indulgence to write the biography 
of a man who has been so prominent in the 
civil and military affairs of the nation as has the 
subject of this sketch. This country has brought 
forth many heroes, statesmen, financiers, and bril- 
liant men in all spheres of life. Its annals teem 
with the records of good lives and noble deeds. 
Most of our noblest and best men are "self-made," 
and among the histories of the prominent, self- 
made and brilliantly successful men, that of 
Colonel Plumb deserves a high place, by reason 
of his broad sympathies, charities, and public 
fpirit. He has left the imprint of his individuality 
on each place in which, for any length of time, 
he ever resided, and he has almost made the busy, 
prosperous city of Streator what it is to-day. His 
patriotism is clearly shown by his quick response 
to the call to arms, when his country was in 

He is a brilliant financier, and somewhat of a 
pioneer as w ell, having seen the West grow from 
its sparsely settled infancy into a populous and 
prosperous middle age; for when Colonel Plumb 
came to Illinois, Streator and adjacent towns were 
lint barren hamlets just beginning to struggle into 
life and prominence. He is a man of strong will 
and steadfast nature, whose life is characterized 
by many benevolent deeds ; he has ever shown his 
detestation of wrong and oppression, and he has 
filled the public offices to which he has been called 

with credit to himself and to the entire satisfac- 
tion of his party and friends. 

The Plumb genealogy is one of the most com- 
plete of all works of the kind in this country, the 
time covered by it in America extending from 
1635 to 1800; and in England — five generations 
in regular line from father to son — from about 
1500 down to the first representative of the family 
who came to America in 1635, and to the second 
who came and left descendants in 1660. Back of 
these records Plumbs are found — mostly through 
their wills — through all the centuries to 1180 A. 
D. in the great rolls of Normandy. Thus show- 
ing Norman ancestry in the time of Henry II, the 
great grandson of William the Conqueror. Thus 
this family can be traced back in Normandy to 
the year 1180 at least and in England to 1240. 

John Plumb, the first known in America, came 
to ^Vcthersfield Connecticut, from England, in 
1635. He was one of the men in Captain Mason's 
little army during the Pequot war, and received 
a grant of land for his services. Only one of his 
children was born in America and no record of 
any exists except that his son, Samuel, lived with 
him in Branford when he died, in 1648. It was 
from this John Plumb and another who came in 
1660 and left descendants, that the American 
branch of the Plumb family sprang, and thev 
have been prominent in the civil and military 
life of this country ever since. They have been a 



race of warriors and statesmen, and liave been 
notable and forcefnl in all the emergencies of 
their several generations. There were forty 
Plumbs in naval and military service during the 
war of the Revolution. This family was also 
worthily represented in the war of the Rebellion, 
and in times of peace has serv^ed its countrj- no 
less worthily. Its records are filled with the lives 
of great men and pure women, and of such stock 
the subject of this biography is an able and 
worthy representative. 

Ralph Plumb was born March 29, 1816, in 
Busti, Chautauqua county. New York. In 1820 
his parents moved to Hartford, Ohio, where he 
attended the common schools until he attained 
the age of fourteen years, when he was obliged to 
begin earning his own livelihood. He obtained 
work as a gardener, earning 185 cents a day. 
He filled this humble position so well, and made 
himself so generally useful, that his employer, 
Seth Hayes, of the firm of Seth Hayes & Com- 
pany, appreciating the industry of the boy, gave 
him a position in his store. He remained in the 
employ of Seth Hayes & Company until he was 
twenty-one years of age. In the meantime he 
was taking even,- means to acquire an education, 
and spent most of his spare time in study. After 
spending four years in the mercantile business, 
he formed a partnership with his old employer, 
under the name of Hayes & Plumb, and built up 
an extensive country business. 

He was a very energetic young man and looked 
out for all business done, three stores being under 
his personal supervision. 

In 1854 Mr. Plumb was elected to the Ohio 
legislature, and after serving three tenns he dis- 
posed of his business interests in Hartford and 
went to reside in Oberlin, Ohio, where his chil- 
dren were at college. 

October 15, 1838, ilr. Plumb married Marrilla 
E. Borden, whose father was a farmer, captain in 
the army, and postmaster at Hartford, Ohio. 
Ralph and Marrilla were children together. 

In 1858 there occurred one of the historic 
rescues of a fugitive slave. His name was John 
Price, and he came to Oberlin and secured work. 
Learning that he was there, his master sent a 
slave catcher to capture him and take him back 
to Wellington, a place nine miles away, where 
thev ostensibly wanted to hire him. 

For fear that he mi